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[PMID]: 29242074
[Au] Autor:Liu J; Huang S; Niu X; Chen D; Chen Q; Tian L; Xiao F; Liu Y
[Ad] Address:School of Food Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China.
[Ti] Title:Genome-wide identification and validation of new reference genes for transcript normalization in developmental and post-harvested fruits of Actinidia chinensis.
[So] Source:Gene;645:1-6, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0038
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The appropriate reference genes are important and essential for reliable results of transcript normalization in real-time qRT-PCR. In the current study, we identified 1203 stably expressed genes from 35,286 genes' expression profiles in developmental fruits of Actinidia chinensis. We manually selected six candidate genes and assessed their expression levels, using two sets of fruit samples of A. chinensis: flesh fruits at four developmental stages and post-harvested fruits. The expression stability of these six genes was assessed by three independent algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Statistical results indicated these six genes can serve as internal control in both developmental and post-harvested fruits. Among these genes, UBQ_CONJ_E2 (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 36) and TUB_FCB (Tubulin folding cofactor B) were the two best reference genes identified in this study. The identification and validation of these reference genes can be helpful for elucidating the studies of fruit development and post-harvested fruits' storage in A. chinensis and other fruit crops of Actinidiaceae.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Actinidia/genetics
Gene Expression Profiling/standards
Plant Proteins/genetics
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Actinidia/growth & development
Fruit/genetics
Fruit/growth & development
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics
Reference Standards
Sequence Analysis, RNA
Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Microtubule-Associated Proteins); 0 (Plant Proteins); EC 2.3.2.23 (Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180129
[Lr] Last revision date:180129
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171216
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 29164821
[Au] Autor:Wei LB; Ma SY; Liu HX; Huang CS; Liao N
[Ad] Address:College of Medicine, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou, 545006, P. R. China.
[Ti] Title:Cytotoxic Triterpenoids from Roots of Actinidia chinensis.
[So] Source:Chem Biodivers;, 2017 Nov 21.
[Is] ISSN:1612-1880
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Phytochmical investigation of roots of Actinidia chinensis PLANCH led to the isolation triterpenoids 1 - 16, including a new compound 2α,3α,23,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid (1). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI mass spectrometry, and by comparison with the literatures. The cytotoxicities of triterpenoids 1 - 16 against a panel of cultured human cancer cell lines (HepG2, A549, MCF-7, SK-OV-3, and HeLa) were evaluated. The new compound 1 exhibited moderate antitumor activities with IC values of 19.62 ± 0.81, 18.86 ± 1.56, 45.94 ± 3.62, 62.41 ± 2.29, and 28.74 ± 1.07 µM, respectively. The experiment data might be available to explain the use of roots of A. chinensis to treat various cancers in traditional Chinese medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171122
[Lr] Last revision date:171122
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/cbdv.201700454

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[PMID]: 28890721
[Au] Autor:Guo R; Landis JB; Moore MJ; Meng A; Jian S; Yao X; Wang H
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhan, China.
[Ti] Title:Development and Application of Transcriptome-Derived Microsatellites in (Actinidiaceae).
[So] Source:Front Plant Sci;8:1383, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1664-462X
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Benth. is a diploid perennial woody vine native to China and is recognized as a valuable species for commercial kiwifruit improvement with high levels of ascorbic acid as well as having been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Due to the lack of genomic resources for the species, microsatellite markers for population genetics studies are scarce. In this study, RNASeq was conducted on fruit tissue of , yielding 5,678,129 reads with a total output of 3.41 Gb. assembly yielded 69,783 non-redundant unigenes (41.3 Mb), of which 21,730 were annotated using protein databases. A total of 8,658 EST-SSR loci were identified in 7,495 unigene sequences, for which primer pairs were successfully designed for 3,842 loci (44.4%). Among these, 183 primer pairs were assayed for PCR amplification, yielding 69 with detectable polymorphism in . Additionally, 61 of the 69 polymorphic loci could be successfully amplified in at least one other species. Of these, 14 polymorphic loci (mean = 6.07 ± 2.30) were randomly selected for assessing levels of genetic diversity and population structure within . Finally, a neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analysis showed distinct clustering into two groups ( = 2), agreeing with the geographical distributions of these populations. Overall, our results will facilitate further studies of genetic diversity within and will aid in discriminating outlier loci involved in local adaptation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170913
[Lr] Last revision date:170913
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpls.2017.01383

