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[PMID]: 29311433
[Au] Autor:Grattarola L; Derchi G; Diaspro A; Gambaro C; Salerno M
[Ad] Address:Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Genova.
[Ti] Title:Local viscoelastic response of direct and indirect dental restorative composites measured by AFM.
[So] Source:Dent Mater J;, 2017 Dec 31.
[Is] ISSN:1881-1361
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We investigated the viscoelastic response of direct and indirect dental restorative composites by the novel technique of AM-FM atomic force microscopy. We selected four composites for direct restorations (Adonis, Optifil, EPH, CME) and three composites for indirect restorations (Gradia, Estenia, Signum). Scanning electron microscopy with micro-analysis was also used to support the results. The mean storage modulus of all composites was in the range of 10.2-15.2 GPa. EPH was the stiffest (p<0.05 vs. all other composites but Adonis and Estenia), while no significant difference was observed between direct and indirect group (p≥0.05). For the loss tangent, Gradia had the highest value (~0.3), different (p<0.05) from Optifil (~0.01) and EPH (~0.04) despite the large coefficient of variation (24%), and the direct composites showed higher loss tangent (p<0.01) than the indirect composites. All composites exhibited minor contrast at the edge of fillers, showing that these are pre-polymerized, as confirmed by EDS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180109
[Lr] Last revision date:180109
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.4012/dmj.2017-048

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[PMID]: 29237300
[Au] Autor:Hosseini M; Taherkhani M; Ghorbani Nohooji M
[Ad] Address:a Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Phytochemistry and Essential Oils Technology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch , Islamic Azad University, (IAUPS) , Tehran , Iran.
[Ti] Title:Introduction of Adonis aestivalis as a new source of effective cytotoxic cardiac glycoside.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;:1-6, 2017 Dec 13.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cardiac glycosides are used for treatment of irregular heartbeats, cardiac arrhythmia and congestive heart failures. In this research, digitoxin as a cardiac glycoside was identified and isolated for the first time in the world from Adonis aestivalis and investigated for its cytotoxic activity against cervical cancer cell (HeLa) lines and human lymphocytes by MTT test. Digitoxin extracted from the aerial parts of the plant collected from west of Iran and purified by column and thin layer chromatographic techniques. The structure of isolated cardiac glycoside was identified by IR, H NMR and C NMR methods and so the presence of digitoxin was established. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values for cervical cancer and lymphocyte cells were obtained to be 5.62 and 412.94 µg/mL. The results of this study introduced the new resource of digitoxin which has considerable cytotoxic effects against HeLa cancer cells but did not damage normal human lymphocyte cells.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171214
[Lr] Last revision date:171214
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2017.1413573

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[PMID]: 29157308
[Au] Autor:Nicola I; Cerutti F; Grego E; Bertone I; Gianella P; D'Angelo A; Peletto S; Bellino C
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterinary Sciences, Clinical section, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, 10095, Grugliasco, TO, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Characterization of the upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota in Piedmontese calves.
[So] Source:Microbiome;5(1):152, 2017 Nov 21.
[Is] ISSN:2049-2618
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The microbiota of the bovine upper respiratory tract has been recently characterized, but no data for the lower respiratory tract are available. A major health problem in bovine medicine is infectious bronchopneumonia, the most common respiratory syndrome affecting cattle. With this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize and compare the microbial community composition of the upper and lower respiratory tracts in calves. RESULTS: The microbiota of the upper (nasal swab [NS]) and the lower (trans-tracheal aspiration [TTA]) respiratory tracts of 19 post-weaned Piedmontese calves with (8/19) and without (11/19) clinical signs of respiratory disease, coming from six different farms, was characterized by 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. A total of 29 phyla (29 in NS, 21 in TTA) and 305 genera (289 in NS, 182 in TTA) were identified. Mycoplasma (60.8%) was the most abundant genus identified in both the NS (27.3%) and TTA (76.7%) samples, followed by Moraxella (16.6%) in the NS and Pasteurella (7.3%) in the TTA samples. Pasteurella multocida (7.3% of total operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) was the most abundant species in the TTA and Psychrobacter sanguinis (1.1% of total OTUs) in the NS samples. Statistically significant differences between the NS and the TTA samples were found for both alpha (Shannon index, observed species, Chao1 index, and Simpson index; P = 0.001) and beta (Adonis; P = 0.001) diversity. Comparison of the NS and TTA samples by farm origin and clinical signs revealed no statistical difference (P > 0.05), except for farm origin for the NS samples when compared by the unweighted UniFrac metric (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized the microbiota of the upper and lower respiratory tracts of calves, both healthy individuals and those with clinical signs of respiratory disease. Our results suggest that environmental factors may influence the composition of the upper airway microbiota in cattle. While the two microbial communities (upper and lower airways) differed in microbial composition, they shared several OTUs, suggesting that the lung microbiota may be a self-sustaining, more homogeneous ecosystem, influenced by the upper respiratory tract microbiota.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171121
[Lr] Last revision date:171121
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s40168-017-0372-5

