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  1 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26345647
[Au] Autor:Moreira LG; Orellano EA; Rosado K; Guido RV; Andricopulo AD; Soto GO; Rodríguez JW; Sanabria-Ríos DJ; Carballeira NM
[Ad] Dirección:Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, PO Box 23346, San Juan, PR, 00931-3346, USA....
[Ti] Título:The (5Z)-5-Pentacosenoic and 5-Pentacosynoic Acids Inhibit the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase.
[So] Fuente:Lipids;50(10):1043-50, 2015 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1558-9307
[Cp] País de publicación:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:The natural fatty acids (5Z)-5-pentacosenoic and (9Z)-9-pentacosenoic acids were synthesized for the first time in eight steps starting from either 4-bromo-1-butanol or 8-bromo-1-butanol and in 20-58% overall yields, while the novel fatty acids 5-pentacosynoic and 9-pentacosynoic acids were also synthesized in six steps and in 34-43% overall yields. The ∆(5) acids displayed the best IC50's (24-38 µM) against the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme, comparable to nervonic acid (IC50 = 12 µM). The ∆(9) acids were not as effective towards HIV-RT with the (9Z)-9-pentacosenoic acid displaying an IC50 = 54 µM and the 9-pentacosynoic acid not inhibiting the enzyme at all. Fatty acid chain length and position of the unsaturation was important for the observed inhibition. None of the synthesized fatty acids were toxic (IC50 > 500 µM) towards peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Molecular modeling studies indicated the structural determinants underlying the biological activity of the most potent compounds. These results provide new insights into the structural requirements that must be present in fatty acids so as to enhance their inhibitory potential towards HIV-RT.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Inhibidores Enzimáticos/síntesis química
Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/síntesis química
Ácidos Grasos/síntesis química
Transcriptasa Inversa del VIH/antagonistas & inhibidores
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Células Cultivadas
Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología
Ácidos Grasos/farmacología
Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/farmacología
Humanos
Leucocitos Mononucleares/efectos de drogas
Modelos Moleculares
Relación Estructura-Actividad
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (5-pentacosenoic acid); 0 (5-pentacosynoic acid); 0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Fatty Acids, Unsaturated); EC 2.7.7.- (reverse transcriptase, Human immunodeficiency virus 1); EC 2.7.7.49 (HIV Reverse Transcriptase)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1604
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:160423
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:160423
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:150917
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11745-015-4064-2


  2 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26644039
[Au] Autor:Fillâtre P; Revest M; Belaz S; Robert-Gangneux F; Zahar JR; Roblot F; Tattevin P
[Ad] Dirección:Maladies infectieuses et réanimation médicale, hôpital Pontchaillou, CHU de Rennes, 35033 Rennes, France....
[Ti] Título:[Pneumocystosis in non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients].
[Ti] Título:Pneumocystose chez les patients immunodéprimés non infectés par le VIH..
[So] Fuente:Rev Med Interne;37(5):327-36, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1768-3122
[Cp] País de publicación:France
[La] Idioma:fre
[Ab] Resumen:Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly P. carinii) is an opportunistic fungus responsible for pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Pneumocystosis in non-HIV-infected patients differs from AIDS-associated pneumocystosis in mostly two aspects: diagnosis is more difficult, and prognosis is worse. Hence, efforts should be made to target immunocompromised patients at higher risk of pneumocystosis, so that they are prescribed long-term, low-dose, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, highly effective for pneumocystosis prophylaxis. Patients at highest risk include those with medium and small vessels vasculitis, lymphoproliferative B disorders (chronic or acute lymphocytic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and solid cancer on long-term corticosteroids. Conversely, widespread use of prophylaxis in all patients carrier of inflammatory diseases on long-term corticosteroids is not warranted. The management of pneumocystosis in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients follows the rules established for AIDS patients. The diagnosis relies on the detection of P. jiroveci cyst on respiratory samples, while PCR does not reliably discriminate infection from colonization, in 2015. High-doses trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is, by far, the treatment of choice. The benefit of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy for hypoxic patients, well documented in AIDS patients, has a much lower level of evidence in non-HIV-infected patients, most of them being already on corticosteroid by the time of pneumocystosis diagnosis anyway. However, based on its striking impact on morbi-mortality in AIDS patients, adjuvant corticosteroid is recommended in hypoxic, non-HIV-infected patients with pneumocystosis by many experts and scientific societies.
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1604
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


