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[PMID]: 29471086
[Au] Autor:Sousa GA; Oliveira IS; Silva-Freitas FV; Viana AFSC; Neto BPS; Cunha FVM; Gonçalves RLG; Lima Filho ACM; Amaral MPM; Oliveira RCM; Fernandes PD; Maciel JKS; da Silva TMS; Souza MFV; Oliveira FA
[Ad] Address:Medicinal Plants Research Center, Federal University of Piauí, (unnumbered), 64049-550 Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. Electronic address: glaukham@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:Gastroprotective effect of ethanol extracts of cladodes and roots of Pilosocereus gounellei (A. Weber ex K. Schum.) Bly. Ex Rowl (Cactaceae) on experimental ulcer models.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;218:100-108, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pilosocereus gounellei Cactaceae), popularly known as "xique xique", is a species native from Caatinga region of Northeast Brazil, which is used by traditional communities in folk medicine for a variety of health problems, especially inflammatory processes and gastritis. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study investigates the possible gastric antiulceractivity of ethanol extracts obtained from the cladodes and roots of Pilosocereus gounellei (EECPG and EERPG, respectively) and mechanisms of action underlying this effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were used for the evaluation of the acute toxicity, and mice and rats to study the gastroprotective activity. The gastroprotective action of EECPG and EERPG was analyzed in the absolute ethanol in mice, ischemia-reperfusion and cold restraint stress in rats. In the investigation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of EECPG and EERPG, the participation of the NO and prostaglandins, the levels of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH) and the catalase activity using the ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesion model and the quantification of the gastric mucus and the antisecretory activity through pylorus ligature model in rats were analyzed. RESULTS: The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity for the EECPG and EERPG, and it was not possible to calculate the DL50. EECPG and EERPG (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant gastroprotective effect in absolute ethanol, ischemia-reperfusion-induced and cold restraint stress gastric lesion models. Gastroprotection of EECPG and EERPG (200 mg/kg) was significantly decreased in pre-treated mice with L-NAME. Our studies revealed that EECPG and EERPG (200 mg/kg) prevented the decrease of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NPSH) and increased the catalase levels in ethanol-treated animals. However, the gastric secretion parameters (volume, [H+], pH) did not show any alteration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the ethanolic extract from the cladodes and roots of Pilosocereus gounellei exhibits a significant gastroprotection, because it inhibits the formation of gastric lesions using different models. The participation of the nitric oxide, prostaglandins, the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH), catalase seem to be involved in the gastroprotection activity of the EECPG and EERPG. Nevertheless, this activity does not seem to be related to antisecretory mechanisms.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 630 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505686
[Au] Autor:Morales-Linares J; García-Franco JG; Flores-Palacios A; Valenzuela-González JE; Mata-Rosas M; Díaz-Castelazo C
[Ad] Address:Red de Ecología Funcional.
[Ti] Title:Orchid seed removal by ants in Neotropical ant-gardens.
[So] Source:Plant Biol (Stuttg);, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8677
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Most plants that inhabit in ant-gardens (AGs) are cultivated by ants. Some orchids occur in AGs, however, it is unknown if their seeds are dispersed by AG ants, because most of the orchid seeds are tiny and dispersed by wind. We performed in situ seed removal experiments, in which we simultaneously provided Azteca gnava ants with seeds of three AG orchid species and of another three AG epiphyte species (Bromeliaceae, Cactaceae and Gesneriaceae), as well as the non-AG orchid species Catasetum integerrimum. The seeds most removed were those of the bromeliad Aechmea tillandsioides and of the gesneriad Codonanthe uleana, while seeds of AG orchids Coryanthes picturata, Epidendrum flexuosum and Epidendrum pachyrachis were less removed. The non-AG orchid was not removed. Removal values were positively correlated with the frequency of the AG epiphytes in the AGs, and seeds of AG orchids were larger than those of non-AG orchids, which should favour the myrmecochory. Our data show that Azt. gnava ants discriminate and preferentially remove seeds of the AG epiphytes. We report for the first time the removal of AG orchid seeds by AG ants in Neotropical AGs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/plb.12715

