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  1 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29524445
[Au] Autor:Delang L; Abdelnabi R; Neyts J
[Ad] Dirección:KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: Leen.Delang@kuleuven.be.
[Ti] Título:Favipiravir as a potential countermeasure against neglected and emerging RNA viruses.
[So] Fuente:Antiviral Res;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1872-9096
[Cp] País de publicación:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:Favipiravir, also known as T-705, is an antiviral drug that has been approved in 2014 in Japan to treat pandemic influenza virus infections. The drug is converted intracellularly into its active, phosphoribosylated form, which is recognized as a substrate by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Interestingly, besides its anti-influenza virus activity, this molecule is also able to inhibit the replication of flavi-, alpha-, filo-, bunya-, arena-, noro-, and of other RNA viruses, which include neglected and (re)emerging viruses for which no antiviral therapy is currently available. We will discuss the potential of favipiravir as a broad-spectrum countermeasure against infections caused by such neglected RNA viruses. Favipiravir has already been used off-label to treat patients infected with the Ebola virus and the Lassa virus. Because of the particular set-up of the clinical trials during these outbreaks, clear conclusions on the efficacy of favipiravir could not be made. For several viruses, it was demonstrated that the barrier of resistance development against favipiravir is high. Favipiravir has been shown to be well tolerated in healthy volunteers and in influenza virus-infected patients; however, caution is needed because of the teratogenic risks of this molecule. Because of its antiviral activity against different RNA viruses and its high barrier for resistance, the potential of favipiravir as a broad-spectrum antiviral seems promising, but safety and potency issues should be overcome before this drug or similar molecules could be used to treat large patient groups.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1803
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180310
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


  2 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29511141
[Au] Autor:Siragam V; Wong G; Qiu XG
[Ad] Dirección:Special Pathogens Program, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Animal models for filovirus infections.
[So] Fuente:Zool Res;39(1):15-24, 2018 Jan 18.
[Is] ISSN:2095-8137
[Cp] País de publicación:China
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:The family , which includes the genera and , contains some of the most pathogenic viruses in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), causing severe hemorrhagic fevers with high fatality rates. Small animal models against filoviruses using mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, and ferrets have been developed with the goal of screening candidate vaccines and antivirals, before testing in the gold standard NHP models. In this review, we summarize the different animal models used to understand filovirus pathogenesis, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model with respect to filovirus disease research.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1803
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180311
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.053


  3 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29421463
[Au] Autor:Bonwitt J; Dawson M; Kandeh M; Ansumana R; Sahr F; Brown H; Kelly AH
[Ad] Dirección:Department of Anthropology, Durham University, Dawson Building, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK. Electronic address: jesse.bonwitt@durham.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Unintended consequences of the 'bushmeat ban' in West Africa during the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease epidemic.
[So] Fuente:Soc Sci Med;200:166-173, 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5347
[Cp] País de publicación:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:Following the 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, governments across the region imposed a ban on the hunting and consumption of meat from wild animals. This injunction was accompanied by public health messages emphasising the infectious potential of wild meat, or 'bushmeat.' Using qualitative methods, we examine the local reception and impact of these interventions. Fieldwork was focused in 9 villages in the Eastern and Southern provinces of Sierra Leone between August and December 2015. We conducted 47 semi-structured interviews, coordinated 12 informal group discussions, and conducted direct observations throughout. We also draw from research undertaken in Sierra Leone immediately before the outbreak, and from our participation in the EVD response in Guinea and Sierra Leone. Our findings underscore the social and political reverberations of hunting proscriptions. Messaging that unilaterally stressed the health risk posed by wild meat contradicted the experiences of target publics, who consume wild meat without incident. This epistemic dissonance radically undercut the effectiveness of the ban, which merely served to proliferate informal networks of wild animal trade and sale-rendering the development of acceptable, evidence-based surveillance and mitigation strategies for zoonotic spillovers almost impossible. Further, the criminalisation of wild meat consumption fuelled fears and rumours within communities under considerable strain from the health, social, and economic effects of the epidemic, entrenching distrust towards outbreak responders and exacerbating pre-existing tensions within villages. These unintended consequences are instructive for public health emergency response and preparedness. While wild meat is a risk for zoonotic infection, mitigating those risks entails interventions that fully take into account the local significances of hunting-including a communicative engagement that is designed, validated, and continually refined before emergency situations. Ultimately, our research questions the value of legal sanctions as a means of behavioural change in an emergency context.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1802
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180310
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


