Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29523515
[Au] Autor:Maharaj S; Seegobin K; Chrzanowski S; Chang S
[Ad] Address:Internal Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.
[Ti] Title:Acute glomerulonephritis secondary to .
[So] Source:BMJ Case Rep;2018, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1757-790X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:is a clinically important pathogen that is emerging globally but remains poorly investigated. Here, we report the first case of acute glomerulonephritis resulting from infection with Glomerulonephritis is typically caused by and reports secondary to other strains including and exist. Infection with in this patient was associated with acute nephritis (haematuria, oedema and hypertension), nephrotic syndrome and progressive azotemia. There was activation of the complement system. The presence of low C1q and elevated anti-C1q binding complexes points to a potential pathogenic role. Testing for streptococcal antigens was strongly positive. Emerging nephritogenic strains of present a significant health concern for both developed and developing countries.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process

  2 / 2392 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29504860
[Au] Autor:Jones B; Berent AC; Weisse CW; Hart R; Alvarez L; Fischetti A; Horn BD; Canning D
[Ti] Title:Surgical and endoscopic treatment of bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex in a female dog.
[So] Source:J Am Vet Med Assoc;252(6):732-743, 2018 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1943-569X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-week-old 7.7-kg (16.9-lb) sexually intact female Golden Retriever was evaluated because of urine dripping from the caudoventral aspect of the abdomen. CLINICAL FINDINGS Ultrasonography, radiography, excretory CT urography, and vaginocystourethroscopy were performed. Results indicated eversion of the bladder through the ventral abdominal wall with exposure of the ureterovesicular junctions, pubic diastasis, and an open vulva and clitoral fossa. Clinical findings were suggestive of bladder exstrophy, a rare congenital anomaly. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The dog was anesthetized and bilateral ileal osteotomies were performed. Two ureteral catheters were passed retrograde into the renal pelves under fluoroscopic guidance. The lateral margins of the bladder, bladder neck, and urethra were surgically separated from the abdominal wall, and the bladder was closed, forming a hollow viscus. The symphysis pubis was closed on midline with horizontal mattress sutures. The defects in the vestibule and clitoral fossa were closed. Lastly, the iliac osteotomies were stabilized. The dog was initially incontinent with right hind limb sciatic neuropraxia and developed pyelonephritis. Over time, the dog became continent with full return to orthopedic and neurologic function, but had recurrent urinary tract infections, developed renal azotemia likely associated with chronic pyelonephritis, and ultimately was euthanized 3.5 years after surgery because of end-stage kidney disease. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Bladder exstrophy and epispadias is a treatable but rare congenital abnormality. The procedure described could be considered for treatment of this condition, but care should be taken to monitor for urinary tract infections and ascending pyelonephritis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2460/javma.252.6.732

  3 / 2392 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29504856
[Au] Autor:Cray M; Berent AC; Weisse CW; Bagley D
[Ti] Title:Treatment of pyonephrosis with a subcutaneous ureteral bypass device in four cats.
[So] Source:J Am Vet Med Assoc;252(6):744-753, 2018 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1943-569X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CASE DESCRIPTION 4 cats were examined because of ureteral obstruction. CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical and clinicopathologic abnormalities were nonspecific and included anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and azotemia. A diagnosis of pyonephrosis was made in all cats. The presence of bacteriuria was confirmed by means of urinalysis in 2 cats, bacterial culture of a urine sample obtained by means of preoperative cystocentesis in 2 cats, and bacterial culture of samples obtained from the renal pelvis intraoperatively in 3 cats. Ureteral obstruction was caused by a urolith in 3 cats; ureteral stricture associated with a circumcaval ureter was identified in 1 cat. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME All 4 cats underwent renal pelvis lavage and placement of a subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) device for treatment of obstructive pyonephrosis. Postoperatively, the cystostomy tube became occluded with purulent material in 1 cat, requiring exchange. The procedure was successful in relieving the obstruction and pyonephrosis in all cats. Three of 4 cats had documented resolution of urinary tract infection. One cat had persistent bacteriuria without clinical signs 1 month after SUB device placement. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this small series suggested that renal pelvis lavage with placement of an SUB device may be a treatment option for cats with obstructive pyonephrosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2460/javma.252.6.744

