Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Aquifoliaceae [Words]
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[PMID]: 29421508
[Au] Autor:Xia WQ; Li RF; Liu JB; Cui BS; Hou Q; Sun H; Li S
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Title:Triterpenoids from the leaves of Ilex chinensis.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;148:113-121, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Eleven previously undescribed compounds including two triterpenes, ilexchinenin A and ilexchinenin B, and nine triterpenoid saponins, ilexchinenosides A-I, along with twelve known triterpenoids were isolated from the leaves of Ilex chinensis Sims (Aquifoliaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with known compounds. Furthermore, eight compounds exhibited significant inhibitory effects on NO production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophages, while nine compounds exhibited potent hepatoprotective activity against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)-induced HepG2 cell damage in in vitro assays.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:In-Process

  2 / 103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29271154
[Au] Autor:Du BZ; Zhang HX; Yang XY; Zhang RF; Yin X; Xing JY; Han ZZ; Gao ZP; Chai XY
[Ad] Address:School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China.
[Ti] Title:[Chemical constituents from stems of Ilex asprella].
[So] Source:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi;42(21):4154-4158, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1001-5302
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:Phytochemical investigation on the stems of Ilex asprella by using various chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of 13 compounds. By spectroscopic analyses and comparisons the spectral data with those in literatures, these compounds were identified as salicifoneoliganol(1), rel-(7R,8S)-3,3',5-trimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolignan-4,9,9'-triol 9-ß-D-glucopyranoside(2),(+)-cycloolivil(3),(+)-syringaresinol-4'-O-ß-D-monoglucoside(4), liriodendrin(5), caffeic acid (6), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde(7), benzene-1,2,4-triol(8), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-ß-D-apiofuranosyl(1″→6')-glucopyranoside(9), aeculetin(10), cryptochlorogenic acid ethyl ester(11), chlorogenic acid ethyl ester(12), and rel-5-(3S,8S-dihydroxy-1R,5S-dimethyl-7-oxa-6-oxobicyclo [3,2,1]oct-8-yl)-3-methyl-2Z,4E-pentadienoic acid(13). Among them, compounds 7, 8, 11, and 13 were isolated from genus Ilex for the first time, and 1-3, 9, 10, and 12 were isolated from this speciesfor the first time. The anti-inflammatory assay results of these compounds showed that compounds 1 and 9 showed moderate inhibitory effect against NO production in RAW 267. 4 cells with IC50 values of 35.7 and 50.6 µmol•L⁻¹, in vitro respectively, whereas compound 10 showed weak inhibition(IC50 value 98.7 µmol•L⁻¹).
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171222
[Lr] Last revision date:171222
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20170905.003

  3 / 103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28899499
[Au] Autor:Santiago PG; Gasparotto FM; Gebara KS; Bacha FB; Lívero FADR; Strapazon MA; Junior ELC; Kassuya CAL; de Souza LM; Gasparotto Junior A
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Electrophysiology and Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Mechanisms underlying antiatherosclerotic properties of an enriched fraction obtained from Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.
[So] Source:Phytomedicine;34:162-170, 2017 Oct 15.
[Is] ISSN:1618-095X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. var. paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae) popularly known as 'mate' is an important species native to South America. Despite numerous studies showing significant antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, the antiatherosclerotic mechanisms of this species remain unknown. PURPOSE: To evaluate the possible antiatherosclerotic effects of a butanolic fraction (n-BFIP) obtained from I. paraguariensis and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this activity. METHODS: First, n-BFIP was obtained from the hydroalcoholic extract and a detailed phytochemical investigation about its main secondary metabolites was performed. Then, during 8 experimental weeks, rabbits received diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol (CRD). After 4 weeks of CDR, animals were redistributed into five groups (n = 6) and treated (p.o.) with n-BFIP (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg), simvastatin (5 mg/kg), or vehicle (filtered water, 1 ml/kg) once daily for 4 weeks. An additional group was fed with cholesterol-free diet and treated with vehicle. At the end of 8 weeks, serum samples were obtained for the measurement of serum lipids, lipid and protein oxidation and indirect nitric oxide levels. In addition, serum IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and intracellular cGMP levels in rabbit aortic rings were measured. Samples from the aortic arch and thoracic segment were collected for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: CRD induced oxidative and nitrosative stress and increased serum lipids, IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels. In addition, structural changes in the intima layers of different arterial branches were also found. Although it did not change serum lipids, n-BFIP reverted oxidative and nitrosative stress and reduced IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels, besides to increasing intracellular levels of cGMP in vitro. In addition, the formation of atherosclerotic plaques was reduced to values close to those of animals fed with cholesterol-free diet. CONCLUSIONS: A 4-week n-FBIP treatment reduces the progression of the atherosclerotic disease in New Zealand rabbits. These effects are associated with an attenuation of oxidative and nitrosative stress, affecting IL-1ß, IL-6, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170913
[Lr] Last revision date:170913
[St] Status:In-Process

  4 / 103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28854336
[Au] Autor:Kim J; Kang W; Min H
[Ad] Address:College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University , Seoul, Korea.
