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[PMID]: 29524770
[Au] Autor:Bakonyi M; Gácsi A; Kovács A; Szucs MB; Berkó S; Csányi E
[Ad] Address:Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Regulatory Affairs, University of Szeged, Szeged, H-6720, Hungary.
[Ti] Title:Following-up skin penetration of lidocaine from different vehicles by Raman spectroscopic mapping.
[So] Source:J Pharm Biomed Anal;154:1-6, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1873-264X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The application of local anesthetics, usually administered by subcutaneous injection, is common in the course of diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic dermatology procedures. The effective dermal delivery of lidocaine could offer a solution to many adverse effects caused by needle insertion, such as pain, local reactions or toxicity, and additionally, it avoids the disruption of anatomical landmarks. Therefore, novel dermal formulations of local anesthetics are needed to overcome the barrier function of the skin and provide sufficient and prolonged anesthesia. In our study, we aimed to investigate and compare the penetration profiles of four different lidocaine containing formulations (hydrogel, oleogel, lyotropic liquid crystal and nanostructured lipid carrier) by Raman microscopic mapping of the drug. The application of Raman spectroscopy provided information about the spatial distribution of lidocaine in the skin ex vivo. The penetration of lidocaine from lyotropic liquid crystal and nanostructured carrier reached deeper skin layers and a higher amount of the drug was diffused into the skin, compared with hydrogel and oleogel. This study confirmed that nanostructured carriers can improve skin penetration properties of lidocaine and proved the applicability of Raman spectroscopy in the research of dermatological preparations ex vivo as a nondestructive, relatively easy and fast technique.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 74650 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515726
[Au] Autor:Kahloul M; Nakhli MS; Chouchene A; Chebbi N; Mhamdi S; Naija W
[Ad] Address:Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahloul Teaching Hospital; Faculty of Medicine "Ibn El Jazzar", Sousse, Tunisia.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of two doses of hypobaric bupivacaine in unilateral spinal anesthesia for hip fracture surgery: 5 mg versus 7.5 mg.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:108, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] Country of publication:Uganda
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: Hip fracture is a frequent and severe disease. Its prognosis depends on the perioperative hemodynamic stability which can be preserved by the unilateral spinal anesthesia especially with low doses of local anesthetics. This study aims to compare the efficacy and hemodynamic stability of two doses of hypobaric bupivacaine (7.5 mg vs 5 mg) in unilateral spinal anesthesia. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 108 patients scheduled for hip fracture surgery under unilateral spinal anesthesia were enrolled to receive either 5 mg (group 1) or 7.5 mg (group 2) of hypobaric bupivacaine. Spinal anesthesia was performed in lateral position. Patients' socio-demographic characteristics, hemodynamic profile, sensory and motor blocks parameters were recorded. Results: Both groups were comparable regarding to demographic data. Two cases of failure occurred in group 1 and one case in group 2 corresponding to a comparable efficiency rates (96.29% and 98.14% respectively; = 0.5). A higher mean onset and lower mean regression times of sensory block were significantly noted in group 1 (7.79±3.76 min vs 5.75±2.35 min, p < 0.001 and 91.29±31.55 min vs 112.77±18.77 min, p <0.001 respectively). Incidence of bilateralization (29.62% vs 87.03%, p < 0.001), incidence of hypotensive episodes (59.25% vs 92.59%, p < 0.001) and vascular loading (1481.48±411.65 ml vs 2111.11±596.10 ml, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in group 2. Conclusion: The dosage of 5mg of hypobaric bupivacaine in unilateral spinal anesthesia is as effective as the dosage of 7.5 mg with lower bilateralization incidence and better hemodynamic stability.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.108.11421

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[PMID]: 29506576
[Au] Autor:Söbbeler FJ; Carrera I; Pasloske K; Ranasinghe MG; Kircher P; Kästner SBR
[Ad] Address:Small Animal Clinic (Söbbeler, Kästner), University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover Foundation, Bünteweg 9, 30559, Hannover, Germany. franz.josef.soebbeler@tiho-hannover.de.
[Ti] Title:Effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone on brain metabolism in dogs assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( H MRS).
[So] Source:BMC Vet Res;14(1):69, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1746-6148
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone on the canine brain metabolite bioprofile, measured with single voxel short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla. Ten adult healthy Beagle dogs were assigned to receive isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone at 3 different dose rates each in a randomized cross-over study design. Doses for isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone were F 'Iso 1.7 vol%, 2.1 vol%, 2.8 vol%, F 'Sevo 2.8 vol%, 3.5 vol% and 4.7 vol%, 30, 45 and 60 mg kg h and 10, 15 and 20 mg kg h respectively. A single voxel Point Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence was performed on a 3 T MRI scanner in three brain regions (basal ganglia, parietal and occipital lobes). Spectral data were analyzed with LCModel. Concentration of total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA), choline, creatine, inositol and glutamine and glutamate complex (Glx) relative to water content was obtained. Plasma concentration of lactate, glucose, triglycerides, propofol and alfaxalone were determined. Statistics were performed using repeated measures ANOVA or Wilcoxon Sign Rank test with alpha = 5%. RESULTS: Plasma glucose increased with isoflurane, sevoflurane and alfaxalone but decreased with propofol. Plasma lactate increased with all anesthetics (isoflurane > sevoflurane > propofol > alfaxalone). Cerebral lactate could not be detected. Only minor changes in cerebral metabolite concentrations of tNAA, choline, inositol, creatine and Glx occurred with anesthetic dose changes. CONCLUSION: The metabolomic profile detected with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla of canine brain showed only minor differences between doses and anesthetics related to tNAA, choline, creatine, inositol and Glx.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12917-018-1396-1

