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  1 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24946513
[Au] Autor:Vaswani V; Vaswani R
[Ti] Título:Perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS regarding access to health care.
[So] Fuente:Med Law;33(1):64-73, 2014 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0723-1393
[Cp] País de publicación:Israel
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:Although the health care is replete with technology in the present day, it is not freely accessible in a developing country. The situation could be even more compromised in the case of people living with HIV/AIDS, with the added dimension of stigma and discrimination. What are the factors that act as barriers to health care? This study was conducted to look into perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS with regard to access to health care. The study looked into accessibility of general health vis-à-vis access to antiretroviral therapy. Demographic variables like age, gender, income were studied in relation to factors such as counseling, confidentiality, stigma and discrimination, which are known to influence access to health care. People living with HIV/AIDS perceive general health care as more accessible than care for HIV treatment. Discrimination by health care workers causes a barrier to accessibility.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico
Infecciones por VIH/quimioterapia
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adolescente
Adulto
Anciano
Femenino
Infecciones por VIH/psicología
Humanos
Renta
India
Masculino
Mediana Edad
Ocupaciones
Prejuicio
Cuestionarios
Factores Sexuales
Estigma Social
Adulto Joven
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (Anti-Retroviral Agents)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1407
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140620
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24923166
[Au] Autor:Ye JR; Zang WC; Su XL; Lu HY; Hao MQ; Xin RL; Chen GM; He X; Zeng Y
[Ti] Título:[Molecular epidemiological characteristics of HIV-1 strains isolated from newly diagnosed MSM subjects (2006-2010) in Beijing, China].
[So] Fuente:Bing Du Xue Bao;30(2):138-42, 2014 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1000-8721
[Cp] País de publicación:China
[La] Idioma:chi
[Ab] Resumen:This study aims to analyze the molecular epidemiological characteristics of HIV-1 strains prevailing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. The pol gene fragments from 250 newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected MSM individuals during 2006-2010 in Beijing were amplified by RT-nested PCR, sequenced, and phylogenetically analyzed. HIV-1 pol gene from 189 individuals were amplified and analyzed; 81 (42. 9%), 3 (1. 6%), 2 (1.0%), 88 (46. 6%), and 15 (7.9%) individuals were infected with HIV-1 subtypes B, B', C, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC, respectively. The subtypes B and CRF01_AE could both be grouped into two clusters, and CRFO7_BC strains shared high homology and were presumed to originate from a common ancestor. The HIV-1 circulating in MSM in Beijing had a lower genetic diversity than in heterosexuals. The HIV-1 epidemic (2006-2010) in MSM in Beijing was actually a rapid spread of HIV-1 CRF01 AE and B, or rather native strains of the two viruses.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Infecciones por VIH/virología
VIH-1/genética
VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adulto
China/epidemiología
Epidemias
Variación Genética
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
VIH-1/clasificación
Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos
Humanos
Masculino
Mediana Edad
Epidemiología Molecular
Datos de Secuencia Molecular
Filogenia
Adulto Joven
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1407
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140613
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24495105
[Au] Autor:Mejia EJ; Loveridge ST; Stepan G; Tsai A; Jones GS; Barnes T; White KN; Draskovic M; Tenney K; Tsiang M; Geleziunas R; Cihlar T; Pagratis N; Tian Y; Yu H; Crews P
[Ad] Dirección:Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California , Santa Cruz, California 95064, United States.
[Ti] Título:Study of marine natural products including resorcyclic acid lactones from Humicola fuscoatra that reactivate latent HIV-1 expression in an in vitro model of central memory CD4+ T cells.
