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[PMID]: 29524031
[Au] Autor:Igarashi R; Inoue T; Fujiyama N; Tsuchiya N; Numakura K; Kagaya H; Saito M; Narita S; Satoh S; Niioka T; Miura M; Habuchi T
[Ad] Address:Department of Urology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita, 010-8543, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Contribution of UGT1A1 genetic polymorphisms related to axitinib pharmacokinetics to safety and efficacy in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
[So] Source:Med Oncol;35(4):51, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1559-131X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Axitinib is a potent second-line molecular-targeted agent for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Axitinib pharmacokinetics and its relation with genetic polymorphisms were evaluated to predict the adverse events (AEs) and efficacy of axitinib. We analyzed 46 patients with mRCC who were treated with axitinib. The plasma axitinib level was measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after administration (C , C , C , C , and C ; ng/mL) on day 7 of the treatment. Genetic polymorphisms related to axitinib pharmacokinetics, including SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, SLCO2B1, ABCB1, ABCG2, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, and UGT1A1, were analyzed. Axitinib C and AUC in patients with UGT1A1 poor metabolisers (*6/*6, *6/*28, and *28/*28; n = 10) were significantly higher than those in patients with UGT1A1 extensive metabolisers (*1/*1, *1/*6,*1/*28, and *27/*28; n = 36) (23.6 vs. 7.8 ng/mL, p = 0.030, and 441.3 vs. 217.1 ng h/mL, p = 0.007). The cutoff levels of C to predict ≥ G2 hypothyroidism and ≥ G2 anorexia were 6.6 and 7.1 ng/mL, respectively (p = 0.005 and p = 0.035). The overall survival (OS) in patients with C > 5 ng/mL was significantly better than that in patients with C < 5 ng/mL (p = 0.022). Genetic polymorphisms in UGT1A1 were significantly associated with the plasma axitinib level. The plasma axitinib level was significantly associated with the frequency of AEs and OS in patients with mRCC. No direct relationship was observed between UGT1A1 genotypes and the frequency of AEs or OS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12032-018-1113-8

  2 / 30378 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523623
[Au] Autor:London TD; Licholai JA; Szczot I; Ali MA; LeBlanc KH; Fobbs WC; Kravitz AV
[Ad] Address:National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD.
[Ti] Title:Coordinated ramping of dorsal striatal pathways preceding food approach and consumption.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The striatum controls food-related actions and consumption and is linked to feeding disorders including obesity and anorexia nervosa. Two populations of neurons project from the striatum: direct pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs) and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs). The selective contribution of dMSNs and iMSNs to food-related actions and consumption remains unknown. Here, we used electrophysiology and fiber photometry in mice (of both sexes) to record both spiking activity and pathway-specific calcium activity of dorsal striatal neurons during approach to and consumption of food pellets. While electrophysiology revealed complex task-related dynamics across neurons, population calcium was enhanced during approach and inhibited during consumption in both pathways. We also observed ramping changes in activity that preceded both pellet-directed actions and spontaneous movements. These signals were heterogeneous in the spiking units, with neurons exhibiting either increasing or decreasing ramps. In contrast, the population calcium signals were homogeneous, with both pathways having increasing ramps of activity for several seconds before actions were initiated. An analysis comparing population firing rates to population calcium signals also revealed stronger ramping dynamics in the calcium signals than in the spiking data. In a second experiment, we trained the mice to perform an action sequence to evaluate when the ramping signals terminated. We found that the ramping signals terminated at the beginning of the action sequence, suggesting they may reflect upcoming actions and not pre-consumption activity. Plasticity of such mechanisms may underlie disorders that alter action selection, such as drug addiction or obesity. Alterations in striatal function have been linked to pathological consumption in disorders such as obesity and drug addiction. We recorded spiking and population calcium activity from the dorsal striatum during ad lib feeding and an operant task that resulted in mice obtaining food pellets. Dorsal striatal neurons exhibited long ramps in activity that preceded actions by several seconds, and may reflect upcoming actions. Understanding how the striatum controls the preparation and generation of actions may lead to improved therapies for disorders such as drug addiction or obesity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 30378 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29412456
[Au] Autor:Lavagnino L; Mwangi B; Cao B; Shott ME; Soares JC; Frank GKW
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston, Houston, Texas.
[Ti] Title:Cortical thickness patterns as state biomarker of anorexia nervosa.
[So] Source:Int J Eat Disord;51(3):241-249, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1098-108X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Only few studies have investigated cortical thickness in anorexia nervosa (AN), and it is unclear whether patterns of altered cortical thickness can be identified as biomarkers for AN. METHOD: Cortical thickness was measured in 19 adult women with restricting-type AN, 24 individuals recovered from restricting-type AN (REC-AN) and 24 healthy controls. Those individuals with current or recovered from AN had previously shown altered regional cortical volumes across orbitofrontal cortex and insula. A linear relevance vector machine-learning algorithm estimated patterns of regional thickness across 24 subdivisions of those regions. RESULTS: Region-based analysis showed higher cortical thickness in AN and REC-AN, compared to controls, in the right medial orbital (olfactory) sulcus, and greater cortical thickness for short insular gyri in REC-AN versus controls bilaterally. The machine-learning algorithm identified a pattern of relatively higher right orbital, right insular and left middle frontal cortical thickness, but lower left orbital, right middle and inferior frontal, and bilateral superior frontal cortical thickness specific to AN versus controls (74% specificity and 74% sensitivity, χ p < .004); predicted probabilities differed significantly between AN and controls (p < .023). No pattern significantly distinguished the REC-AN group from controls. CONCLUSIONS: Higher cortical thickness in medial orbitofrontal cortex and insula probably contributes to higher gray matter volume in AN in those regions. The machine-learning algorithm identified a mixed pattern of mostly higher orbital and insular, but relatively lower superior frontal cortical thickness in individuals with current AN. These novel results suggest that regional cortical thickness patterns could be state markers for AN.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/eat.22828