  4 / 2392 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29504132
[Au] Autor:Aronson LR; Cleroux A; Wormser C
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Sciences, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
[Ti] Title:Use of a modified Boari flap for the treatment of a proximal ureteral obstruction in a cat.
[So] Source:Vet Surg;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1532-950X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To describe the use and long term outcome of a novel surgical technique developed to treat a proximal ureteral obstruction in a cat. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMALS: A 3-year-old female spayed Russian blue cat. METHODS: A 3-year-old female spayed Russian blue cat presented with a fever, decreased appetite, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. A proximal left ureteral obstruction was noted on ultrasonographic examination. No filling defect was noted on antegrade pyelography. Due to the proximal location of the obstruction, a modification of a Boari flap was performed. In the current technique, the ureter was cut proximal to the level of obstruction, and the distal ureter was resected. A flap was created on the ventral surface of the bladder, the cut end of the ureter was pulled through the flap, and a ureteroneocystostomy was performed. The bladder was closed in a simple interrupted pattern. RESULTS: At re-evaluation 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, azotemia had resolved. According to ultrasonography, the ureteroneocystostomy site appeared to be healing, and pelvic dilation had resolved. One year later, the cat continued to do well, with no lower urinary tract signs and no abnormality noted on blood tests or ultrasonography. CONCLUSION: The tubularized bladder flap originally described by Boari was modified to create a tension-free ureteroneocystostomy, without complication. This technique relied on surrounding native tissues and resulted in long-term resolution of the ureteral obstruction. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A modified Boari flap can lead to long-term resolution of proximal ureteral obstruction in cats, without requiring stents or permanent implants.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/vsu.12780

  5 / 2392 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29237740
[Au] Autor:Hinze C; Ruffert J; Walentin K; Himmerkus N; Nikpey E; Tenstad O; Wiig H; Mutig K; Yurtdas ZY; Klein JD; Sands JM; Branchi F; Schumann M; Bachmann S; Bleich M; Schmidt-Ott KM
[Ad] Address:Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Title:GRHL2 Is Required for Collecting Duct Epithelial Barrier Function and Renal Osmoregulation.
[So] Source:J Am Soc Nephrol;29(3):857-868, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1533-3450
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Collecting ducts make up the distal-most tubular segments of the kidney, extending from the cortex, where they connect to the nephron proper, into the medulla, where they release urine into the renal pelvis. During water deprivation, body water preservation is ensured by the selective transepithelial reabsorption of water into the hypertonic medullary interstitium mediated by collecting ducts. The collecting duct epithelium forms tight junctions composed of barrier-enforcing claudins and exhibits a higher transepithelial resistance than other segments of the renal tubule exhibit. However, the functional relevance of this strong collecting duct epithelial barrier is unresolved. Here, we report that collecting duct-specific deletion of an epithelial transcription factor, grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2), in mice led to reduced expression of tight junction-associated barrier components, reduced collecting duct transepithelial resistance, and defective renal medullary accumulation of sodium and other osmolytes. , -deficient collecting duct cells displayed increased paracellular flux of sodium, chloride, and urea. Consistent with these effects, -deficient mice had diabetes insipidus, produced dilute urine, and failed to adequately concentrate their urine after water restriction, resulting in susceptibility to prerenal azotemia. These data indicate a direct functional link between collecting duct epithelial barrier characteristics, which appear to prevent leakage of interstitial osmolytes into urine, and body water homeostasis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1681/ASN.2017030353

  6 / 2392 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29485186
[Au] Autor:Loewen JM; Cianciolo RE; Zhang L; Yaeger M; Ward JL; Smith JD; LeVine DN
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.
[Ti] Title:Concurrent renal amyloidosis and thymoma resulting in a fatal ventricular thrombus in a dog.
[So] Source:J Vet Intern Med;, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1939-1676
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Thymoma-associated nephropathies have been reported in people but not in dogs. In this report, we describe a dog with thymoma and concurrent renal amyloidosis. A 7-year-old castrated male Weimaraner was presented for progressive anorexia, lethargy, and tachypnea. The dog was diagnosed with azotemia, marked proteinuria, and a thymoma that was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the dog developed a large left ventricular thrombus and was euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the presence of a left ventricular thrombus and histopathology revealed renal amyloidosis. We speculate that the renal amyloidosis occurred secondary to the thymoma, with amyloidosis in turn leading to nephrotic syndrome, hypercoagulability, and ventricular thrombosis. This case illustrates the potential for thymoma-associated nephropathies to occur in dogs and that dogs suspected to have thymoma should have a urinalysis and urine protein creatinine ratio performed as part of the pre-surgical database.
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/jvim.15062

  7 / 2392 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29469976
[Au] Autor:Van den Broek DHN; Geddes RF; Williams TL; Chang YM; Elliott J; Jepson RE
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Calcitonin Response to Naturally Occurring Ionized Hypercalcemia in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.
[So] Source:J Vet Intern Med;, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1939-1676
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Hypercalcemia is commonly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. OBJECTIVES: To explore the calcitonin response to naturally occurring ionized hypercalcemia in cats with azotemic CKD, and to assess the relationship of plasma calcitonin with ionized calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urinary calcium excretion. ANIMALS: Thirty-three client-owned cats with azotemic CKD and ionized hypercalcemia from first opinion practice. METHODS: Cohort study. Calcitonin was measured with an immunoradiometric assay in heparinized plasma. Simple correlations were assessed with Kendall's rank correlation, and the within-subject correlations of calcitonin with ionized calcium and other clinicopathological variables were calculated with a bivariate linear mixed effects model. RESULTS: Calcitonin concentrations above the lower limit of detection (>1.2 pg/mL; range, 1.7-87.2 pg/mL) were observed in 11 of 33 hypercalcemic cats (responders). Blood ionized calcium concentration did not differ significantly between responders (median, 1.59 [1.46, 1.66] mmol/L) and nonresponders (median, 1.48 [1.43, 1.65] mmol/L; P = 0.22). No evidence was found for calcitonin and ionized calcium to correlate between cats (τ = 0.14; P = 0.31; n = 33), but significant positive correlation was evident within individual responders over time (within-subject correlation coefficient [r ], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.92). Calcitonin correlated negatively over time with plasma ALP (r , -0.55; 95% CI, -0.79 to -0.16). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Calcitonin does not appear to have an important role in calcium metabolism in cats with CKD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/jvim.15051