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[PMID]: 29045349
[Au] Autor:Smith-Brown P; Morrison M; Krause L; Davies PSW
[Ad] Address:*Children's Nutrition Research Centre, Child Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Australia †The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Male-specific Association Between Fat Free Mass Index and Faecal Microbiota in 2 to 3 Year Old Australian Children.
[So] Source:J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr;, 2017 Oct 17.
[Is] ISSN:1536-4801
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Maturation of the gut microbiota has been shown to influence childhood growth while alterations in microbiota composition are proposed to be causally related to the development of overweight and obesity. The objective of this study is to explore the association between microbiota profile, body size and body composition in young children. METHODS: Faecal microbiota was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing while body composition was assessed using the deuterium oxide dilution technique in a cohort of 37 well-nourished 2 to 3 year old Australian children. RESULTS: Microbiota composition (weighted UniFrac distance) was shown to be significantly associated with FFMI (Fat Free Mass Index) Z score (p = 0.027, adonis) in boys but not girls. In boys, FFMI Z score was significantly correlated with the relative abundance of an OTU belonging to the Ruminococcaceae family (Rho = 0.822, p < 0.001, pFDR = 0.002, n = 18). At a FDR < 0.2, FFMI Z score in boys was positively associated with the relative abundance of OTU related to Dorea formicigenerans and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and negatively correlated to an OTU related to Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that previously reported associations between microbiota composition and body size may be driven by an associations with fat free mass, particularly in males.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171018
[Lr] Last revision date:171018
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000001780

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[PMID]: 28923129
[Au] Autor:Ellis P
[Ad] Address:*School of Literature,Media, and Communication,Georgia Institute of Technology,215 Bobby Dodd Way NW,Atlanta,GA 30332,US. Email:pgellis@gatech.edu.
[Ti] Title:A cinema for the unborn: moving pictures, mental pictures and Electra Sparks's New Thought film theory.
[So] Source:Br J Hist Sci;50(3):411-428, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1474-001X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In the 1910s, New York suffragette Electra Sparks wrote a series of essays in the Moving Picture News that advocated for cine-therapy treatments for pregnant women. Film was, in her view, the great democratizer of beautiful images, providing high-cultural access to the city's poor. These positive 'mental pictures' were important for her because, she claimed, in order to produce an attractive, healthy child, the mother must be exposed to quality cultural material. Sparks's championing of cinema during its 'second birth' was founded upon the premise of New Thought. This metaphysical Christian doctrine existed alongside the self-help and esoteric publishing domains and testified, above all, to the possibility of the 'mind-cure' of the body through the positive application of 'mental pictures'. Physiologically, their method began best in the womb, where the thoughts of the mother were of utmost importance: the eventual difference between birthing an Elephant Man or an Adonis. This positive maternal impression was commonplace in New Thought literature; it was Sparks's innovation to apply it to cinema. Investigating Sparks's film theory, practice and programming reveals her to be a harbinger of the abiding analogy between mind and motion picture that occupies film theorists to this day.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170919
[Lr] Last revision date:170919
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0007087417000644