  3 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26456182
[Au] Autor:Diallo S; Diallo R; Niasse M; Touré S; Diouf C; Dièye T; Ndongo S; Pouye A
[Ad] Dirección:Service de rhumatologie, CHU Aristide-Le-Dantec de Dakar, BP 16757, 12900 Dakar-Fann, Sénégal....
[Ti] Título:[Two big cheeks].
[Ti] Título:Deux grosses joues..
[So] Fuente:Rev Med Interne;37(5):375-6, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1768-3122
[Cp] País de publicación:France
[La] Idioma:fre
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1604
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


  4 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26599825
[Au] Autor:Tsai AC; Siedner MJ
[Ad] Dirección:Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America....
[Ti] Título:The Missing Men: HIV Treatment Scale-Up and Life Expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa.
[So] Fuente:PLoS Med;12(11):e1001906, 2015 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1549-1676
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad
Esperanza de Vida/tendencias
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Femenino
Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:COMMENT; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1603
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:160422
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:160422
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:151125
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001906


  5 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26595265
[Au] Autor:Aliabadi N; Carballo-Dieguez A; Bakken S; Rojas M; Brown W; Carry M; Mosley JP; Gelaude D; Schnall R
[Ad] Dirección:Division of General Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York....
[Ti] Título:Using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model to Guide the Development of an HIV Prevention Smartphone Application for High-Risk MSM.
[So] Fuente:AIDS Educ Prev;27(6):522-37, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1943-2755
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:HIV remains a significant public health problem among men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM comprise 2% of the U.S. population, but constitute 56% of persons living with HIV. Mobile health technology is a promising tool for HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify the desired content, features and functions of a mobile application (app) for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM. We conducted five focus group sessions with 33 MSM. Focus group recordings were transcribed and coded using themes informed by the information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills model. Participants identified information needs related to HIV prevention: HIV testing and prophylaxis distribution centers, support groups/peers, and HIV/STI disease/treatment information. Areas of motivation to target for the app included: attitudes and intentions. Participants identified behavioral skills to address with an app: using condoms correctly, negotiating safer sex, recognizing signs of HIV/STI. Findings from this work provide insight into the desired content of a mobile app for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control
Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología
Modelos Psicológicos
Motivación
56188
Conducta Social
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adolescente
Adulto
Condones/utilización
Grupos Focales
Infecciones por VIH/psicología
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
Humanos
Intención
Masculino
Mediana Edad
Ciudad de Nueva York
Investigación Cualitativa
Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo
Sexo Seguro
Adulto Joven
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1602
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:160422
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:160422
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:151124
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1521/aeap.2015.27.6.522


  6 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26469666
[Au] Autor:Williams JK; Wilton L; Magnus M; Wang L; Wang J; Dyer TP; Koblin BA; Hucks-Ortiz C; Fields SD; Shoptaw S; Stephenson R; O'Cleirigh C; Cummings V; HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 Study Team
[Ad] Dirección:John K. Williams is with the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Leo Wilton is with College of Community and Public Affairs, Department of Human Development, Binghamton University, Bin...
[Ti] Título:Relation of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Depression to Risk Factors for HIV Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men in 6 US Cities.
[So] Fuente:Am J Public Health;105(12):2473-81, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1541-0048
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:OBJECTIVES: We assessed the relation of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence (IPV), and depression to HIV sexual risk behaviors among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Participants were 1522 Black MSM recruited from 6 US cities between July 2009 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Participants reported sex before age 12 years with someone at least 5 years older (31.1%), unwanted sex when aged 12 to 16 years (30%), IPV (51.8%), and depression (43.8%). Experiencing CSA when aged 12 to 16 years was inversely associated with any receptive condomless anal sex with a male partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29, 0.86). Pressured or forced sex was positively associated with any receptive anal sex (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.57, 3.20). Experiencing CSA when younger than 12 years, physical abuse, emotional abuse, having been stalked, and pressured or forced sex were positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Among HIV-positive MSM (n = 337), CSA between ages 12 and 16 years was positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of CSA, IPV, and depression were high, but associations with HIV sexual risk outcomes were modest.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos
Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos
Depresión/epidemiología
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos
56155/estadística & datos numéricos
Sexo Inseguro/estadística & datos numéricos
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adolescente
Adulto
Afroamericanos/psicología
Niño
Depresión/complicaciones
Infecciones por VIH/etiología
Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología
Humanos
Masculino
Mediana Edad
Factores de Riesgo
Estados Unidos/epidemiología
Sexo Inseguro/psicología
Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
Adulto Joven
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1604
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:160422
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:160422
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:151107
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302878