[So] Fuente:J Nat Prod;77(3):618-24, 2014 Mar 28.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6025
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:An extract of Humicola fuscoatra (UCSC strain no. 108111A) was shown to reactivate latent HIV-1 expression in an in vitro model of central memory CD4+ T cells. We report the bioassay-guided isolation and structure determination of several resorcyclic acid lactones, including four known compounds, radicicol (1, aka. monorden) and pochonins B (2), C (3), and N (4), and three new analogues, radicicols B-D (5-7). Compounds 1-3 and 5 showed moderate activities in the memory T cell model of HIV-1 latency. Radicicol (1) displayed lower potency in reactivating latent HIV-1 (EC50 = 9.1 µM) relative to the HDAC inhibitors apicidin (EC50 = 0.3 µM), romidepsin (EC50 = 0.003 µM), and SAHA (EC50 = 0.6 µM); however, it achieved equivalent maximum efficacy relative to the positive control compounds (98% of SAHA and romidepsin).
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Ascomicetos/química
Productos Biológicos/farmacología
Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/virología
VIH-1/fisiología
Inhibidores de Histona Desacetilasas/farmacología
Lactonas/química
Macrólidos/farmacología
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Productos Biológicos/química
Infecciones por VIH/virología
Inhibidores de Histona Desacetilasas/química
Humanos
Lactonas/farmacología
Macrólidos/química
Biología Marina
Modelos Biológicos
Estructura Molecular
Latencia del Virus/efectos de drogas
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (Biological Products); 0 (Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors); 0 (Lactones); 0 (Macrolides); 12772-57-5 (monorden)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1407
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:140714
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:140714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140606
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/np400889x


  4 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24675587
[Au] Autor:Thapa DR; Hussain SK; Tran WC; Dʼsouza G; Bream JH; Achenback CJ; Ayyavoo V; Detels R; Martínez-Maza O
[Ad] Dirección:*University of California, Los Angeles, AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA; Departments of †Obstetrics and Gynecology; ‡Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; §Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA; ‖Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA; Departments of ¶Epidemiology; #Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; **Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL; and ††Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA.
[Ti] Título:Serum microRNAs in HIV-infected individuals as pre-diagnosis biomarkers for AIDS-NHL.
[So] Fuente:J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr;66(2):229-37, 2014 Jun 1.
[Is] ISSN:1944-7884
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:OBJECTIVE: To determine if changes in levels of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) were seen preceding the diagnosis of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL). DESIGN: Serum miRNA levels were compared in 3 subject groups from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: HIV-negative men (n = 43), HIV-positive men who did not develop NHL (n = 45), and HIV-positive men before AIDS-NHL diagnosis (n = 62, median time before diagnosis, 8.8 months). METHODS: A total of 175 serum-enriched miRNAs were initially screened to identify differentially expressed miRNAs among these groups and the results validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was then performed to assess biomarker utility. RESULTS: Higher levels of miR-21 and miR-122, and a lower level of miR-223, were able to discriminate HIV-infected from the HIV-uninfected groups, suggesting that these miRNAs are biomarkers for HIV infection but are not AIDS-NHL specific. Among the HIV-infected groups, a higher level of miR-222 was able to discriminate diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) subjects from HIV-infected subjects who did not develop NHL, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.777 and 0.792, respectively. At miR-222 cutoff values of 0.105 for DLBCL and 0.109 for PCNSL, the sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 77%, and 80% and 82%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Altered serum levels of miR-21, miR-122, and miR-223 are seen in HIV-infected individuals. Higher serum level of miR-222 has clear potential as a serum biomarker for earlier detection of DLBCL and PCNSL among HIV-infected individuals.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico
Linfoma Relacionado con SIDA/diagnóstico
MicroARNs/sangre
Marcadores Biológicos de Tumor/sangre
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adulto
Anciano
Recuento de Linfocito CD4
Infecciones por VIH/sangre
Humanos
Linfoma Relacionado con SIDA/sangre
Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/sangre
Linfoma de Células B Grandes Difuso/diagnóstico
Linfoma no Hodgkin/sangre
Linfoma no Hodgkin/diagnóstico
Masculino
Mediana Edad
Estudios Prospectivos
Curva ROC
Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa
Reproducibilidad de Resultados
Adulto Joven
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (MicroRNAs); 0 (Tumor Markers, Biological)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1407
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:140714
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:140714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140514
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000146


  5 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24443546
[Au] Autor:Zetola NM; Modongo C; Moonan PK; Ncube R; Matlhagela K; Sepako E; Collman RG; Bisson GP
[Ad] Dirección:Division of Infectious Diseases.