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[PMID]: 29518651
[Au] Autor:Linardon J; Phillipou A; Castle D; Newton R; Harrison P; Cistullo LL; Griffiths S; Hindle A; Brennan L
[Ad] Address:School of Psychology, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia. Electronic address: Jake.linardon@deakin.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:The relative associations of shape and weight over-evaluation, preoccupation, dissatisfaction, and fear of weight gain with measures of psychopathology: An extension study in individuals with anorexia nervosa.
[So] Source:Eat Behav;29:54-58, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7358
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent research has demonstrated that certain components of body image (i.e., shape and weight over-evaluation, preoccupation, and dissatisfaction) in secondary school students shared a distinct clinical significance because of their differential relation to measures of psychopathology. The present study aimed to replicate and extend on these findings by examining the distinctiveness of these body image constructs, in addition to a fear of weight gain, in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN)-a disorder this is facilitated and maintained by extreme body image concerns. Treatment-seeking females with AN (n = 124) completed a questionnaire battery that measured these constructs. Findings demonstrated that once any shared variance between body image components was removed in regression analyses, fear of weight gain was the only unique predictor of eating disorder psychopathology (e.g., dietary restraint and compulsive exercise), while over-evaluation and preoccupation were the only unique predictors of general psychopathology (e.g., depressive and anxiety symptoms). Overall, these findings demonstrate certain components of body image may operate differently in AN, and reinforce previous calls to consider and assess for distinct facets of body image in this population.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 30378 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29331365
[Au] Autor:Foerde K; Gianini L; Wang Y; Wu P; Shohamy D; Walsh BT; Steinglass JE
[Ad] Address:New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: kf2265@columbia.edu.
[Ti] Title:Assessment of test-retest reliability of a food choice task among healthy individuals.
[So] Source:Appetite;123:352-356, 2018 04 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Aberrations in eating patterns constitute a substantial public health burden. Computer-based paradigms that measure responses to images of foods are potentially useful tools for assessing food attitudes and characteristics of eating behavior. In particular, food choice tasks attempt to directly probe aspects of individuals' decisions about what to eat. In the Food Choice Task participants rate the healthiness and tastiness of a variety of food items presented one at a time. Next, participants choose for each food item whether they prefer to eat the item vs. a neutrally rated reference food item. The goal of the current study was to assess the stability and reliability of this Food Choice Task over time and with repeated testing. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from healthy volunteers in two separate studies that administered the task at two time points, separated either by several days or about a month. The overall reliability of the Food Choice Task across multiple administrations was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients and the reliability of ratings of individual food items was assessed using kappa coefficients. The results indicated that test-retest reliability of the Food Choice Task in healthy volunteers was high at both shorter and longer test-retest intervals. In addition, the reliability of individual food item ratings was good for a majority of items. The proportion of healthy volunteers' high-fat food choices did not change over time in either of the two studies. Thus, the Food Choice Task is suitable for measuring food choices in studies with multiple assessment points. In particular, the task may be well suited to assess restrictive eating, a construct which it has been difficult to assess in experimental settings.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  6 / 30378 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29265386
[Au] Autor:Liu XH; Xu LW; Luo D; Zhao YL; Zhang QQ; Liu GF; Zhang JY
[Ad] Address:Huaian Research Center, Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Diseases Control, Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
[Ti] Title:Outbreak of mass mortality of yearling groupers of Epinephelus (Perciformes, Serranidae) associated with the infection of a suspected new enteric Sphaerospora (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) species in South China Sea.
[So] Source:J Fish Dis;41(4):663-672, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2761
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A suspected new enteric Sphaerospora species was believed to be directly associated with the mass mortality of yearling groupers of Epinephelus spp. in South China. The epizootic generally emerged from late September to late April of the following year. The infection prevalence and mortality rate were significantly negatively correlated with fish size. Clinical signs included anorexia, cachexia and extrusion of white pulp-like substance from anus after gentle pressure on the abdomen. Upon necropsy, severe intestinal oedema, thin and transparent intestinal wall, swollen spleen, kidney and gall bladder could be observed. Wet preparation of the infected samples showed large amount of typical disporous plasmodia of the genus Sphaerospora, but no mature spores were observed. Epidemiological investigation showed that this parasite exclusively infected Epinephelus groupers. Histopathologically, this species mainly infected the epithelium of intestine and kidney tubules and caused severe epithelia sloughing and the collapse of intestinal villus. Interestingly, this enteric myxosporidiosis did not cause severe emaciation of infected fish for mass mortality usually emerged within 2-3 days after appearance of clinical signs. The species was most genetically related to Sphaerospora fugu (89% sequence identity) and phylogenetically positioned within marine Sphaerospora lineage. This is the first report of enteric sphaerosporosis of groupers.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1111/jfd.12766