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[PMID]: 29427655
[Au] Autor:Gao L; Han J; Bai J; Dong J; Zhang S; Zhang M; Zheng J
[Ad] Address:Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
[Ti] Title:Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors are Associated with Ketamine-induced Neuronal Apoptosis in the Developing Rat Retina.
[So] Source:Neuroscience;376:1-12, 2018 Feb 08.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7544
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Early synchronized spontaneous network activity is a hallmark of the brain growth spurt period, during which general anesthetics cause widespread neuronal apoptosis and subsequent cognitive dysfunction. However, the relationship of such activity to anesthetic-induced neuronal apoptosis remains to be determined. In this study, we utilized patch-clamp electrophysiological recording, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL assays to investigate the potential roles of spontaneous network activity in ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis during early development. All experiments were performed using acutely dissected whole-mount Sprague-Dawley rat retinas (0-14 postnatal days [P0-P14]). Ketamine reversibly blocked spontaneous network activity in the rat retina from P0 to P9 and irreversibly blocked such activity from P10 to P12. The peak of physiological and ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis mainly occurred from P7 to P9. Blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) also induced reversible inhibition of spontaneous network activity from P0 to P7 and extensive neuronal apoptosis in the P7 rat retina, while activation of nAChRs or increases in endogenous ACh levels attenuated ketamine-induced apoptotic responses. Furthermore, blockade of α7-nAChR and ß2-nAChR subtypes induced neuronal apoptosis in the developing retina, while activation of the α7-nAChR subtype attenuated ketamine-induced apoptotic responses. These results demonstrate that ketamine may inhibit early synchronized spontaneous network activity by blocking nAChRs, and that such inhibition may contribute to ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat retina.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 74650 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523424
[Au] Autor:Gottlieb M; Long B; Koyfman A
[Ad] Address:Department of Emergency Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.
[Ti] Title:Clinical Mimics: An Emergency Medicine-Focused Review of Streptococcal Pharyngitis Mimics.
[So] Source:J Emerg Med;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:0736-4679
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Pharyngitis is a common disease in the emergency department (ED). Despite a relatively low incidence of complications, there are many dangerous conditions that can mimic this disease and are essential for the emergency physician to consider. OBJECTIVE: This article provides a review of the evaluation and management of group A ß-hemolytic Streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis, as well as important medical conditions that can mimic this disease. DISCUSSION: GABHS pharyngitis often presents with fever, sore throat, tonsillar exudates, and anterior cervical lymphadenopathy. History and physical examination are insufficient for the diagnosis. The Centor criteria or McIsaac score can help risk stratify patients for subsequent testing or treatment. Antibiotics may reduce symptom duration and suppurative complications, but the effect is small. Rheumatic fever is uncommon in developed countries, and shared decision making is recommended if antibiotics are used for this indication. Oral analgesics and topical anesthetics are important for symptom management. Physicians should consider alternate diagnoses that may mimic GABHS pharyngitis, which can include epiglottitis, infectious mononucleosis, Kawasaki disease, acute retroviral syndrome, Lemierre's syndrome, Ludwig's angina, peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal abscess, and viral pharyngitis. A focused history and physical examination can help differentiate these conditions. CONCLUSIONS: GABHS may present similarly to other benign and potentially deadly diseases. Diagnosis and treatment of pharyngitis should be based on clinical evaluation. Consideration of pharyngitis mimics is important in the evaluation and management of ED patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 74650 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505513
[Au] Autor:Zou YQ; Li XB; Yang ZX; Zhou JM; Wu YN; Zhao ZH; Liu XZ; Hu CL
[Ad] Address:Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, the 476 Hospital of Fuzhou General Hospital.
[Ti] Title:Impact of inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function: Study protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(1):e9316, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Conflict findings of the impact of inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function are reported. No systematic review has been performed to solve the problem. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane library, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials or cohort studies assessing the short-term or long-term cognitive function of elderly patients (over 60 years) receiving major surgeries and inhalational anesthetics (desflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane, and nitrous oxide) during surgery. Two reviewers will independently screen study eligibility, extract information from eligible studies, and appraise study quality. The impact of inhalational anesthetics will be assessed through: incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction at 1 week, 3 months, 1 year, and over 1 year after surgery; incidence of post-operative delirium; test of postoperative cognitive function. RESULTS: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this systematic review will be the first to evaluate existing research on the incidence of postoperative cognitive function after inhalational anesthetics. Our study will assess the effect of different inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The review will be finished in December 2017, and the result will be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated through conference posters or abstracts. REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017056675 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO).
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects
Cognition/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anesthetics, Inhalation)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180306
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009316