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[PMID]: 28870234
[Au] Autor:Wong WSW; Clemency N; Klein E; Provenzano M; Iyer R; Niederhuber JE; Hourigan SK
[Ad] Address:Inova Translational Medicine Institute (ITMI), 3300 Gallows Road, Claude Moore Bldg, 2nd Floor, Falls Church, VA, 22042, USA.
[Ti] Title:Collection of non-meconium stool on fecal occult blood cards is an effective method for fecal microbiota studies in infants.
[So] Source:Microbiome;5(1):114, 2017 Sep 05.
[Is] ISSN:2049-2618
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Effective methods are needed to collect fecal samples from children for large-scale microbiota studies. Stool collected on fecal occult blood test (FOBT) cards that can be mailed provides an effective solution; however, the quality of sequencing resulting from this method is unknown. The aim of this study is to compare microbiota metrics of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing from stool and meconium collected on FOBT cards with stool collected in an Eppendorf tube (ET) under different conditions. METHODS: Eight stool samples from children in diapers aged 0 month-2 years and three meconium samples were collected and stored as follows: (1) ≤ 2 days at room temperature (RT) in an ET, (2) 7 days at - 80 °C in an ET, (3) 3-5 days at RT on a FOBT card, (4) 7 days at RT on a FOBT card, and (5) 7 days at - 80 °C on a FOBT card. Samples stored at - 80 °C were frozen immediately. Each specimen/condition underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing with replicates on the Illumina MiSeq. Alpha and beta diversity measures and relative abundance of major phyla were compared between storage conditions and container (ET vs. FOBT card), with pairwise comparison between different storage conditions and the "standard" of 7 days at - 80 °C in an ET and fresh stool in an ET. RESULTS: Stool samples clustered mainly by individual diaper (P < 10 , Adonis), rather than by storage condition (P = 0.42) or container (P = 0.16). However, meconium samples clustered more by container (P = 0.002) than by individual diaper (P = 0.009) and storage condition (P = 0.02). Additionally, there were no differences in alpha diversity measures and relative abundance of major phyla after Bonferroni correction between stool stored on a FOBT card at RT for 7 days with stool stored in an ET tube at - 80 °C; differences in alpha diversity were seen however when compared to fresh stool in an ET. Overall, based on the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the different storage containers/conditions are reliable in preserving the microbial memberships and slightly less reliable in preserving the alpha diversity and relative microbial composition of infant stool. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging certain limitations, FOBT cards may be a useful tool in large-scale stool microbiota studies in children requiring outpatient follow-up where only small amounts of stool can be obtained, but should not be used when studying meconium.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170907
[Lr] Last revision date:170907
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s40168-017-0333-z

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[PMID]: 28854878
[Au] Autor:Indugu N; Vecchiarelli B; Baker LD; Ferguson JD; Vanamala JKP; Pitta DW
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA, 19348, USA.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of rumen bacterial communities in dairy herds of different production.
[So] Source:BMC Microbiol;17(1):190, 2017 Aug 30.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2180
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen bacterial composition in high and low yielding dairy cows within and between two dairy herds. Eighty five Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation (79-179 days in milk) were selected from two farms: Farm 12 (M305 = 12,300 kg; n = 47; 24 primiparous cows, 23 multiparous cows) and Farm 9 (M305 = 9700 kg; n = 38; 19 primiparous cows, 19 multiparous cows). Each study cow was sampled once using the stomach tube method and processed for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using the Ion Torrent (PGM) platform. RESULTS: Differences in bacterial communities between farms were greater (Adonis: R = 0.16; p < 0.001) than within farm. Five bacterial lineages, namely Prevotella (48-52%), unclassified Bacteroidales (10-12%), unclassified bacteria (5-8%), unclassified Succinivibrionaceae (1-7%) and unclassified Prevotellaceae (4-5%) were observed to differentiate the community clustering patterns among the two farms. A notable finding is the greater (p < 0.05) contribution of Succinivibrionaceae lineages in Farm 12 compared to Farm 9. Furthermore, in Farm 12, Succinivibrionaceae lineages were higher (p < 0.05) in the high yielding cows compared to the low yielding cows in both primiparous and multiparous groups. Prevotella, S24-7 and Succinivibrionaceae lineages were found in greater abundance on Farm 12 and were positively correlated with milk yield. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in rumen bacterial populations observed between the two farms can be attributed to dietary composition, particularly differences in forage type and proportion in the diets. A combination of corn silage and alfalfa silage may have contributed to the increased proportion of Proteobacteria in Farm 12. It was concluded that Farm 12 had a greater proportion of specialist bacteria that have the potential to enhance rumen fermentative digestion of feedstuffs to support higher milk yields.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170903
[Lr] Last revision date:170903
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12866-017-1098-z