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[PMID]: 28558268
[Au] Autor:Twidle AM; Suckling DM; Seal AG; Fedrizzi B; Pilkington LI; Barker D
[Ad] Address:The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag 4704, Christchurch Mail Centre, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand; School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address: andrew.twidle@plantandfood.co.nz.
[Ti] Title:Identification of in situ flower volatiles from kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa) cultivars and their male pollenisers in a New Zealand orchard.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;141:61-69, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In situ flower volatiles from six kiwifruit cultivars (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa); 'Hayward', 'Chieftain', 'M56', 'Zes007' (Green11), 'M36', and 'M43' were collected by dynamic headspace sampling. Forty-five compounds were detected in the headspace of the flowers, with straight chain hydrocarbons and terpenes accounting for >98% of the volatiles emitted quantitatively across the six cultivars. Of these hydrocarbons, (3Z,6Z,9Z)-heptadecatriene is reported for the first time from a floral source while (8Z)-hexadecene and (9Z)-nonadecene are reported for the first time from kiwifruit flowers. All three hydrocarbons were verified by synthesis. Quantitative comparison of the six honey bee perceived compounds from the headspace of the cultivars showed that the males 'M36' and 'M43' closely matched the female cultivar Green11 that they are used to pollinate. Males 'M56' and 'Chieftain' were not as closely matched to the female cultivar 'Hayward' that they are used to pollinate. The male 'M56' in particular differed significantly from the female 'Hayward' in four of the six honey bee perceived compounds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Actinidia/chemistry
Flowers/chemistry
Volatile Organic Compounds/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Bees
Hydrocarbons/analysis
New Zealand
Pollination
Terpenes/analysis
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hydrocarbons); 0 (Terpenes); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170721
[Lr] Last revision date:170721
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170531
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27589600
[Au] Autor:Wang WC; Chen SY; Zhang XZ
[Ad] Address:School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Chloroplast Genome Evolution in Actinidiaceae: clpP Loss, Heterogenous Divergence and Phylogenomic Practice.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(9):e0162324, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Actinidiaceae is a well-known economically important plant family in asterids. To elucidate the chloroplast (cp) genome evolution within this family, here we present complete genomes of three species from two sister genera (Clematoclethra and Actinidia) in the Actinidiaceae via genome skimming technique. Comparative analyses revealed that the genome structure and content were rather conservative in three cp genomes in spite of different inheritance pattern, i.e.paternal in Actinidia and maternal in Clematoclethra. The clpP gene was lacked in all the three sequenced cp genomes examined here indicating that the clpP gene loss is likely a conspicuous synapomorphic characteristic during the cp genome evolution of Actinidiaceae. Comprehensive sequence comparisons in Actinidiaceae cp genomes uncovered that there were apparently heterogenous divergence patterns among the cpDNA regions, suggesting a preferred data-partitioned analysis for cp phylogenomics. Twenty non-coding cpDNA loci with fast evolutionary rates are further identified as potential molecular markers for systematics studies of Actinidiaceae. Moreover, the cp phylogenomic analyses including 31 angiosperm plastomes strongly supported the monophyly of Actinidia, being sister to Clematoclethra in Actinidiaceae which locates in the basal asterids, Ericales.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Actinidiaceae/genetics
Chloroplasts/genetics
Evolution, Molecular
Genome, Chloroplast/genetics
Genome, Plant/genetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Actinidiaceae/metabolism
Chloroplasts/metabolism
DNA, Chloroplast/genetics
Gene Order
Genes, Plant
Genetic Loci
Phylogeny
Sequence Analysis, DNA
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Chloroplast)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170803
[Lr] Last revision date:170803
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160903
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0162324

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[PMID]: 27459094
[Au] Autor:Xu YX; Xiang ZB; Jin YS; Xu W; Sun LN; Chen WS; Chen HS
[Ad] Address:School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, No. 325 Guohe Road, Shanghai, 200433, P. R. China.
[Ti] Title:Constituents from the Roots of Actinidia chinensis and Their Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Inhibitory Activities.
[So] Source:Chem Biodivers;13(11):1454-1459, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1612-1880
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A newly discovered triterpenoid, (2α,3ß)-2,3,23-trihydroxyurs-13(18)-en-28-oic acid (1), along with twelve known compounds (2 - 13), were isolated from the roots of Actinidia chinensis Planch (Actinidiaceae). Their chemical structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra and mass spectrometry (MS). The crude extracts and six main constituents (8 - 13) were tested for cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzyme inhibitory activity. The results showed that, except for compound 8, compounds 9 - 13 had different inhibitory effects on the cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzyme, and compound 9 significantly inhibited the catalytic activities of CYP3A4 to < 10% of its control activities.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Actinidia/chemistry
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism
Plant Roots/chemistry
Triterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Molecular Structure
Structure-Activity Relationship
Triterpenes/chemistry
Triterpenes/isolation & purification
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 ((2alpha,3beta)-2,3,23-trihydroxyurs-13(18)-en-28-oic acid); 0 (Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Triterpenes); 9035-51-2 (Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System)
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170117
[Lr] Last revision date:170117
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/cbdv.201500518