  7 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26181812
[Au] Autor:Byakwaga H; Hunt PW; Laker-Oketta M; Glidden DV; Huang Y; Bwana BM; Mocello AR; Bennett J; Walusansa V; Dollard SC; Bangsberg DR; Mbidde EK; Martin JN
[Ad] Dirección:*Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; †University of California, San Francisco, CA; ‡Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda; §Uganda Cancer Institute, Kampala, Uganda; ‖Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; ¶Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Global Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and #Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda.
[Ti] Título:The Kynurenine Pathway of Tryptophan Catabolism and AIDS-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma in Africa.
[So] Fuente:J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr;70(3):296-303, 2015 Nov 1.
[Is] ISSN:1944-7884
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:BACKGROUND: Other than Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus and CD4 T-cell lymphopenia, the mechanisms responsible for KS in the context of HIV are poorly understood. One recently explored pathway of HIV pathogenesis involves induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO), which catabolizes tryptophan into kynurenine and several other immunologically active metabolites that suppress T-cell proliferation. We investigated the role of IDO in the development of KS in HIV disease. METHODS: In a case-control study among untreated HIV-infected Ugandans, cases were adults with KS and controls were without KS. IDO activity was assessed by the ratio of plasma kynurenine to tryptophan levels (KT ratio), measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: We studied 631 HIV-infected subjects: 222 KS cases and 409 controls. Non-KS controls had a higher median plasma KT ratio (130, interquartile range: 90 to 190 nM/µM) than KS cases (110, interquartile range: 90 to 150 nM/µM) (P = 0.004). After adjustment for age, sex, CD4 count, and plasma HIV RNA level, subjects with the highest (fourth quartile) plasma KT ratios had a 59% reduction (95% confidence interval: 27% to 77%) in the odds of KS compared with those with the lowest (first quartile) levels. KS was also independently associated with lower CD4 count, higher plasma HIV RNA, and men. CONCLUSIONS: Among HIV-infected individuals, greater activity of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, as evidenced by higher levels of plasma KT ratio, was associated with lower occurrence of KS. Some consequences of immune activation in HIV infection might actually suppress certain cancers.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/epidemiología
Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/metabolismo
Quinurenina/metabolismo
Sarcoma de Kaposi/epidemiología
Sarcoma de Kaposi/metabolismo
Triptófano/metabolismo
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adulto
Femenino
Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica
Humanos
Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenasa/genética
Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenasa/metabolismo
Malaria/complicaciones
Masculino
ARN Viral
Tuberculosis/complicaciones
Carga Viral
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase); 0 (RNA, Viral); 343-65-7 (Kynurenine); 8DUH1N11BX (Tryptophan)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1601
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:160422
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:160422
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:151016
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000747