[Ti] Title:In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ilex cornuta Extract Mediated by Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation.
[So] Source:J Med Food;20(10):981-988, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1557-7600
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ilex cornuta, commonly known as Chinese holly, is an evergreen shrub from the family Aquifoliaceae, and it is widely distributed in Korea and China. In folk medicine, the leaves of I. cornuta are used for treatment of several disorders, including weakness of the waist and knees, arthrodynia, headache, acute conjunctivitis, toothache, urticaria, rheumatic arthralgia, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of an I. cornuta leaf ethanol extract (ILE) and its underlying mechanisms of action. The anti-inflammatory activities of ILE were evaluated in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. ILE treatment-related changes in the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E (PGE ), and proinflammatory cytokines were also measured. Finally, the expression of signaling molecules involved in inflammatory reactions was also assessed. Pretreatment of macrophages with ILE attenuated the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, resulting in a decrease in NO and PGE production. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1ß was also reduced. Furthermore, ILE reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation, without affecting the inhibitor of kappa Bα and other mitogen-activated protein kinases. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) demonstrated that 1 g of ILE contains 27 mg of kaempferol, 0.3 mg of vanillic acid, and 21 mg of combined amount of isoquercetin and hyperin, among which isoquercetin and kaempferol significantly suppressed IL-6, IL-1ß, and PGE production. Our results demonstrated that ILE possesses anti-inflammatory effects mediated through inhibition of ERK phosphorylation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171017
[Lr] Last revision date:171017
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1089/jmf.2016.3913

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[PMID]: 28840691
[Au] Autor:Wen S; Guan XF; Huang XJ; Fan CL; Ye WC; Wang Y
[Ad] Address:Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine & Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.
[Ti] Title:[A new oleanane-type triterpenoid glycoside from roots of Ilex asprella].
[So] Source:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi;42(13):2503-2509, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1001-5302
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:A new δ-oleanane-type triterpenoid glycoside, 3-O-(3-O-sulfo)-ß-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid 3ß-hydroxy-13(18)-oleanen- 28-oic acid 28-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), along with ten known triterpenoid glycosides, rotundinoside A (2), oblonganoside M (3), 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl 3ß,19α-dihydroxy-20α- urs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-ß-D- glucopyranosyl ester (4), ilexsaponin B2 (5), ilexside Ⅱ (6), rotundinoside B (7), ilekudinoside B (8), ilexpublesnin E (9), ilekudinoside D (10) and ilexpernoside D (11), was isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of the roots of Ilex asprella by various chromatographic separation. Their structures were identified on the basis of MS, NMR spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. In addition, 2-11 were isolated from I. asprella for the first time.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170825
[Lr] Last revision date:170825
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20170512.005

  6 / 103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28660650
[Au] Autor:Zhang M; Nakanishi T; Yamanaka M; Nagao S; Yanagisawa S; Shomura Y; Shibata N; Ogura T; Higuchi Y; Hirota S
[Ad] Address:Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara, 630-0192, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Rational Design of Domain-Swapping-Based c-Type Cytochrome Heterodimers by Using Chimeric Proteins.
[So] Source:Chembiochem;18(17):1712-1715, 2017 Sep 05.