  4 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29369776
[Au] Autor:Zhu W; Zhang Z; He S; Wong G; Banadyga L; Qiu X
[Ad] Dirección:Special Pathogens Program, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Successful treatment of Marburg virus with orally administrated T-705 (Favipiravir) in a mouse model.
[So] Fuente:Antiviral Res;151:39-49, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1872-9096
[Cp] País de publicación:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:Filoviruses, such as Marburg and Ebola viruses, cause severe disease in humans with high case fatality rates and are therefore considered biological threat agents. To date, no licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists for their treatment. T-705 (favipiravir) is a pyrazinecarboxamide derivative that has shown broad antiviral activity against a number of viruses and is clinically licenced in Japan to treat influenza. Here we report the efficacy of T-705 against Marburg virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Notably, oral administration of T-705 beginning one or two days post-infection and continuing for eight days resulted in complete survival of mice that had been intraperitoneally infected with mouse-adapted Marburg virus (variant Angola). Moreover, lower doses of T-705 and higher doses administered later during infection (day 3 or 4 post-infection) showed partial efficacy, with at least half the infected mice surviving. Accordingly, we observed reductions in infectious virus particles and virus RNA levels following drug treatment that appeared to correlate with survival. Our findings suggest that T-705 may be an effective therapeutic against Marburg virus and might be especially promising for use in the event of an outbreak, where it could be orally administered quickly and safely even after exposure.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1801
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180311
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


  5 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29524302
[Au] Autor:Wickett E; Peralta-Santos A; Beste J; Micikas M; Toe F; Rogers J; Jabateh L; Wagenaar BH
[Ad] Dirección:Partners in Health, Liberia.
[Ti] Título:Treatment outcomes of TB-infected individuals attending public-sector primary care clinics from January 2015 to April 2017: a retrospective cohort study.
[So] Fuente:Trop Med Int Health;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3156
[Cp] País de publicación:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:OBJECTIVES: In June 2015, Partners in Health (PIH) and the Liberian Ministry of Health began a community health worker (CHW) program containing food support, reimbursement of transport and social assistance to address gaps in tuberculosis (TB) treatment exacerbated by the 2014-2015 Ebola-virus disease (EVD) epidemic. The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance of routine clinical TB care and the effects of this CHW program. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study utilizing data from TB patient registers at a census of all health facilities treating TB in southeastern Liberia from January 2015 - April 2017. Competing-risks Cox regression analyses were used to generate sub-hazard ratios (sHR) analyzing factors associated with rates of TB cure (smear negative), treatment completion (no smear), lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) and death. RESULTS: LTFU rates decreased 76% pre- versus post-CHW intervention, from 14.6% in pre-intervention to 3.4% post-intervention (p<0.001). Although the post-intervention had better cure rates (sHR 1.07, CI 0.58-1.9), treatment completion (sHR 1.53, CI 1.00 2.39), and lower death rates (sHR 0.64, CI 0.34-1.2), statistical significance was not reached. Younger patients had significantly lower death and cure rates, while older patients had higher LTFU, and cure rates. Overall, 31% of patients were cured, 44% completed treatment without a confirmatory smear, 5% were LTFU, 9% died, 0.5% failed treatment, and 10% transferred out. CONCLUSIONS: In challenging environments, LTFU can be reduced by CHW accompaniment and socioeconomic assistance to TB Patients. Approaches are needed to improve cure verification in young patients and reduce mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1803
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180310
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/tmi.13049


  6 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29224715
[Au] Autor:Mérens A; Bigaillon C; Delaune D
[Ad] Dirección:Laboratoire de biologie, hôpital d'instruction des Armées-Bégin, 69, avenue de Paris, 94160 Saint-Mandé, France. Electronic address: merens-a@wanadoo.fr.
[Ti] Título:Ebola virus disease: Biological and diagnostic evolution from 2014 to 2017.
[So] Fuente:Med Mal Infect;48(2):83-94, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1769-6690
[Cp] País de publicación:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:The Ebola virus disease outbreak observed in West Africa from March 2014 to June 2016 has led to many fundamental and applied research works. Knowledge of this virus has substantially increased. Treatment of many patients in epidemic countries and a few imported cases in developed countries led to developing new diagnostic methods and to adapt laboratory organization and biosafety precautions to perform conventional biological analyses. Clinical and biological monitoring of patients infected with Ebola virus disease helped to determine severity criteria and bad prognosis markers. It also contributed to showing the possibility of viral sanctuaries in patients and the risk of transmission after recovery. After a summary of recent knowledge of environmental and clinical viral persistence, we aimed to present new diagnostic methods and other biological tests that led to highlighting the pathophysiological consequences of Ebola virus disease and its prognostic markers. We also aimed to describe our lab experience in the care of Ebola virus-infected patients, especially technical and logistical changes between 2014 and 2017.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1712
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180310
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180310
[St] Status:In-Process