  8 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26269172
[Au] Autor:Rainho JN; Martins MA; Cunyat F; Watkins IT; Watkins DI; Stevenson M
[Ad] Dirección:Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA....
[Ti] Título:Nef Is Dispensable for Resistance of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macrophages to CD8+ T Cell Killing.
[So] Fuente:J Virol;89(20):10625-36, 2015 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:UNLABELLED: Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells kill SIV-infected CD4(+) T cells in an major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-dependent manner. However, they are reportedly less efficient at killing SIV-infected macrophages. Since the viral accessory protein Nef has been shown to downregulate MHC-I molecules and enhance cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) evasion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected CD4(+) T cells, we examined whether Nef played a role in protecting SIV-infected macrophages from killing by SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. To explore the role of Nef in CD8(+) T cell evasion, we compared the ability of freshly sorted SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells to readily suppress viral replication or eliminate CD4(+) T cells or monocyte-derived macrophages infected with SIV variants containing wild-type (WT) or mutated nef genes. As expected, SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells suppressed viral replication and eliminated the majority of SIV-infected CD4(+) T cells, and this killing was enhanced in CD4(+) T cells infected with the nef variants. However, macrophages infected with nef variants that disrupt MHC-I downregulation did not promote rapid killing by freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells. These results suggest that mechanisms other than Nef-mediated MHC-I downregulation govern the resistance of SIV-infected macrophages to CD8(+) T cell-mediated killing. This study has implications for viral persistence and suggests that macrophages may afford primate lentiviruses some degree of protection from immune surveillance. IMPORTANCE: Myeloid cells are permissive for HIV/SIV replication in vitro and may contribute to viral persistence in vivo. While many studies have been geared to understanding how CD8(+) T cells control viral replication in CD4(+) T cells, the role of these cells in controlling viral replication in macrophages is less clear. Primary, unstimulated CD8(+) T cells insignificantly suppress viral replication or eliminate SIV-infected macrophages. Since the viral Nef protein downregulates MHC-I and provides infected cells some degree of protection from CD8(+) T cell-mediated effector functions, we evaluated whether Nef may be contributing to the resistance of macrophages to CD8(+) T cell suppression. Our results suggest that Nef is not involved in protecting infected macrophages from CD8(+) T cell killing and suggest that other mechanisms are involved in macrophage evasion from CD8 surveillance.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología
Evasión Inmune
Macrófagos/inmunología
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida del Simio/inmunología
Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia de los Simios/inmunología
Proteínas Reguladoras y Accesorias Virales/inmunología
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Animales
Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología
Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/patología
Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/virología
Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/patología
Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/virología
Citotoxicidad Inmunológica
Femenino
Expresión Génica
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase I/genética
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase I/inmunología
Inmunofenotipificación
Macaca mulatta
Macrófagos/patología
Macrófagos/virología
Masculino
Mutación
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida del Simio/genética
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida del Simio/patología
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida del Simio/virología
Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia de los Simios/genética
Proteínas Reguladoras y Accesorias Virales/genética
Replicación Viral
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (Histocompatibility Antigens Class I); 0 (NEF protein, SIV); 0 (Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1512
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:160422
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:160422
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:150923
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/JVI.01699-15