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[PMID]: 29262415
[Au] Autor:Englebert J; Follet V; Valentiny C
[Ad] Address:University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Anorexia Nervosa and First-Person Perspective: Altruism, Family System, and Body Experience.
[So] Source:Psychopathology;51(1):24-30, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1423-033X
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Based on the case study of Jeanne, the objective of this article is to study patterns of specific subjectivity in anorexic subjects. We seek to identify, in a first-person perspective, the core vulnerability features of anorexic existence, beyond the dimension of food alone. The identification of a psychopathological structure results in a better understanding of Jeanne's clinical situation and helps formulate psychotherapeutic and prophylactic recommendations. We suggest that so-called "denial" is a psychological mechanism that should be reconsidered. Denial is not a mechanism pertaining to anorexic subjects alone, but is also a process encountered both in the patient's family and in the therapeutic environment. Anorexic denial is based on anosognosia and the refusal to see one's own thinness, while other people's denial consists in a widespread inability to perceive the altruism and intersubjective problematic on which the existence of an anorexic subject fundamentally depends.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1159/000485629

  8 / 30378 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29517457
[Au] Autor:Boonsri K; Somgird C; Noinafai P; Pringproa K; Janyamethakul T; Angkawanish T; Brown JL; Tankaew P; Srivorakul S; Thitaram C
[Ti] Title:ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS INFECTION IN TWO ASIAN ELEPHANT ( ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) CALVES.
[So] Source:J Zoo Wildl Med;49(1):178-182, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1042-7260
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is an infection associated with fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). This brief communication describes the postmortem evaluation of two Asian elephant calves diagnosed with EEHV4 and EEHV1A in conjunction with Clostridium perfringens infection. Case 1 was a 7-mo-old, male captive-born Asian elephant that developed diarrhea and died 2 days after clinical presentation. Examination of the heart, lungs, liver, and spleen revealed predominantly basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels. Case 2 was a 3-mo-old, female wild-born Asian elephant that showed signs of lethargy, anorexia, and convulsions and died 6 hr after clinical presentation. No intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed. The heart, lung, liver, and spleen of both calves tested positive for EEHV by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified EEHV4 and EEHV1A in Case 1 and 2, respectively. Additionally, liver, spleen, and hemorrhagic intestinal tissue samples tested positive for C. perfringens α, ß, and ε toxins. This is the first reported case to describe coinfection of EEHV and C. perfringens in Asian elephant calves.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1638/2017-0001R1.1