  8 / 2392 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29191133
[Au] Autor:Yau W; Mausbach L; Littman MP; Cianciolo RE; Brown CA
[Ad] Address:1 Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Related Miniature Schnauzer Dogs.
[So] Source:Vet Pathol;55(2):277-285, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1544-2217
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recently has been recognized as a common cause of proteinuria in dogs in general, and in Miniature Schnauzer dogs in particular. This study describes the morphologic features present in the kidneys of 8 related proteinuric Miniature Schnauzer dogs. The FSGS, characterized by solidification of portions of the capillary tuft, affected 32% to 49% of examined glomeruli in these dogs. Synechiae, often accompanied by hyalinosis, were present in 13% to 54% of glomeruli and were more prevalent in older dogs. Seven of 8 dogs had arteriolar hyalinosis. Ultrastructurally, all dogs had evidence of a podocytopathy in the absence of electron-dense deposits, glomerular basement membrane splitting, or fibrils. All dogs had multifocal to extensive podocyte foot process effacement. Other podocyte changes included microvillous transformation, the presence of vacuoles or protein resorption droplets, cytoplasmic electron-dense aggregates, and occasional binucleation. Variable amounts of intraglomerular lipid were present in all dogs. All dogs were proteinuric, with measured values for the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio ranging from 1.2 to 6.5. Azotemia was mild to absent and dogs were euthanatized at 5.1 to 14 years of age, in all cases due to nonrenal diseases. The underlying cause of FSGS in these Miniature Schnauzer dogs has yet to be determined, but contributors likely include genetic podocytopathy, lipid abnormalities, and glomerular hypertension.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180219
[Lr] Last revision date:180219
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1177/0300985817736356

  9 / 2392 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29451473
[Au] Autor:Raghavan R; Eknoyan G
[Ti] Title:Uremia: A historical reappraisal of what happened
.
[So] Source:Clin Nephrol;, 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:0301-0430
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Urea was identified as a urinary salt in 1662 and was the first organic bodily product to be synthesized in vitro in 1828. This heralded the end of an era that defined disease as an imbalance between vital life forces, and catalyzed the merging of organic chemical sciences into clinical medicine. The term urée (urea) was introduced in 1803, its accumulation in blood was dubbed urémie (uremia) in 1847, and the procedure for its removal from urine across semi-permeable membranes designated dialysis in 1861. The advent of modern dialysis in the 20th century provided lifesaving replacement therapy for the universally fatal disease that progressive uremia had been theretofore. Today, the clearance of urea is no longer used as a marker to identify patients with kidney disease; rather it has been adopted as a measure of the adequacy of dialysis, and the "urea toxicity" of yesteryears has been replaced by that of dialyzable "uremic toxins". As a result, the use of the term uremia has become non-uniform and is now applied to variable scenarios ranging from "azotemia" to "kidney failure" and to the symptoms persisting in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. In the process, the quest for variably dialyzed uremic toxins has overshadowed the consideration that dialysis is an invasive non-physiologic process that operates counter to normal homeostasis and itself may be toxic.
.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180217
[Lr] Last revision date:180217
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.5414/CN109401

  10 / 2392 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29429401
[Au] Autor:Jung HB; Kang MH; Park HM
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a novel biomarker of cardiorenal syndrome in dogs.
[So] Source:J Vet Diagn Invest;:1040638718758430, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1943-4936
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Worsening renal function and azotemia in patients with heart failure (HF) are strongly associated with disease severity and poor prognosis. Increasing interest in this correlation led to the description and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). We evaluated the role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the early detection of CRS in dogs with HF. Ten healthy dogs and 31 dogs admitted with HF were included in our study. NGAL and troponin-I were measured on samples collected on the day of admission; creatinine was measured on admission and again on day 7. The CRS group was defined as subsequently developing renal azotemia. Of 31 dogs with HF, 20 were included in the HF group, and 11 were included in the CRS group. The admission NGAL concentrations of the CRS group were significantly higher than those of other groups ( p < 0.001). The severity of HF evaluation based on the modified New York Heart Association classification showed significant correlation with NGAL ( p < 0.001) and troponin-I ( p = 0.009) concentration. However, only serum NGAL concentration at admission was significantly associated with the development of CRS in dogs with HF ( p = 0.021). The admission serum NGAL ≥ 16.0 ng/mL (optimal cutoff value) had a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 90.0% in predicting the development of CRS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1177/1040638718758430


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