  7 / 74650 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29242980
[Au] Autor:Jafari A; Bargeshadi R; Jafari F; Mohebbi I; Hajaghazadeh M
[Ad] Address:Department of Occupational Health, School of Health, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Environmental and biological measurements of isoflurane and sevoflurane in operating room personnel.
[So] Source:Int Arch Occup Environ Health;91(3):349-359, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1246
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: The present study aimed to compare the concentration of isoflurane and sevoflurane in the individual's breathing zone and ambient air of operating rooms (ORs), to investigate the correlation between breathing zone levels and urinary concentrations, and to evaluate the ORs pollution in the different working hours and weeks. METHODS: Environmental and biological concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane were evaluated at 9ORs. Air samples were collected by active sampling method and urine samples were collected from each subject at the end of the work shift. All samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. RESULTS: The geometric mean ± GSD concentration of isoflurane and sevoflurane in breathing zone air were 1.41 ± 2.27 and 0.005 ± 1.74 ppm, respectively, while in post-shift urine were 2.42 ± 2.86 and 0.006 ± 3.83 µg/l , respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the urinary and environmental concentration of isoflurane (r = 0.724, P < 0.0001). The geometric mean ± GSD values of isoflurane and sevoflurane in ambient air were 2.30 ± 2.43 and 0.004 ± 1.56 ppm, respectively. The isoflurane concentration was different for three studied weeks and significantly increased over time in the ambient air of ORs. CONCLUSIONS: The occupational exposure of OR personnel to isoflurane and sevoflurane was lower than national recommended exposure limits. The urinary isoflurane could be a good internal dose biomarker for monitoring of occupational isoflurane exposure. Considering the accumulation of anesthetic waste gases in the studied ORs, real-time air monitoring is better to be done at the end of the work shift.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00420-017-1287-y

  8 / 74650 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28452711
[Au] Autor:Scott JR; Sowerby LJ; Rotenberg BW
[Ad] Address:Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Office-based rhinologic surgery: A modern experience with operative techniques under local anesthetic.
[So] Source:Am J Rhinol Allergy;31(2):135-138, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-8932
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Office-based rhinologic procedures have become popularized in recent years with the advent of several minimally invasive techniques. There is a paucity of literature, however, that supports more robust in-clinic procedures, e.g., true endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). There is a high volume of this work being done at our center, and the objective of this article was to review the safety and tolerability of in-clinic surgeries. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted. All the adult patients who underwent in-clinic sinonasal procedures and surgery with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up were included. Information regarding intra- and postoperative complications and revision procedures were recorded. For the ESS procedures, the indication, sinuses operated on, and type of revision were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 315 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were 166 turbinoplasties, 118 ESS, 35 septoplasties, 34 rhinoplasties, and 4 septorhinoplasties performed. For the ESS procedures, 74 (62.7%) were bilateral, and experience was had operating in all paranasal sinuses. All ESS work involved opening diseased ostia and was more than just polypectomies. The mean follow-up for the ESS cases was 13.4 months (range, 12-65 months). Complication rates and tolerability measures were comparable with those of other reported in-office sinonasal procedures performed with the patient under local anesthetic. CONCLUSION: Office-based rhinologic surgery was safe and well tolerated by the patients. The need for revision ESS in our series was low when considering the extent of surgery that was performed. An in-clinic procedure may avoid a general anesthetic in the operating room for appropriately selected patients.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use
Endoscopy
Nasal Obstruction/epidemiology
Pain/prevention & control
Paranasal Sinuses/surgery
Postoperative Complications/prevention & control
Rhinoplasty
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Canada/epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
Nasal Obstruction/surgery
Pain/etiology
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anesthetics, Local)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2500/ajra.2017.31.4414