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[PMID]: 28845459
[Au] Autor:Lamoureux EV; Grandy SA; Langille MGI
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Moderate Exercise Has Limited but Distinguishable Effects on the Mouse Microbiome.
[So] Source:mSystems;2(4), 2017 Jul-Aug.
[Is] ISSN:2379-5077
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The gut microbiome is known to have a complex yet vital relationship with host health. While both exercise and the gut microbiome have been shown to impact human health independently, the direct effects of moderate exercise on the intestinal microbiota remain unclear. In this study, we compared gut microbial diversity and changes in inflammatory markers associated with exercise over an 8-week period in mice that performed either voluntary exercise (VE) ( = 10) or moderate forced exercise (FE) ( = 11) and mice that did not perform any exercise ( = 21). VE mice, but not FE mice, had increased food intake and lean body mass compared to sedentary mice. The levels of inflammatory markers associated with exercise were similar for mice in all three groups. Traditional microbial profiles comparing operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in samples ( > 0.1) and multivariate analysis of beta diversity via Adonis testing ( > 0.1) did not identify significantly altered taxonomic profiles in the voluntary or forced exercise group compared to the sedentary controls. However, a random forests machine learning model, which takes into account the relationships between bacteria in a community, classified voluntary exercisers and nonexercisers with 97% accuracy at 8 weeks. The top bacteria used by the model allowed us to identify known taxa ( , S24-7, and ) and novel taxa ( and ) associated with exercise. Although aerobic exercise in mice did not result in significant changes of abundance in gut microbes or in host inflammatory response, more sophisticated computational methods could identify some microbial shifts. More study is needed on the effects of various exercise intensities and their impact on the gut microbiome. The bacteria that live in our gut have a complex yet vital relationship with our health. Environmental factors that influence the gut microbiome are of great interest, as recent research demonstrates that these microbes, mostly bacteria, are important for normal host physiology. Diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer have also been linked to shifts in the microbiome. Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on these diseases; however, much less is known about its direct impact on the gut microbiome. Our results illustrate that exercise has a moderate but measurable effect on gut microbial communities in mice. These methods can be used to provide important insight into other factors affecting the microbiome and our health.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170831
[Lr] Last revision date:170831
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28576339
[Au] Autor:Shang X; Guo X; Yang F; Li B; Pan H; Miao X; Zhang J
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of New Animal Drug Project of Gansu Province, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Development of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Lanzhou 730050, PR China.
[Ti] Title:The toxicity and the acaricidal mechanism against Psoroptes cuniculi of the methanol extract of Adonis coerulea Maxim.
[So] Source:Vet Parasitol;240:17-23, 2017 Jun 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2550
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:SCOPE: Adonis coerulea Maxim. is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows in scrub, grassy slope areas, and as traditional medicine it has been used to treat animal acariasis for thousands of years. In this paper, we aimed to study the acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of A. coerulea (MEAC) in vivo and in vitro for supporting the clinic uses. The acaricidal activity and the mechanism of action against Psoroptes cuniculi were investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that isoorientin, luteolin and apigenin were the primary compounds in MEAC. The toxicity test showed that median lethal dose (LD ) and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC ) of MEAC were estimated to be more than 5000mg/kg in mice in vivo and more than 50mg/ml against RAW 264.7 and GM00637 cells in the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. After culturing with MEAC, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Na -K -ATPase of mites were evaluated. Compared with the control group, SOD activity of MEAC-treated group of mites was inhibited, and CAT activity was activated at the preliminary phase but was gradually inhibited over the period of incubation. MDA content reached a peak at 6h and then gradually decreased. However, GST activity in the mites was activated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AChE and Na -K -ATPase activities related to neural conduction, vital functions and the transmembrane ion gradient of the mites were inhibited. CONCLUSION: MEAC is safe in the given doses in both the in vitro and the in vivo tests, can be applied in the clinic and it had good acaricidal activity. The extension of the incubation time in the mites led to dynamic disequilibrium between the production and clearing of superoxide anions, a disruption of the energy metabolism and the transmembrane ion gradient, and the inhibition of motor function. These factors may have resulted in mite death.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170603
[Lr] Last revision date:170603
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28437776
[Au] Autor:Xie X; He Z; Hu X; Yin H; Liu X; Yang Y
[Ad] Address:Institute of Hydrobiology, Department of Ecology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; Institute for Environmental Genomics, Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA.
[Ti] Title:Large-scale seaweed cultivation diverges water and sediment microbial communities in the coast of Nan'ao Island, South China Sea.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;598:97-108, 2017 Nov 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Seaweed cultivation not only provides economy benefits, but also remediates the environment contaminated by mariculture of animals (e.g., fish, shrimps). However, the response of microbial communities to seaweed cultivation is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the diversity, composition, and structure of water and sediment microbial communities at a seaweed, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, cultivation zone and a control zone near Nan'ao Island, South China Sea by MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. We found that large-scale cultivation of G. lemaneiformis increased dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH but decreased inorganic nutrients, possibly due to nutrient uptake, photosynthesis and other physiological processes of G. lemaneiformis. These environmental changes significantly (adonis, P<0.05) shifted the microbial community composition and structure of both water column and sediment samples in the G. lemaneiformis cultivation zone, compared to the control zone. Also, certain microbial taxa associated with seaweed, such as Arenibacter, Croceitalea, Glaciecola, Leucothrix and Maribacter were enriched at the cultivation zone. In addition, we have proposed a conceptual model to summarize the results in this study and guide future studies on relationships among seaweed processes, microbial communities and their environments. Thus, this study not only provides new insights into our understanding the effect of G. lemaneiformis cultivation on microbial communities, but also guides future studies on coastal ecosystems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170531
[Lr] Last revision date:170531
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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