  9 / 30378 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29517430
[Au] Autor:Helmick KE; Garner MM; Rhyan J; Bradway D
[Ti] Title:CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF INFECTION WITH NOVEL BRUCELLA ORGANISMS IN CAPTIVE WAXY TREE FROGS ( PHYLLOMEDUSA SAUVAGII) AND COLORADO RIVER TOADS ( INCILIUS ALVARIUS).
[So] Source:J Zoo Wildl Med;49(1):153-161, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1042-7260
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Two novel and distinct Brucella strains were recovered from 5 of 10 adult, sex undetermined, captive waxy tree frogs ( Phyllomedusa sauvagii) and two of five adult, sex undetermined, captive Colorado river toads ( Incilius alvarius) held in a zoologic collection with clinical and pathologic findings of bacterial disease. These amphibians originated from three separate private breeding facilities over several years and exhibited disease 9-49 mo following release from quarantine. Common presenting signs were vague but included focal abscessation, weight loss, change in coloration, anorexia, and decreased perching. Two waxy tree frogs and one Colorado river toad recovered with supportive care and antimicrobial treatment based on susceptibility testing. Microgranulomatosis, subcutaneous and renal abscessation, femoral osteomyelitis, and multicentric infection were the most common histologic findings. The organisms were identified antemortem in samples from subcutaneous abscesses, cloaca, and skin and from a variety of organ systems postmortem, and demonstrated a consistent susceptibility pattern. Initial isolates were misidentified as Ochrobactrum anthropi. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified the two organisms as novel Brucella strains similar to Brucella inopinata-like sp. and other novel organisms within the emerging "BO clade." Brucella strain oaks (isolated from waxy tree frogs) and Brucella strain leathers (isolated from Colorado river toads) differed from each other by 16 of 571 base pairs in a region of chromosome 2, and did not closely match any previous GenBank entries. This report describes the clinicopathologic features of infection by these bacteria in two amphibian species and expands the range of novel Brucella organisms from amphibian reservoirs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1638/2017-0026R1.1

  10 / 30378 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29517358
[Au] Autor:Pentz I; Nakic Rados S
[Ad] Address:a Polyclinic Fleur , Zagreb , Croatia.
[Ti] Title:Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and its psychological correlates: a controlled comparison.
[So] Source:J Reprod Infant Psychol;35(2):137-149, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0264-6838
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to examine differences between adolescents and young women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and control groups in personality traits, eating attitudes and behaviours, and perception of parental behaviour. BACKGROUND: The FHA is stress-induced anovulation, both related to metabolic challenges, such as excessive exercise and malnutrition, and psychogenic challenges, such as perfectionism and poor coping strategies. METHODS: Three groups of adolescents and young women participated in the study: the FHA group (N = 25), the organic anovulation group (N = 21) and the eumenorrheic group with regular menstrual cycle (N = 20). Questionnaires on multidimensional perfectionism, self-control methods, eating attitudes and behaviours and perception of parental behaviour were administered. A clinical interview (SCID) was conducted with each participant. RESULTS: The FHA group had higher levels of perfectionism traits, i.e. higher levels of concerns over mistakes and personal standards, compared to control groups. The FHA group did not engage in disordered eating behaviours more often in comparison with control groups, but reported more prevalent history of anorexia nervosa. The FHA group did not differ from controls in perception of parental rejection, emotional warmth or overprotection. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that FHA can be characterised by the subtle psychological differences in personality traits, so the patients need to be diagnosed carefully.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1080/02646838.2016.1278201


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