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[PMID]: 29448183
[Au] Autor:Gabarrón M; Faz A; Martínez-Martínez S; Acosta JA
[Ad] Address:Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water Research Group, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 48, 30203, Cartagena, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Change in metals and arsenic distribution in soil and their bioavailability beside old tailing ponds.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;212:292-300, 2018 Apr 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The objectives of this study were to determine the metals and arsenic transfer from mining ponds to agricultural and forest soils, and identify the dynamic of metal(loid)s in the soil-plant system for a native plant species (Ballota hirsuta) in two old mining districts: La Unión and Mazarrón (Spain). Soils and plants from mining ponds and natural and agricultural areas were collected and analyzed for soil properties, and chemical partitioning of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and As. Results showed that mine, forest and agricultural soils were contaminated by As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Chemical partitioning revealed higher mobility of metals in mining ponds than natural and agricultural soils except for Fe and As which were mostly bound to soil matrix due to the mineralogical compositions of soils. The accumulation of metal(loid)s in B. hirsuta in La Unión decreased as Fe > As > Cr > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cd > Mn > Co > Pb while in Mazarrón was As > Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Mn > Zn > Cd, showing that B. hirsuta has high ability to bio-accumulate Fe, As, Cr, Cu and Ni; and Pb (in Mazarrón), transferring a significant concentration of theses metal(loid)s, except Pb, to edible parts without exceeding the toxicity limits for animals. Therefore, B. hirsuta could be useful as phytoextractor species for Cr, Cu, As and Ni, while it can be used as phytostabilizer species for Zn, Co, Pb and Cd.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29175790
[Au] Autor:Ullah N; Ahmad I; Ahmad N; Fozia -
[Ad] Address:Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.
[Ti] Title:In vitro antimicrobial, antiprotozoal activities and heavy metals toxicity of different parts of Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth.
[So] Source:Pak J Pharm Sci;30(6):2203-2209, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1011-601X
[Cp] Country of publication:Pakistan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The study was done to check the antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activity of different parts of Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth. These activities were then compared with the heavy metals toxicity of different parts, which plants accumulate in different concentrations in different parts. In in-vitro antileishmanial results ethanolic extract, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions in roots of Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth showed antileishmanial activity. The ethanol, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fraction in stem revealed inhibition of amastigote form of leishmania. The ethanolic extract, chloroform, and n-butanol fraction in leaves showed inhibition of leishmanial parasite. In heavy metals study, Chromium was above permissible value in all parts except in leaves. Nickel was above WHO limit in roots. Cadmium and lead were beyond permissible limits in entire plant parts. Results revealed that different parts of the plant have different inhibition properties. So each part of plant should be checked for antimicrobial and antiprotozoal assay separately. It is concluded that various metals accumulates with miscellaneous concentrations in different plant parts.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171127
[Lr] Last revision date:171127
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 81 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28974789
[Au] Autor:Akcan T; Gökçe R; Asensio M; Estévez M; Morcuende D
[Ad] Address:Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.
[Ti] Title:Acorn ( spp.) as a novel source of oleic acid and tocopherols for livestock and humans: discrimination of selected species from Mediterranean forest.
[So] Source:J Food Sci Technol;54(10):3050-3057, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0022-1155
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of the present work was to characterization and compare acorns from selected spp. from the Mediterranean forest in Spain, namely, Portuguese oak (QF, Lam.), Cork oak (QS, L.), Pyrenean oak (QP, Wild), Kermes oak (QC, L.), Holm oak (QB, L. subsp. ballota [Desf.]). All physicochemical attributes varied significantly between species. Fat contents ranged from 1.30 to 4.70 g 100 g fresh matter. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (62.44, 56.25, 57.46, 48.02, 65.83%), followed by linoleic (16.42, 20.73, 21.30, 25.38, 14.17%) and palmitic (11.69, 14.27, 12.17, 16.22, 12.28) acids in QF, QS, QP, QC and QB species, respectively. The tocopherol content was high in the range of 31.83-45.25 mg kg , and γ-tocopherol constituted 67-78% of total tocopherols. Only an effect of the location on γ-tocopherol content in QB was observed. The present results show the potential of different species of acorn to be used as agricultural and food resources and that geographical location plays a secondary role.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171008
[Lr] Last revision date:171008
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s13197-017-2740-3

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[PMID]: 28118832
[Au] Autor:Civra A; Francese R; Sinato D; Donalisio M; Cagno V; Rubiolo P; Ceylan R; Uysal A; Zengin G; Lembo D
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, S. Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Regione Gonzole, 10, 10043, Orbassano, Torino, Italy.