[Ti] Título:Clinical outcomes among persons with pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with phenotypic heterogeneity in results of drug-susceptibility tests.
[So] Fuente:J Infect Dis;209(11):1754-63, 2014 Jun 1.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:BACKGROUND: Patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis may have phenotypic heterogeneity in results of drug-susceptibility tests (DSTs). However, the impact of this on clinical outcomes among patients treated for MDR tuberculosis is unknown. METHODS: Phenotypic DST heterogeneity was defined as presence of at least 1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate susceptible to rifampicin and isoniazid recovered <3 months after MDR tuberculosis treatment initiation from a patient with previous documented tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid. The primary outcome was defined as good (ie, cure or treatment completion) or poor (ie, treatment failure, treatment default, or death). A secondary outcome was time to culture conversion. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the association between phenotypic DST heterogeneity and outcomes. RESULTS: Phenotypic DST heterogeneity was identified in 33 of 475 patients (7%) with MDR tuberculosis. Poor outcome occurred in 126 patients (28%). Overall, patients with MDR tuberculosis who had phenotypic DST heterogeneity were at greater risk of poor outcome than those with MDR tuberculosis but no phenotypic DST heterogeneity (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.6). Among HIV-infected patients with MDR tuberculosis, the adjusted hazard for a poor outcome for those with phenotypic DST heterogeneity was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.3-4.2) times that for those without phenotypic DST heterogeneity, whereas among HIV-negative patients with MDR tuberculosis, the adjusted hazard for those with phenotypic DST heterogeneity was 1.5 (95% CI, .5-4.3) times that for those without phenotypic DST heterogeneity. HIV-infected patients with MDR tuberculosis with phenotypic DST heterogeneity also had a longer time to culture conversion than with HIV-infected patients with MDR tuberculosis without phenotypic DST heterogeneity (aHR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-6.0). CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypic DST heterogeneity among persons with HIV infection who are being treated for MDR tuberculosis is associated with poor outcomes and longer times to culture conversion.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efectos de drogas
Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/quimioterapia
Tuberculosis Pulmonar/quimioterapia
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adulto
Botswana/epidemiología
Estudios de Cohortes
Femenino
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones
Humanos
Masculino
Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales
Estudios Retrospectivos
Factores de Riesgo
Resultado del Tratamiento
Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/complicaciones
Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología
Tuberculosis Pulmonar/complicaciones
Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología
Adulto Joven
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (Antitubercular Agents)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1406
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:140714
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:140714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140512
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu040


  6 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24672033
[Au] Autor:Gaulke CA; Porter M; Han YH; Sankaran-Walters S; Grishina I; George MD; Dang AT; Ding SW; Jiang G; Korf I; Dandekar S
[Ad] Dirección:Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, California, USA.
[Ti] Título:Intestinal epithelial barrier disruption through altered mucosal microRNA expression in human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus infections.