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[PMID]: 29450960
[Au] Autor:Aguilar-García SA; Figueroa-Castro DM; Valverde PL; Vite F
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Biología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-535, 09340, Ciudad de México, México.
[Ti] Title:Effect of flower orientation on the male and female traits of Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae).
[So] Source:Plant Biol (Stuttg);, 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8677
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:1.Intra-individual variation in the production and size of reproductive traits has been documented in columnar cacti, being higher in Equator-facing flowers. Such variation is attributed to the high amount of photosynthetic active radiation intercepted by stems oriented towards the Equator. Most studies focused on this phenomenon have documented the existence of intra-individual variation on traits associated with the female function; however, its impact on traits associated with the male function has been neglected. We tested the hypothesis that Equator facing flowers of Myrtillocactus geometrizans exhibit higher values on traits associated with both male and female functions than flowers facing against it. 2.Number and size of anthers and ovaries, pollen:ovule ratio, and number and quality of pollen grains (diameter, germinability, viability and pollen tube length) were estimated from reproductive structures facing northward and southward, and compared with t-tests between orientations. 3.Number of anthers per flower, number of pollen grains per anther and per floral bud; pollen size, viability and germinability; pollen tube length; ovary length, and pollen:ovule ratio were significantly higher in reproductive structures oriented towards the south (i.e. Equator). 4.These findings suggest that intra-individual variation in floral traits of M. geometrizans might be associated with different availability of resources in branches with contrasting orientation. Our results provide new evidence of the existence of a response to an orientation-dependent extrinsic gradient. To our knowledge, this is the first study documenting the existence of intra-individual variation on pollen quality and P:O ratio in Cactaceae species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180216
[Lr] Last revision date:180216
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/plb.12713

  4 / 630 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29342184
[Au] Autor:Alvarado-Sizzo H; Casas A; Parra F; Arreola-Nava HJ; Terrazas T; Sánchez C
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad (IIES), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia, Michoacán, México.
[Ti] Title:Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae) species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190385, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cactaceae/classification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Bayes Theorem
Cactaceae/genetics
Genes, Plant
Models, Theoretical
Species Specificity
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180215
[Lr] Last revision date:180215
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180118
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190385

  5 / 630 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29444386
[Au] Autor:Maceda A; Soto-Hernández M; Peña-Valdivia CB; Terrazas T
[Ad] Address:Programa de Botánica, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Estado de México, 56230, Mexico.
[Ti] Title:Chemical composition of cacti wood and comparison with the wood of other taxonomic groups.
[So] Source:Chem Biodivers;, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1612-1880
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aims of this study were to determine the wood chemical composition of 25 species of Cactaceae and to relate the composition to their anatomical diversity. The hypothesis was that wood chemical components differ in relationship to their wood features. The results showed significant differences in wood chemical compounds across species and genera (p < 0.05). Pereskia had the highest percentage of lignin, whereas species of Coryphantha had the lowest; extractive compounds in water were highest for Echinocereus, Mammillaria and Opuntia. Principal component analysis showed that lignin proportion separated the fibrous, dimorphic and non-fibrous groups; additionally, the differences within each type of wood occurred because of the lignification of the vascular tissue and the type of wall thickening. Compared with other groups of species, the Cactaceae species with fibrous and dimorphic wood had a higher lignin percentage than did gymnosperms and Acer species. Lignin may confer special rigidity to tracheary elements to withstand desiccation without damage during adverse climatic conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180214
[Lr] Last revision date:180214
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/cbdv.201700574

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[PMID]: 29411284
[Au] Autor:Bouaouine O; Bourven I; Khalil F; Baudu M
[Ad] Address:Groupement de Recherche Eau, Sol et Environnement (GRESE), University of Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060, Limoges, France.
[Ti] Title:Identification of functional groups of Opuntia ficus-indica involved in coagulation process after its active part extraction.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Opuntia ficus-indica that belongs to the Cactaceae family and is a member of Opuntia kind has received increasing research interest for wastewater treatment by flocculation. The objectives of this study were (i) to provide more information regarding the active constituents of Opuntia spp. and (ii) to improve the extracting and using conditions of the flocculant molecules for water treatment. A classic approach by jar test experiments was used with raw and extracted material by solubilization and precipitation. The surface properties of solid material were characterized by FTIR, SEM, zeta potential measurement, and surface titration. The splitting based on the solubility of the material with pH and the titration of functional groups completed the method. The optimal pH value for a coagulation-flocculation process using cactus solid material (CSM) was 10.0 and a processing rate of 35 mg L . The alkaline pH of flocculation suggests an adsorption mechanism with bridging effect between particles by water-soluble extracted molecules. To validate this mechanism, an extraction water was carried out at pH = 10 (optimum of flocculation) and the solution was acidified (pH = 7) to allow precipitation of so considered active flocculant molecules. The strong flocculant property of this extract was verified, and titration of this solution showed at least one specific pKa of 9.0 ± 0.6. This pKa corresponds to phenol groups, which could be assigned to lignin and tannin.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180207
[Lr] Last revision date:180207
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11356-018-1394-7