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[PMID]: 26819841
[Au] Autor:Aldrich JR; Chauhan K; Zhang QH
[Ad] Address:Associate, Department of Entomology & Nematology, University of California , Davis, CA , United States.
[Ti] Title:Pharmacophagy in green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Chrysopa spp.)?
[So] Source:PeerJ;4:e1564, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2167-8359
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are voracious predators of aphids and other small, soft-bodied insects and mites. Earlier, we identified (1R,2S,5R,8R)-iridodial from wild males of the goldeneyed lacewing, Chrysopa oculata Say, which is released from thousands of microscopic dermal glands on the abdominal sterna. Iridodial-baited traps attract C. oculata and other Chrysopa spp. males into traps, while females come to the vicinity of, but do not usually enter traps. Despite their healthy appearance and normal fertility, laboratory-reared C. oculata males do not produce iridodial. Surprisingly, goldeneyed lacewing males caught alive in iridodial-baited traps attempt to eat the lure and, in Asia, males of other Chrysopa species reportedly eat the native plant, Actinidia polygama (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. (Actinidiaceae) to obtain the monoterpenoid, neomatatabiol. These observations suggest that Chrysopa males must sequester exogenous natural iridoids in order to produce iridodial; we investigated this phenomenon in laboratory feeding studies. Lacewing adult males fed various monoterpenes reduced carbonyls to alcohols and saturated double bonds, but did not convert these compounds to iridodial. Only males fed the common aphid sex pheromone component, (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol, produced (1R,2S,5R,8R)-iridodial. Furthermore, although C. oculata males fed the second common aphid sex pheromone component, (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, did not produce iridodial, they did convert ∼75% of this compound to the corresponding dihydronepetalactone, and wild C. oculata males collected in early spring contained traces of this dihydronepetalactone. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Chrysopa males feed on oviparae (the late-season pheromone producing stage of aphids) to obtain nepetalactol as a precursor to iridodial. In the spring, however, wild C. oculata males produce less iridodial than do males collected later in the season. Therefore, we further hypothesize that Asian Chrysopa eat A. polygama to obtain iridoid precursors in order to make their pheromone, and that other iridoid-producing plants elsewhere in the world must be similarly usurped by male Chrysopa species to sequester pheromone precursors.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160129
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7717/peerj.1564

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[PMID]: 26810384
[Au] Autor:Qu L; Zhang H; Yang Y; Yang G; Xin H; Ling C
[Ad] Address:a Changhai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Second Military Medical University , Shanghai , PR China ;
[Ti] Title:Corosolic acid analogue, a natural triterpenoid saponin, induces apoptosis on human hepatocarcinoma cells through mitochondrial pathway in vitro.
[So] Source:Pharm Biol;54(8):1445-57, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5116
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Context 2a,-3a,-24-Trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (TEO, a corosolic acid analogue) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Actinidia valvata Dunn (Actinidiaceae), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Objective This study investigated the anti-proliferation and inducing apoptosis effects of TEO in three human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Materials and methods Cytotoxic activity of TEO was determined by the MTT assay at various concentrations from 2.5 to 40 µg/mL in BEL-7402, BEL-7404 and SMMC-7721 cell lines. Cell morphology was assessed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining and fluorescence microscopy. Cell-cycle distribution and DNA damage were determined by flow cytometry and comet assay. Mitochondrial dysfunction was assessed by JC-1 staining and transmission electron microscopy. Apoptosis changes were explored by Western blot, TNF-α and caspase-3, -8, -9 assays. Results TEO exhibited inhibition effects on BEL-7402, BEL-7404 and SMMC-7721 cells treated for 24 h, the IC50 values were 34.6, 30.8 and 30.5 µg/mL, respectively. TEO (40 µg/mL)-treated three cell lines increased by more than 21% in the G1 phase and presented the morphological change and DNA damage. TEO also declined the mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial ultra-structure. Furthermore, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and TNF-α were also activated. Mechanism investigation showed that TEO could decrease anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression, increase proapoptotic Bax and Bid proteins expressions and increase Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that TEO inhibited growth of HCC cell lines and induced G1 phase arrest. Moreover, proapoptotic effects of TEO were mediated through the activation of TNF-α, caspases and mitochondrial pathway.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Actinidia
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Apoptosis/drug effects
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy
Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy
Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Triterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Actinidia/chemistry
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/ultrastructure
Cell Line, Tumor
Cell Shape/drug effects
DNA Damage
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects
Humans
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Liver Neoplasms/metabolism
Liver Neoplasms/ultrastructure
Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects
Mitochondria, Liver/metabolism
Mitochondria, Liver/ultrastructure
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Plants, Medicinal
Signal Transduction/drug effects
Time Factors
Triterpenes/isolation & purification
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (2a,-3a,-24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Triterpenes); 0 (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha)
[Em] Entry month:1702
[Cu] Class update date: 170201
[Lr] Last revision date:170201
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1104699