[So] Fuente:J Virol;88(11):6268-80, 2014 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:UNLABELLED: Epithelial barrier dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely been attributed to the rapid and severe depletion of CD4(+) T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although it is known that changes in mucosal gene expression contribute to intestinal enteropathy, the role of small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA), has not been investigated. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate model of HIV pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of viral infection on miRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. SIV infection led to a striking decrease in the expression of mucosal miRNA compared to that in uninfected controls. This decrease coincided with an increase in 5'-3'-exoribonuclease 2 protein and alterations in DICER1 and Argonaute 2 expression. Targets of depleted miRNA belonged to molecular pathways involved in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and immune response. Decreased expression of several miRNA involved in maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the gut was localized to the proliferative crypt region of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that SIV-induced decreased expression of miRNA involved in epithelial homeostasis, disrupted expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery, and increased expression of XRN2 are involved in the development of epithelial barrier dysfunction and gastroenteropathy. IMPORTANCE: MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate the development and function of intestinal epithelial cells, and many viruses disrupt normal host miRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV and HIV disrupt expression of miRNA in the small intestine during infection. The depletion of several key miRNA is localized to the proliferative crypt region of the gut epithelium. These miRNA are known to control expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell death, and epithelial maturation. Our data indicate that this disruption might be caused by altered expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery during infection. These findings suggest that the disruption of miRNA in the small intestine likely plays a role in intestinal enteropathy during HIV infection.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: VIH
Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo
Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatología
Infecciones por Lentivirus/metabolismo
MicroARNs/metabolismo
Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia de los Simios
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adulto
Animales
Secuencia de Bases
Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología
Biología Computacional
Densitometría
Citometría de Flujo
Humanos
Mucosa Intestinal/inmunología
Captura por Microdisección con Láser
Infecciones por Lentivirus/fisiopatología
Macaca mulatta
Masculino
Análisis por Micromatrices
Mediana Edad
Datos de Secuencia Molecular
Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa
Análisis de Secuencia de ARN
Carga Viral
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (MicroRNAs)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1407
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:140714
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:140714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140507
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/JVI.00097-14


  7 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24648457
[Au] Autor:Brinzevich D; Young GR; Sebra R; Ayllon J; Maio SM; Deikus G; Chen BK; Fernandez-Sesma A; Simon V; Mulder LC
[Ad] Dirección:Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
[Ti] Título:HIV-1 interacts with human endogenous retrovirus K (HML-2) envelopes derived from human primary lymphocytes.
[So] Fuente:J Virol;88(11):6213-23, 2014 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:UNLABELLED: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are viruses that have colonized the germ line and spread through vertical passage. Only the more recently acquired HERVs, such as the HERV-K (HML-2) group, maintain coding open reading frames. Expression of HERV-Ks has been linked to different pathological conditions, including HIV infection, but our knowledge on which specific HERV-Ks are expressed in primary lymphocytes currently is very limited. To identify the most expressed HERV-Ks in an unbiased manner, we analyzed their expression patterns in peripheral blood lymphocytes using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. We observe that three HERV-Ks (KII, K102, and K18) constitute over 90% of the total HERV-K expression in primary human lymphocytes of five different donors. We also show experimentally that two of these HERV-K env sequences (K18 and K102) retain their ability to produce full-length and posttranslationally processed envelope proteins in cell culture. We show that HERV-K18 Env can be incorporated into HIV-1 but not simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) particles. Moreover, HERV-K18 Env incorporation into HIV-1 virions is dependent on HIV-1 matrix. Taken together, we generated high-resolution HERV-K expression profiles specific for activated human lymphocytes. We found that one of the most abundantly expressed HERV-K envelopes not only makes a full-length protein but also specifically interacts with HIV-1. Our findings raise the possibility that these endogenous retroviral Env proteins could directly influence HIV-1 replication. IMPORTANCE: Here, we report the HERV-K expression profile of primary lymphocytes from 5 different healthy donors. We used a novel deep-sequencing technology (PacBio SMRT) that produces the long reads necessary to discriminate the complexity of HERV-K expression. We find that primary lymphocytes express up to 32 different HERV-K envelopes, and that at least two of the most expressed Env proteins retain their ability to make a protein. Importantly, one of them, the envelope glycoprotein of HERV-K18, is incorporated into HIV-1 in an HIV matrix-specific fashion. The ramifications of such interactions are discussed, as the possibility of HIV-1 target tissue broadening and immune evasion are considered.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Retrovirus Endógenos/metabolismo
Variación Genética
VIH-1/metabolismo
Linfocitos/virología
Proteínas del Envoltorio Viral/metabolismo
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Secuencia de Bases
Western Blotting
Biología Computacional
Cartilla de ADN/genética
ADN Complementario/biosíntesis
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética
Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente
Células HEK293
Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento
Humanos
Datos de Secuencia Molecular
Plásmidos/genética
Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia de los Simios/metabolismo
Transcriptoma
Virión/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (DNA Primers); 0 (DNA, Complementary); 0 (Viral Envelope Proteins)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1407
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:140714
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:140714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140507
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/JVI.00669-14


  8 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24648453
[Au] Autor:McCloskey RM; Liang RH; Harrigan PR; Brumme ZL; Poon AF
[Ad] Dirección:BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
[Ti] Título:An evaluation of phylogenetic methods for reconstructing transmitted HIV variants using longitudinal clonal HIV sequence data.