  9 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26178982
[Au] Autor:Fontana J; Jurado KA; Cheng N; Ly NL; Fuchs JR; Gorelick RJ; Engelman AN; Steven AC
[Ad] Dirección:Laboratory of Structural Biology Research, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA....
[Ti] Título:Distribution and Redistribution of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein in Immature, Mature, and Integrase-Inhibited Virions: a Role for Integrase in Maturation.
[So] Fuente:J Virol;89(19):9765-80, 2015 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5514
[Cp] País de publicación:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:UNLABELLED: During virion maturation, HIV-1 capsid protein assembles into a conical core containing the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex, thought to be composed mainly of the viral RNA and nucleocapsid protein (NC). After infection, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA, which is then incorporated into host chromosomes by integrase (IN) catalysis. Certain IN mutations (class II) and antiviral drugs (allosteric IN inhibitors [ALLINIs]) adversely affect maturation, resulting in virions that contain "eccentric condensates," electron-dense aggregates located outside seemingly empty capsids. Here we demonstrate that in addition to this mislocalization of electron density, a class II IN mutation and ALLINIs each increase the fraction of virions with malformed capsids (from ∼ 12% to ∼ 53%). Eccentric condensates have a high NC content, as demonstrated by "tomo-bubblegram" imaging, a novel labeling technique that exploits the susceptibility of NC to radiation damage. Tomo-bubblegrams also localized NC inside wild-type cores and lining the spherical Gag shell in immature virions. We conclude that eccentric condensates represent nonpackaged vRNPs and that either genetic or pharmacological inhibition of IN can impair vRNP incorporation into mature cores. Supplying IN in trans as part of a Vpr-IN fusion protein partially restored the formation of conical cores with internal electron density and the infectivity of a class II IN deletion mutant virus. Moreover, the ability of ALLINIs to induce eccentric condensate formation required both IN and viral RNA. Based on these observations, we propose a role for IN in initiating core morphogenesis and vRNP incorporation into the mature core during HIV-1 maturation. IMPORTANCE: Maturation, a process essential for HIV-1 infectivity, involves core assembly, whereby the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP, composed of vRNA and nucleocapsid protein [NC]) is packaged into a conical capsid. Allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) affect multiple viral processes. We have characterized ALLINIs and integrase mutants that have the same phenotype. First, by comparing the effects of ALLINIs on several steps of the viral cycle, we show that inhibition of maturation accounts for compound potency. Second, by using cryoelectron tomography, we find that ALLINIs impair conical capsid assembly. Third, by developing tomo-bubblegram imaging, which specifically labels NC protein, we find that ALLINIs block vRNP packaging; instead, vRNPs form "eccentric condensates" outside the core. Fourth, malformed cores, typical of integrase-deleted virus, are partially replaced by conical cores when integrase is supplied in trans. Fifth, vRNA is necessary for ALLINI-induced eccentric condensate formation. These observations suggest that integrase is involved in capsid morphogenesis and vRNP packaging.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Integrasa de VIH/metabolismo
VIH-1/fisiología
Proteínas del Nucleocápside/metabolismo
Virión/fisiología
Ensamble de Virus/fisiología
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Microscopía por Crioelectrón
Células HEK293
VIH-1/metabolismo
Humanos
Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión
Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa
Virión/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., INTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nombre de substancia:
0 (Nucleocapsid Proteins); EC 2.7.7.- (HIV Integrase)
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1512
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:160422
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:160422
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:150902
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/JVI.01522-15


  10 / 292277 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26234989
[Au] Autor:Saeieh SE; Nasrabadi AN; Ebadi A; Moghadam ZB; Mohraz M; Jozani ZB; Rezaei E
[Ti] Título:Contraception Use among Iranian Women With HIV: A Qualitative Study.
[So] Fuente:Glob J Health Sci;8(1):199-207, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1916-9736
[Cp] País de publicación:Canada
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumen:BACKGROUND: The application of family planning methods to people with HIV not only prevents unwanted pregnancy, but also leads to a reduction in the possibility of transmission of the virus from the patient to the sexual partner and the fetus. In order to prevent the spread of HIV and enhance reproductive rights, it is necessary to inform women with HIV of the contraception methods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore experiences of HIV positive women about contraception use. METHOD: This qualitative study was conducted on 18 women with HIV who were at reproductive age and had referred the Center for clients with Risky Behavior in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method in MAXQDA 10. RESULTS: The following two themes were derived from descriptions of the use of contraception methods by women with HIV: 1) Contraception is the forgotten component of reproductive health services; 2) inconsistent condom use. Each theme also contained three sub-themes. CONCLUSION: Results of investigations showed that Risky Behavior consultation Centers mostly stress the use of condom for husband/sexual partners without HIV. In addition, since health care practitioners play an important role in provision of reproductive health services, their lack of knowledge and cooperation considerably contribute to the spread of the disease and violation of patient rights.
[Mh] Términos MeSH primario: Conducta Anticonceptiva
Seropositividad para VIH
[Mh] Términos MeSH secundario: Adulto
Femenino
Humanos
Irán
Mediana Edad
Investigación Cualitativa
[Pt] Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mes de ingreso:1602
[Cu] Fecha actualización por clase:160422
[Lr] Fecha última revisión:160422
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Fecha de ingreso para procesamiento:150803
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5539/gjhs.v8n1p199



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