  7 / 630 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29376078
[Au] Autor:Saad AB; Rjeibi I; Ncib S; Zouari N; Zourgui L
[Ad] Address:Research Unit of Macromolecular Biochemistry and Genetics, Faculty of Sciences of Gafsa, University of Gafsa, 2112 Gafsa, Tunisia.
[Ti] Title:Ameliorative Effect of Cactus Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study.
[So] Source:Biomed Res Int;2017:8215392, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2314-6141
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:(family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180129
[Lr] Last revision date:180129
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1155/2017/8215392

  8 / 630 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29156089
[Au] Autor:Arzabe AA; Aguirre LF; Baldelomar MP; Molina-Montenegro MA
[Ad] Address:Centro de Biodiversidad y Genética, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Campus Universitario Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnología, Casilla Postal 538, 2500, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
[Ti] Title:Assessing the geographical dichotomy hypothesis with cacti in South-America.
[So] Source:Plant Biol (Stuttg);, 2017 Nov 20.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8677
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Cactaceae is one of the most conspicuous and ecologically important plant families in the world; its species may have specialist or generalist pollination systems that show geographical patterns, which are synthesized in the Geographical Dichotomy Hypothesis. Here, we assess this hypothesis in five countries in both tropical and extratropical regions, evaluating the pollinator visitation rate and pollinator identity and abundance. We calculate the Shannon diversity index (H') and evenness (J) and evaluate the differences between latitude parameters by a t-student test. Overall, we found more specialized pollination systems in all tropical sites; the richness, diversity and evenness of pollinators was reduced in comparison to extratropical regions where the pollination system was generalized. Our results support the geographical dichotomy hypothesis in the cacti of South America, suggesting that environmental factors behind the latitudinal patterns can help to explain the difference in the pollination syndrome between tropical and extratropical regions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171120
[Lr] Last revision date:171120
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/plb.12669

  9 / 630 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29142394
[Au] Autor:Lanuzza F; Occhiuto F; Monforte MT; Tripodo MM; D'Angelo V; Galati EM
[Ad] Address:Department of Economics, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98122 Messina, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Antioxidant Phytochemicals of (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity.
[So] Source:Pharmacogn Mag;13(Suppl 3):S424-S429, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0973-1296
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Results: Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, ß-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. Conclusion: The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca for muscle contraction. SUMMARY: (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%Polyphenols and Vitamin E complex occurrence in OFI cladodes were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatographyOFI cladodes exhibited significative antispasmodic activity. The antispasmodic effect was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. OFI: , DPPH: Ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171119
[Lr] Last revision date:171119
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_495_16

  10 / 630 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29046708
[Au] Autor:Martínez-González CR; Ramírez-Mendoza R; Jiménez-Ramírez J; Gallegos-Vázquez C; Luna-Vega I
[Ad] Address:Laboratorio de Biogeografía y Sistemática, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 Mexico City, México.
[Ti] Title:Improved method for genomic DNA extraction for Mill. (Cactaceae).
[So] Source:Plant Methods;13:82, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1746-4811
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Genomic DNA extracted from species of Cactaceae is often contaminated with significant amounts of mucilage and pectin. Pectin is one of the main components of cellular walls, whereas mucilage is a complex polysaccharide with a ramified structure. Thus, pectin- and mucilage-free extraction of DNA is a key step for further downstream PCR-based analyses. RESULTS: We tested our DNA extraction method on cladode tissue (juvenile, adult, and herbaria exemplars) of 17 species of Mill., which are characterized by a large quantity of pectin and mucilage. CONCLUSION: We developed a method for the extraction of gDNA free of inhibitory compounds common in species of Mill., such as pectin and mucilage. Compared to previously extraction protocols, our method produced higher yields of high-quality genomic DNA.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171022
[Lr] Last revision date:171022
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13007-017-0234-y


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