[So] Fuente:J Virol;88(11):6181-94, 2014 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:UNLABELLED: A population of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) within a host often descends from a single transmitted/founder virus. The high mutation rate of HIV, coupled with long delays between infection and diagnosis, make isolating and characterizing this strain a challenge. In theory, ancestral reconstruction could be used to recover this strain from sequences sampled in chronic infection; however, the accuracy of phylogenetic techniques in this context is unknown. To evaluate the accuracy of these methods, we applied ancestral reconstruction to a large panel of published longitudinal clonal and/or single-genome-amplification HIV sequence data sets with at least one intrapatient sequence set sampled within 6 months of infection or seroconversion (n = 19,486 sequences, median [interquartile range] = 49 [20 to 86] sequences/set). The consensus of the earliest sequences was used as the best possible estimate of the transmitted/founder. These sequences were compared to ancestral reconstructions from sequences sampled at later time points using both phylogenetic and phylogeny-naive methods. Overall, phylogenetic methods conferred a 16% improvement in reproducing the consensus of early sequences, compared to phylogeny-naive methods. This relative advantage increased with intrapatient sequence diversity (P < 10(-5)) and the time elapsed between the earliest and subsequent samples (P < 10(-5)). However, neither approach performed well for reconstructing ancestral indel variation, especially within indel-rich regions of the HIV genome. Although further improvements are needed, our results indicate that phylogenetic methods for ancestral reconstruction significantly outperform phylogeny-naive alternatives, and we identify experimental conditions and study designs that can enhance accuracy of transmitted/founder virus reconstruction. IMPORTANCE: When HIV is transmitted into a new host, most of the viruses fail to infect host cells. Consequently, an HIV infection tends to be descended from a single "founder" virus. A priority target for the vaccine research, these transmitted/founder viruses are difficult to isolate since newly infected individuals are often unaware of their status for months or years, by which time the virus population has evolved substantially. Here, we report on the potential use of evolutionary methods to reconstruct the genetic sequence of the transmitted/founder virus from its descendants at later stages of an infection. These methods can recover this ancestral sequence with an overall error rate of about 2.3%-about 15% more information than if we had ignored the evolutionary relationships among viruses. Although there is no substitute for sampling infections at earlier points in time, these methods can provide useful information about the genetic makeup of transmitted/founder HIV.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Clasificación/métodos
Evolución Molecular
Variación Genética/genética
VIH/genética
Filogenia
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Secuencia de Bases
Teorema de Bayes
Bases de Datos Genéticas
Humanos
Mutación INDEL/genética
Modelos Genéticos
Datos de Secuencia Molecular
Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:COMPARATIVE STUDY; EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1407
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:140714
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:140714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140507
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/JVI.00483-14


  9 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:24623433
[Au] Autor:Alvarez RA; Hamlin RE; Monroe A; Moldt B; Hotta MT; Rodriguez Caprio G; Fierer DS; Simon V; Chen BK
[Ad] Dirección:Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
[Ti] Título:HIV-1 Vpu antagonism of tetherin inhibits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic responses by natural killer cells.