[Is] ISSN:1439-7633
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The design of protein oligomers with multiple active sites has been gaining interest, owing to their potential use for biomaterials, which has encouraged researchers to develop a new design method. Three-dimensional domain swapping is the unique phenomenon in which protein molecules exchange the same structural region between each other. Herein, to construct oligomeric heme proteins with different active sites by utilizing domain swapping, two c-type cytochrome-based chimeric proteins have been constructed and the domains swapped. According to X-ray crystallographic analysis, the two chimeric proteins formed a domain-swapped dimer with two His/Met coordinated hemes. By mutating the heme coordination structure of one of the two chimeric proteins, a domainswapped heterodimer with His/Met and His/H O coordinated hemes was formed. Binding of an oxygen molecule to the His/H O site of the heterodimer was confirmed by resonance Raman spectroscopy, in which the Fe-O stretching band was observed at 580 cm for the reduced/oxygenated heterodimer (at 554 cm under an O atmosphere). These results show that domain swapping is a useful method to design multiheme proteins.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cytochrome c Group/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aquifoliaceae/enzymology
Circular Dichroism
Crystallography, X-Ray
Cytochrome c Group/chemistry
Cytochrome c Group/genetics
Dimerization
Heme/chemistry
Heme/metabolism
Oxygen/chemistry
Protein Engineering
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology
Recombinant Fusion Proteins/biosynthesis
Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry
Recombinant Fusion Proteins/isolation & purification
Spectrum Analysis, Raman
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cytochrome c Group); 0 (Recombinant Fusion Proteins); 42VZT0U6YR (Heme); S88TT14065 (Oxygen)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170925
[Lr] Last revision date:170925
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170630
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/cbic.201700219

  7 / 103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28284425
[Au] Autor:Li SS; Liu YL; Xu QM; Mao CM; Yang SL
[Ad] Address:Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215003, China; College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.
[Ti] Title:Three new triterpenoids isolated from the aerial parts of Ilex cornuta and protective effects against H O -induced myocardial cell injury.
[So] Source:Chin J Nat Med;15(2):115-120, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1875-5364
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In the present study, three new triterpenoids, 23-hydroxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid 3ß-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (1), 23-hydroxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid 3ß-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranoside-6-O-methyl ester (2), and urs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid 3ß-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranoside-6-O-methyl ester (3), and a known triterpenoid, 3ß-hydroxy-urs-2, 18-dien-28-oic acid (4, randialic acid B), were isolated from the aerial parts of Ilex cornuta. Their structures were identified by the spectroscopic analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR) and chemical reactions. Compound 4 showed significant cell-protective effects against H O -induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury. Compounds 1-4 did not show any significant DPPH radical scavenging activity.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ilex/chemistry
Myocardium/pathology
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Triterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism
Cardiovascular Agents/chemistry
Cardiovascular Agents/isolation & purification
Cardiovascular Agents/pharmacology
Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism
Molecular Structure
Myocardium/cytology
Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects
Picrates/metabolism
Plant Components, Aerial/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Rats
Triterpenes/chemistry
Triterpenes/isolation & purification
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Biphenyl Compounds); 0 (Cardiovascular Agents); 0 (Picrates); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Triterpenes); 0 (randialic acid B); BBX060AN9V (Hydrogen Peroxide); DFD3H4VGDH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170404
[Lr] Last revision date:170404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170313
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  8 / 103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28104349
[Au] Autor:Sun W; Liu C; Zhang Y; Qiu X; Zhang L; Zhao H; Rong Y; Sun Y
[Ad] Address:Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu, PR China; Chinese Medicine Hospital of Yangzhou City, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, PR China; Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210009, PR China.
[Ti] Title:Ilexgenin A, a novel pentacyclic triterpenoid extracted from Aquifoliaceae shows reduction of LPS-induced peritonitis in mice.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharmacol;797:94-105, 2017 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0712
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ilexgenin A (IA) is a novel pentacyclic triterpenoid, which extracted from leaves of Ilex hainanensis Merr. In the present study, we aim to explore anti-inflammatory activity of IA on LPS-induced peritonitis and its underlying molecular mechanism. The results determined that IA was capable of suppressing peritonitis in mice induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Furthermore, the results showed that IA dramatically inhibited levels of inflammatory cells infiltration in peritoneal cavity and serum in LPS-induced mice peritonitis model. Besides, IA could dramatically inhibit levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α) in peritoneal cavity in LPS-induced mice peritonitis model. In vitro study, the results showed that IA inhibited production of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α at transcriptional and translational levels in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. Furthermore, IA could suppress the LPS-induced activation of Akt and downstream degradation and phosphorylation of kappa B-α (IκB-α). Moreover, IA could significantly inhibit ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. These results were concurrent with molecular docking which revealed ERK1/2 inhibition. These results demonstrated that IA might as an anti-inflammatory agent candidate for inflammatory disease therapy.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aquifoliaceae/chemistry
Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology
Peritonitis/chemically induced
Peritonitis/drug therapy
Triterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Apoptosis/drug effects
Catalytic Domain
Cell Count
Enzyme Activation/drug effects
Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects
Interleukin-1beta/metabolism
Interleukin-6/metabolism
Leukocytes/cytology
Leukocytes/drug effects
Male
Mice
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/chemistry
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/chemistry
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism
Molecular Docking Simulation
NF-kappa B/metabolism
Peritoneal Cavity
Peritonitis/immunology
Peritonitis/metabolism
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism
Phosphorylation/drug effects
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
RAW 264.7 Cells
Triterpenes/isolation & purification
Triterpenes/metabolism
Triterpenes/therapeutic use
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Interleukin-1beta); 0 (Interleukin-6); 0 (Lipopolysaccharides); 0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (Triterpenes); 0 (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha); 0 (ilexgenin A); EC 2.7.1.- (Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases); EC 2.7.11.1 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt); EC 2.7.11.24 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1); EC 2.7.11.24 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170407
[Lr] Last revision date:170407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170121
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28064054
[Au] Autor:Shouji T; Yamamoto K; Kadokawa JI
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology, and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Chemoenzyamtic synthesis and self-assembling gelation behavior of amylose-grafted poly(γ-glutamic acid).