[Ti] Title:In vitro screening for antiviral activity of Turkish plants revealing methanolic extract of Rindera lanata var. lanata active against human rotavirus.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):74, 2017 Jan 24.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Human rotavirus (HRoV) is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children under the age of five years. No specific antiviral drug is available for HRoV infections and the treatment of viral diarrhea is mainly based on rehydration and zinc treatment. In this study, we explored medicinal plants endemic to Turkey flora as a source of anti-HRoV compunds. METHODS: We performed an antiviral screening on Ballota macrodonta, Salvia cryptantha and Rindera lanata extracts by focus reduction assay. The extract with the highest selectivity index (SI) was selected; its antiviral activity was further confirmed against other HRoV strains and by virus yield reduction assay. The step of viral replicative cycle putatively inhibited was investigated by in vitro assays. RESULTS: The methanolic extract of R. lanata (Boraginaceae) showed the most favourable selectivity index. This extract exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory activity against three different HRoV strains (EC values ranging from 5.8 µg/ml to 25.5 µg/ml), but was inactive or barely active against other RNA viruses, namely human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. The R. lanata extract targets the early steps of HRoV infection, likely by hampering virus penetration into the cells. CONCLUSION: These results make the R. lanata methanolic extract a promising starting material for a bioguided-fractionation aimed at identifying anti-HRoV compounds. Further work is required to isolate the active principle and assess its clinical potential.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antiviral Agents/analysis
Boraginaceae/chemistry
Rotavirus Infections/drug therapy
Rotavirus/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
Cell Line
Cercopithecus aethiops
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antiviral Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1702
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1560-3

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[PMID]: 27189840
[Au] Autor:Rigano D; Marrelli M; Formisano C; Menichini F; Senatore F; Bruno M; Conforti F
[Ad] Address:a Department of Pharmacy , University of Naples "Federico II" , Naples , Italy.
[Ti] Title:Phytochemical profile of three Ballota species essential oils and evaluation of the effects on human cancer cells.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;31(4):436-444, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Three Ballota species, Ballota undulata, Ballota saxatilis and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida, were investigated for their cytotoxicity against two human cancer cells, hepatoma HepG2 cell line and breast cancer MCF-7 cell line, and for their antioxidant activity. The chemical composition of essential oils was studied by GC and GC-MS. Sesquiterpenes were the main constituents. The most antiproliferative essential oil against HepG2 cells was B. undulata with a percentage of inhibition of 81.36 ± 3.54 at a concentration of 100 µg/mL, while against MCF-7 cells essential oil from B. saxatilis was the most active with a percentage of inhibition of 24.18 ± 1.13 at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. The antioxidant activity was investigated by DPPH test for all the oils. B. undulata showed the highest antiradical effect, with IC value of 529.7 ± 37.4 µg/mL.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Ballota/chemistry
Oils, Volatile/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Antioxidants/pharmacology
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Hep G2 Cells
Humans
MCF-7 Cells
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
Sesquiterpenes/analysis
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Oils, Volatile); 0 (Sesquiterpenes)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170817
[Lr] Last revision date:170817
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160519
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2016.1185722

  6 / 81 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27443456
[Au] Autor:Maya-Manzano JM; Fernández-Rodríguez S; Smith M; Tormo-Molina R; Reynolds AM; Silva-Palacios I; Gonzalo-Garijo Á; Sadys M
[Ad] Address:University of Extremadura, Department of Plant Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Avda Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;571:1037-47, 2016 Nov 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160910
[Lr] Last revision date:160910
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 81 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27144646
[Au] Autor:Dordevic AS; Jovanovic OP; Zlatkovic BK; Stojanovic GS
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Nis, Visegradska 33, 18000, Nis, Serbia.
[Ti] Title:Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L. ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils - The Chemotaxonomic Approach.
[So] Source:Chem Biodivers;13(6):782-8, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1612-1880
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ballota/chemistry
Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Chromatography, Gas
Cluster Analysis
Mass Spectrometry
Oils, Volatile/chemistry
Principal Component Analysis
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Oils, Volatile)
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170113
[Lr] Last revision date:170113
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/cbdv.201500254

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[PMID]: 26647634
[Au] Autor:Makowczynska J; Grzegorczyk-KAROLAK I; Wysokinska H
[Ti] Title:ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TISSUE CULTURE-RAISED BALLOTA NIGRA L. PLANTS GROWN EX VITRO.
[So] Source:Acta Pol Pharm;72(4):769-75, 2015 Jul-Aug.
[Is] ISSN:0001-6837
[Cp] Country of publication:Poland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated in methanolic extracts of shoots from Ballota nigra plants initiated in vitro (from nodal explants) and in vivo (from seeds). The plants were grown in greenhouse and in the field, and were analyzed at the vegetative and flowering stages. The shoot extract of wild-grown plants of B. nigra was also investigated. The results indicate that antioxidant potential of the B. nigra extracts seems to be due to their scavenging of free radicals (DPPH assay) and metal reducing (FRAP test), while they were less effective at the prevention of linoleic acid peroxidation (LPO test). The extracts from shoots of in vitro derived plants were found to exhibit the greatest antioxidant properties. The extracts were also characterized by the highest content of phenolic compounds and their level was affected by plant developmental stage. The extracts of shoots collected at the flowering period exhibited higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids than in the extracts of immature plants. A close correlation between the total phenolic content and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity using the DPPH and FRAP assays was obtained. The results of the present study suggest the use in vitro-derived plants of B. nigra instead of using wild plants for pharmaceutical purposes.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antioxidants/pharmacology
Ballota
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Ballota/chemistry
Flavonoids/analysis
Phenols/analysis
Tissue Culture Techniques
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 151209
[Lr] Last revision date:151209
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151210
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26481607
[Au] Autor:AlarcÏŒn R; Pardo-de-Santayana M; Priestley C; Morales R; Heinrich M
[Ad] Address:Research Cluster Biodiversity and Medicines/Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, UCL School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK.