  9 / 74650 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28448298
[Au] Autor:Katz JA; Murphy GS
[Ad] Address:Northshore University Health System, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Illinois, USA.
[Ti] Title:Anesthetic consideration for neuromuscular diseases.
[So] Source:Curr Opin Anaesthesiol;30(3):435-440, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1473-6500
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to examine data relating to perioperative management of the patient with neuromuscular disorders RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with pre-existing neuromuscular disorders are at risk for a number of postoperative complications that are related to anesthetic drugs that are administered intraoperatively. Careful preoperative assessment is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. In particular, the risk of postoperative respiratory failure and need for long-term ventilation should be reviewed with patients. The use of succinylcholine should be avoided in muscular dystrophies, motor neuron diseases, and intrinsic muscle disease due to a risk of malignant hyperthermia, hyperkalemia, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiac arrest. The use of quantitative neuromuscular monitoring should be strongly considered whenever nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents are administered. A number of case series and reports have been recently published demonstrating that sugammadex can be safely used in patients with neuromuscular disease; the risk of residual neuromuscular is nearly eliminated when this agent is administered intraoperatively. SUMMARY: Careful assessment and management of patients with underlying neuromuscular diseases is required to reduce postoperative complications. This article reviews the anesthetic implications of patients undergoing surgery with neuromuscular disorder.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anesthesia/adverse effects
Anesthetics/adverse effects
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/adverse effects
Neuromuscular Diseases/complications
Perioperative Care/methods
Postoperative Complications/etiology
Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anesthesia/methods
Anesthetics/administration & dosage
Heart Arrest/chemically induced
Heart Arrest/prevention & control
Humans
Hyperkalemia/chemically induced
Intraoperative Complications/chemically induced
Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control
Malignant Hyperthermia/etiology
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/administration & dosage
Neuromuscular Diseases/epidemiology
Neuromuscular Monitoring
Postoperative Complications/prevention & control
Prevalence
Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control
Rhabdomyolysis/chemically induced
Rhabdomyolysis/prevention & control
Risk Assessment
Succinylcholine/administration & dosage
Succinylcholine/adverse effects
gamma-Cyclodextrins/administration & dosage
gamma-Cyclodextrins/adverse effects
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anesthetics); 0 (Neuromuscular Blocking Agents); 0 (gamma-Cyclodextrins); 361LPM2T56 (Sugammadex); J2R869A8YF (Succinylcholine)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170428
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/ACO.0000000000000466

  10 / 74650 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521870
[Au] Autor:Curtis E; Fernandez R; Lee A
[Ad] Address:School of Nursing and Midwifery, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia.
[Ti] Title:The effect of topical medications on radial artery spasm in patients undergoing transradial coronary procedures: a systematic review.
[So] Source:JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep;16(3):738-751, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:2202-4433
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of topical medications on radial artery spasm (RAS) in patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary procedures. INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous coronary procedures were traditionally carried out via the femoral artery; however, over the last 20 years there has been a global increase in the number of proceduralists carrying out percutaneous coronary procedures via the transradial approach. Radial artery spasm remains an issue for the transradial approach, potentially leading to procedural failure. Topical medications have been suggested to reduce the occurrence of RAS during transradial percutaneous coronary procedures. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review considered papers that included participants aged 18 years and over undergoing non-emergency transradial percutaneous coronary procedures. This review considered papers on the utilization of topical medications prior to commencing the transradial approach for percutaneous coronary procedures to reduce RAS. Topical medications were compared to other medications. The primary outcome was the incidence of RAS as assessed by angiography or ultrasound or resistance felt by the operator while manipulating the catheter. Other outcomes of interest included change in radial artery diameter, measured by angiography or ultrasound, change in radial artery patency and side effects of medications administered. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials were considered. METHODS: A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. A search of various databases was carried out followed by a search for unpublished literature between 1989 to January 2017. Only papers published in English were included in the review. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). There was no need for a third reviewer. Quantitative data was extracted from papers included in the review using the JBI data extraction instrument and entered in to RevMan5 (Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane). All results were subject to double data entry. Effect sizes were expressed as odds ratio (for categorical data) and weighted mean differences (for continuous data) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for analysis. RESULTS: Only three studies involving 697 participants met the inclusion criteria. There was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of RAS in patients treated with a eutectic mixture of local anesthetics compared to subcutaneous lidocaine (OR 0.26; 95%CI 0.07,0.96). However there were no significant differences in RAS in studies that compared eutectic mixture of local anesthetics and placebo or a combinations of lidocaine with nitroglycerine compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: It is difficult to draw a valid conclusion, given the low number of studies, small sample sizes and heterogeneity between the studies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-003358


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