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[PMID]: 26734548
[Au] Autor:Braun U; Crous PW; Nakashima C
[Ad] Address:Martin-Luther-Universität, Institut für Biologie, Bereich Geobotanik und Botanischer Garten, Herbarium, Neuwerk 21, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany;
[Ti] Title:Cercosporoid fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) 4. Species on dicots (Acanthaceae to Amaranthaceae).
[So] Source:IMA Fungus;6(2):373-469, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:2210-6340
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present paper continues a series of comprehensive taxonomic treatments of cercosporoid fungi (formerly Cercospora s. lat.), belonging to the Mycosphaerellaceae (Ascomycota). The fourth contribution of this series initiates treatments of cercosporoid fungi on dicots and comprises species occurring on hosts belonging the the families Acanthaceae, Actinidiaceae, Adoxaceae, Aizoaceae, Altingiaceae, and Amaranthaceae. The species are described and illustrated in alphabetical order under the particular cercosporoid genera, supplemented by keys to the species concerned. A detailed introduction, a survey of currently recognised cercosporoid genera, a key to the genera concerned, and a discussion of taxonomically relevant characters were published in the first part of this series. The following taxonomic novelties are introduced: Cercospora blepharidicola nom. nov., C. celosiigena sp. nov., C. justiciae-adhatodae sp. nov., C. justiciigena nom. nov., C. sambucicola nom. nov., C. thunbergiigena nom. nov., Cercosporella pseudachyranthis comb. nov., Pseudocercospora cyathulae comb. nov., P. depazeoides comb. nov., P. varia var. viburni-sargentii var. nov., P. viburnicola sp. nov., P. viburni-erosi sp. nov., and P. viburni-nudi sp. nov.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160107
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5598/imafungus.2015.06.02.09

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[PMID]: 26656885
[Au] Autor:Yue J; Liu J; Ban R; Tang W; Deng L; Fei Z; Liu Y
[Ad] Address:School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China.
[Ti] Title:Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR): a comparative platform for kiwifruit genomics.
[So] Source:Database (Oxford);2015, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1758-0463
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR) is dedicated to maintain and integrate comprehensive datasets on genomics, functional genomics and transcriptomics of kiwifruit (Actinidiaceae). KIR serves as a central access point for existing/new genomic and genetic data. KIR also provides researchers with a variety of visualization and analysis tools. Current developments include the updated genome structure of Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongyang and its newest genome annotation, putative transcripts, gene expression, physical markers of genetic traits as well as relevant publications based on the latest genome assembly. Nine thousand five hundred and forty-seven new transcripts are detected and 21 132 old transcripts are changed. At the present release, the next-generation transcriptome sequencing data has been incorporated into gene models and splice variants. Protein-protein interactions are also identified based on experimentally determined orthologous interactions. Furthermore, the experimental results reported in peer-reviewed literature are manually extracted and integrated within a well-developed query page. In total, 122 identifications are currently associated, including commonly used gene names and symbols. All KIR datasets are helpful to facilitate a broad range of kiwifruit research topics and freely available to the research community. Database URL: http://bdg.hfut.edu.cn/kir/index.html.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Actinidia/genetics
Fruit/genetics
Genome, Plant
Genomics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Chromosomes, Plant/genetics
Databases, Genetic
Expressed Sequence Tags
Search Engine
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
User-Computer Interface
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1608
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151215
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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