[Ti] Title:Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain).
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;176:207-24, 2015 Dec 24.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. METHODS: A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant's categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The three categories were divided in 27 subcategories (common uses). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The informants recognise and use a total of 184 species from 49 families. During interviews, 5658 individual use-reports were collected relating to three use-categories - as medicines, food and health-food. The two main groups with almost the same number of species each are health-food (75 species) and (locally gathered) food only (73), with medicinal uses only (36) being the smallest group. This highlights the important overlap between food and medicines. Overall, three core families were identified (based on the number of use reports and in the number of species): Asteraceae (25 species), Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (24 each). The most frequently reported species are Jasonia glutinosa, Chamaemelum nobile, Prunus spinosa and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota. The most important general use-subcategories are as raw vegetables (27.43% of the use-reports and including 81 species), infusions (14.74%/42) and gastrointestinal (12.53%/42). Conceptually foods and medicines are clearly distinguished but the intermediate group of health foods is more ambiguous. CONCLUSION: Food and medicinal uses of plants are culturally closely linked. A wide range of plants are known and many still used. The analysis shows that the Basques use a wide range of species which are typical for Western European cultures. In comparison to other studies in the Mediterranean countries there are many similarities in the uses of different families, species of plants and their use and preparations. Some of these plants are key Mediterranean species, often used for a multitude of uses as food and medicine.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Plants, Edible
Plants, Medicinal
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Ethnobotany
Female
Humans
Male
Medicine, Traditional
Middle Aged
Phytotherapy
Spain
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151021
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26387739
[Au] Autor:Martínez-Francés V; Rivera D; Heinrich M; Obón C; Ríos S
[Ad] Address:Biological Research Station - Botanical Garden of Torretes, Institute of Biodiversity CIBIO, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Electronic address: vanessa.martinez@ua.es.
[Ti] Title:An ethnopharmacological and historical analysis of "Dictamnus", a European traditional herbal medicine.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;175:390-406, 2015 Dec 04.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND BACKGROUND: "Dictamnus" was a popular name for a group of medicinal herbaceous plant species of the Rutaceae and Lamiaceae, which since the 4th century have been used for gynaecological problems and other illnesses BCE and still appear in numerous ethnobotanical records. AIMS: This research has as four overarching aims: Determining the historical evolution of medical preparations labelled "Dictamnus" and the different factors affecting this long-standing herbal tradition. Deciphering and differentiating those medicinal uses of "Dictamnus" which strictly correspond to Dictamnus (Rutaceae), from those of Origanum dictamnus and other Lamiaceae species. Quantitatively assessing the dependence from herbal books, and pharmaceutical tradition, of modern Dictamnus ethnobotanical records. Determining whether differences between Western and Eastern Europe exist with regards to the Dictamnus albus uses in ethnopharmacology and ethnomedicine. METHODS: An exhaustive review of herbals, classical pharmacopoeias, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological literature was conducted. Systematic analysis of uses reported which were standardized according to International Classification of Diseases - 10 and multivariate analysis using factorial, hierarchical and neighbour joining methods was undertaken. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The popular concept "Dictamnus" includes Origanum dictamnus L., Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth. and B. acetabulosa (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae), as well as Dictamnus albus L. and D. hispanicus Webb ex Willk. (Rutaceae), with 86 different types of uses. Between 1000 and 1700 CE numerous complex preparations with "Dictamnus" were used in the treatment of 35 different pathologies. On biogeographical grounds the widespread D. albus is a far more likely prototypical "Dictamnus" than the Cretan endemic Origanum dictamnus. However both form integral parts of the "Dictamnus" complex. Evidence exists for a sufficiently long and coherent tradition for D. albus and D. hispanicus, use to treat 47 different categories of diseases. CONCLUSIONS: This approach is a model for understanding the cultural history of plants and their role as resources for health care. "Dictamnus" shows how transmission of traditional knowledge about materia medica, over 26 centuries, represents remarkable levels of development and innovation. All this lead us to call attention to D. albus and D. hispanicus which are highly promising as potential herbal drug leads. The next steps of research should be to systematically analyse phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical evidence and to develop safety, pharmacology and toxicology profiles of the traditional preparations.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Dictamnus
Medicine, Traditional/history
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Ethnopharmacology
Europe
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Phytotherapy/history
Plant Preparations/therapeutic use
[Pt] Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Preparations)
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 151215
[Lr] Last revision date:151215
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150922
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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