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;97:99-105, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study, we investigated chmemoenzymatic synthesis of amylose-grafted poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) as a new artificial saccharide-peptide conjugate composed of two biological macromolecules. Maltooligosaccharide as a primer of enzymatic polymerization by phosphorylase catalysis was first introduced on the PGA main chain by the condensation reaction using the condensing agent in NaOH aq. Thermostable phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization of α-d-glucose 1-phosphate (G-1-P) as a monomer was then performed from the primer chain ends of the product to obtain amylose-grafted PGAs, which formed hydrogels in reaction media depending on the G-1-P/primer feed ratios. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns of lyophilized samples (cryogels) from the hydrogels suggested that the amylose graft chains formed double helixes, which acted as cross-inking points for self-assembling hydrogelation. The scanning electron microscopic images of the cryogels showed regularly controlled porous morphologies. Moreover, pore sizes of the cryogels increased with increasing the G-1-P/primer feed ratios, whereas the degrees of substitution of primer on the PGA main chain did not obviously affect pore sizes.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Amylose/chemistry
Phosphorylases/metabolism
Polyglutamic Acid/analogs & derivatives
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aquifoliaceae/enzymology
Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic
Gels
Maltose/chemistry
Oligosaccharides/chemistry
Peptides/chemistry
Polyglutamic Acid/chemical synthesis
Polyglutamic Acid/chemistry
Polymerization
Porosity
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Gels); 0 (Oligosaccharides); 0 (Peptides); 0 (poly(gamma-glutamic acid)); 25513-46-6 (Polyglutamic Acid); 69-79-4 (Maltose); 9005-82-7 (Amylose); EC 2.4.1.- (Phosphorylases)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170410
[Lr] Last revision date:170410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170109
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  10 / 103 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27912969
[Au] Autor:Wu P; Gao H; Liu JX; Liu L; Zhou H; Liu ZQ
[Ad] Address:International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Triterpenoid saponins with anti-inflammatory activities from Ilex pubescens roots.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;134:122-132, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Seven triterpenoid saponins, named ilexsaponin I-O, along with twelve known ones, were isolated from the roots of Ilex pubescens. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by use of extensive spectroscopic methods (IR, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR). Sugar residues obtained after acid hydrolysis were identified by TLC and HPLC. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of the triterpenoid saponins were also evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated saponins, seven compounds were shown to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (PGE ) production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Ilexsaponin I and ß-d-glucopyranosyl 3-ß-[ß-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 â†’ 2)-ß-d-glucopyranosyloxy]-olea-12-en-28-oate exerted more potent anti-inflammatory effects than the other compounds tested.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/isolation & purification
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology
Ilex/chemistry
Saponins/isolation & purification
Saponins/pharmacology
Triterpenes/isolation & purification
Triterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry
Dinoprostone/antagonists & inhibitors
Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology
Macrophages/drug effects
Mice
Molecular Structure
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/antagonists & inhibitors
Plant Roots/chemistry
Saponins/chemistry
Triterpenes/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors); 0 (Lipopolysaccharides); 0 (Saponins); 0 (Triterpenes); EC 1.14.13.39 (NOS2 protein, human); EC 1.14.13.39 (Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II); K7Q1JQR04M (Dinoprostone)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170306
[Lr] Last revision date:170306
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161204
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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