[So] Fuente:J Virol;88(11):6031-46, 2014 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:UNLABELLED: The type I interferon-inducible factor tetherin retains virus particles on the surfaces of cells infected with vpu-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). While this mechanism inhibits cell-free viral spread, the immunological implications of tethered virus have not been investigated. We found that surface tetherin expression increased the antibody opsonization of vpu-deficient HIV-infected cells. The absence of Vpu also stimulated NK cell-activating FcγRIIIa signaling and enhanced NK cell degranulation and NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The deletion of vpu in HIV-1-infected primary CD4(+) T cells enhanced the levels of antibody binding and Fc receptor signaling mediated by HIV-positive-patient-derived antibodies. The magnitudes of antibody binding and Fc signaling were both highly correlated to the levels of tetherin on the surfaces of infected primary CD4 T cells. The affinity of antibody binding to FcγRIIIa was also found to be critical in mediating efficient Fc activation. These studies implicate Vpu antagonism of tetherin as an ADCC evasion mechanism that prevents antibody-mediated clearance of virally infected cells. IMPORTANCE: The ability of the HIV-1 accessory factor to antagonize tetherin has been considered to primarily function by limiting the spread of virus by preventing the release of cell-free virus. This study supports the hypothesis that a major function of Vpu is to decrease the recognition of infected cells by anti-HIV antibodies at the cell surface, thereby reducing recognition by antibody-dependent clearance by natural killer cells.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Citotoxicidad Celular Anticuerpo-Dependiente/inmunología
Antígenos CD/inmunología
Proteínas del Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/inmunología
Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología
Receptores de IgG/inmunología
Transducción de Señal/inmunología
Proteínas Reguladoras y Accesorias Virales/inmunología
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología
Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/virología
Citometría de Flujo
Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/antagonistas & inhibidores
Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/inmunología
Humanos
Células Jurkat
Proteína 1 de la Membrana Asociada a los Lisosomas/inmunología
Proteínas Opsoninas/inmunología
Receptores de IgG/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (Antigens, CD); 0 (BST2 protein, human); 0 (FCGR3A protein, human); 0 (GPI-Linked Proteins); 0 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins); 0 (Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1); 0 (Opsonin Proteins); 0 (Receptors, IgG); 0 (Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins); 0 (vpu protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1407
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:140714
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:140714
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140507
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/JVI.00449-14


  10 / 273187 MEDLINE  
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Fotocopia
[PMID]:24798666
[Au] Autor:Kandasamy T; Cherniak R; Shah R; Yudin MH; Spitzer R
[Ad] Dirección:Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Toronto, Toronto ON....
[Ti] Título:Obstetric risks and outcomes of refugee women at a single centre in Toronto.
[So] Fuente:J Obstet Gynaecol Can;36(4):296-302, 2014 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1701-2163
[Cp] País de publicación:Canada
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:OBJECTIVES: Women who are refugees during pregnancy may be exposed to homelessness, poor nutrition, and limited access to health care, yet the pregnancy outcomes of this vulnerable population have not been systematically evaluated. We undertook a study to determine the risk of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes among refugee women in Toronto. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design, we examined pregnancy outcomes for refugee and non-refugee women delivering at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. The primary outcome measures were preterm delivery (< 37 weeks' gestational age), low birth weight (< 2500 g), and delivery by Caesarean section. RESULTS: Multiparous refugee women had a significantly higher rate of delivery by Caesarean section (36.4%), and a 1.5-fold increase in rate of low birth weight infants when compared with non-refugee women. In subgroup analysis by region of origin, women from Sub-Saharan Africa had significantly higher rates of low birth weight infants and Caesarean section than non-refugee control subjects. Further, compared with non-refugee control subjects, refugee women had significantly increased rates of prior Caesarean section, HIV-positive status, homelessness, social isolation, and delays in accessing prenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Refugee women constitute a higher-risk population with increased rates of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. These findings provide preliminary data to guide targeted public health interventions towards meeting the needs for obstetric care of this vulnerable population. Recent changes to the Interim Federal Health Program have highlighted the importance of identifying and diminishing disparities in health outcomes between refugee and non-refugee populations.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Cesárea/estadística & datos numéricos
Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología
Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adulto
Estudios de Cohortes
Femenino
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud
Humanos
Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso
Recién Nacido
Ontario
Paridad
Embarazo
Estudios Retrospectivos
Adulto Joven
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1407
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:140506
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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