  7 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29520829
[Au] Autor:Erikson SL
[Ad] Dirección:Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University.
[Ti] Título:Cell Phones ≠ Self and Other Problems with Big Data Detection and Containment during Epidemics.
[So] Fuente:Med Anthropol Q;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:0745-5194
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:Evidence from Sierra Leone reveals the significant limitations of big data in disease detection and containment efforts. Early in the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, media heralded HealthMap's ability to detect the outbreak from newsfeeds. Later, big data-specifically, call detail record (CDR) data collected from millions of cell phones-was hyped as useful for stopping the disease by tracking contagious people. It did not work. In this article, I trace the causes of big data's containment failures. During epidemics, big data experiments can have opportunity costs: namely, forestalling urgent response. Finally, what counts as data during epidemics must include that coming from anthropological technologies because they are so useful for detection and containment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1803
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180309
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/maq.12440


  8 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29481881
[Au] Autor:Logue J; Tuznik K; Follmann D; Grandits G; Marchand J; Reilly C; Sarro YDS; Pettitt J; Stavale EJ; Fallah M; Olinger GG; Bolay FK; Hensley LE
[Ad] Dirección:Integrated Research Facility at Frederick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick MD, USA. Electronic address: james.logue@nih.gov.
[Ti] Título:Use of the Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group (FANG) Ebola virus immuno-assay requires fewer study participants to power a study than the Alpha Diagnostic International assay.
[So] Fuente:J Virol Methods;255:84-90, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0984
[Cp] País de publicación:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:As part of the scientific community's development of medical countermeasures against Ebola virus disease, optimization of standardized assays for product evaluation is paramount. The recent outbreak heightened awareness to the scarcity of available assays and limited information on performance and reproducibility. To evaluate the immunogenicity of vaccines entering Phase I-III trials and to identify survivors, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group assay and the Alpha Diagnostics International assay, were evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G against Ebola virus glycoprotein. We found that the Filovirus Animal Nonclinical Group assay produced a wider range of relative antibody concentrations, higher assay precision, larger relative accuracy range, and lower regional background. Additionally, to sufficiently power a vaccine trial, use of the Filovirus Animal Nonclinical Group assay would require one third the number of participants than the Alpha Diagnostics International assay. This reduction in needed study participants will require less money, fewer man hours, and much less time to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1802
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180308
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180308
[St] Status:Publisher


  9 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29429544
[Au] Autor:Perry DL; Huzella LM; Bernbaum JG; Holbrook MR; Jahrling PB; Hagen KR; Schnell MJ; Johnson RF
[Ad] Dirección:Integrated Research Facility, Division of Clinical Research, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Frederick Maryland. Electronic address: perrydl@niaid.nih.gov.
[Ti] Título:Ebola Virus Localization in the Macaque Reproductive Tract during Acute Ebola Virus Disease.
[So] Fuente:Am J Pathol;188(3):550-558, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1525-2191
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:Sexual transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) has been demonstrated more than a year after recovery from the acute phase of Ebola virus disease (EVD). The mechanisms underlying EBOV persistence and sexual transmission are not currently understood. Using the acute macaque model of EVD, we hypothesized EBOV would infect the reproductive tissues and sought to localize the infection in these tissues using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. In four female and eight male macaques that succumbed to EVD between 6 and 9 days after EBOV challenge, we demonstrate widespread EBOV infection of the interstitial tissues and endothelium in the ovary, uterus, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and prostate gland, with minimal associated tissue immune response or organ pathology. Given the widespread involvement of EBOV in the reproductive tracts of both male and female macaques, it is reasonable to surmise that our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sexual transmission of EVD and persistence of EBOV in immune-privileged sites would be facilitated by the development of a nonhuman primate model in which the macaques survived past the acute stage into convalescence.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1802
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180309
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


  10 / 7122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29375139
[Au] Autor:Cross RW; Mire CE; Feldmann H; Geisbert TW
[Ad] Dirección:Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA.
[Ti] Título:Post-exposure treatments for Ebola and Marburg virus infections.
[So] Fuente:Nat Rev Drug Discov;, 2018 Jan 29.
[Is] ISSN:1474-1784
[Cp] País de publicación:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:The filoviruses - Ebola virus and Marburg virus - cause lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Filoviruses present a global health threat both as naturally acquired diseases and as potential agents of bioterrorism. In the recent 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus, the most promising therapies for post-exposure use with demonstrated efficacy in the gold-standard NHP models of filovirus disease were unable to show statistically significant protection in patients infected with Ebola virus. This Review briefly discusses these failures and what has been learned from these experiences, and summarizes the current status of post-exposure medical countermeasures in development, including antibodies, small interfering RNA and small molecules. We outline how our current knowledge could be applied to the identification of novel interventions and ways to use interventions more effectively.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1801
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:180309
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1038/nrd.2017.251



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