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[PMID]: 29335788
[Au] Autor:Kumar RMS; Ji G; Guo H; Zhao L; Zheng B
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A & F University, Hangzhou, 311300, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Over-expression of a grafting-responsive gene from hickory increases abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.
[So] Source:Plant Cell Rep;37(3):541-552, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1432-203X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:KEY MESSAGE: A grafting response gene CcPIP1;2 was cloned from hickory plant, further functional characterization of the gene for water transport activity and abiotic stress tolerances were carried out through heterologous expression in Xenopus and Arabidopsis. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are multifunctional channel proteins belonging to the membrane intrinsic protein (MIP) family. In this study, a grafting-responsive gene from hickory (CcPIP1;2) was cloned and functionally characterized. Application of non-selective water inhibitors (HgCl and phloretin) led to the death of grafted hickory plants at 30 days after grafting (DAG). Furthermore, the transcript accumulation of the selected CcPIP1;2 gene was gradually decreased from 0 to 14 DAG in the grafted samples under inhibitor treatment conditions. Transient expression analysis of the GFP-CcPIP1;2 fusion protein showed that CcPIP1;2 was located at plasma membrane. Heterologous expression of CcPIP1;2 protein in the Xenopus oocyte system helped the access of water into the cells. Over-expression of CcPIP1;2 in Arabidopsis improved the percentage of seed germination when the seeds were grown in H O -, ABA-, and mannitol-containing media, but had no effect when grown in the salt containing media. CcPIP1;2 transgenic plants grew better under drought conditions. The expression of various ABA-related stress marker genes as well as cell wall expansin marker genes was significantly higher in CcPIP1;2 over-expression Arabidopsis lines than in the wild type (WT).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180225
[Lr] Last revision date:180225
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00299-018-2250-4

  2 / 216 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29214445
[Au] Autor:Saravana Kumar RM; Gao LX; Yuan HW; Xu DB; Liang Z; Tao SC; Guo WB; Yan DL; Zheng BS; Edqvist J
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory for Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A and F University, Linan, 311300, Zhejiang, China.
[Ti] Title:Auxin enhances grafting success in Carya cathayensis (Chinese hickory).
[So] Source:Planta;247(3):761-772, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1432-2048
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:MAIN CONCLUSION: Application of auxin to root stock and scion increases the success rate of grafting in Chinese hickory. The nuts of the Chinese hickory (Carya cathayensis) tree are considered both delicious and healthy. The popularity and high demand result is that the hickory nuts are of very high economical value for horticulture. This is particularly true for the Zhejiang province in eastern China where this tree is widely cultivated. However, there are several difficulties surrounding the hickory cultivation, such as for example long vegetative growth, tall trees, labour-intensive nut picking, and slow variety improvements. These complications form a great bottleneck in the expansion of the hickory industry. The development of an efficient grafting procedure could surpass at least some of these problems. In this study, we demonstrate that application of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid promotes the grafting process in hickory, whereas application of the auxin transport inhibitor 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid inhibits the grafting process. Furthermore, we have identified hickory genes in the PIN, ABCB, and AUX/LAX-families known to encode influx and efflux carriers in the polar transport of auxin. We show that increased expression of several of these genes, such as CcPIN1b and CcLAX3, is correlating with successful grafting.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00425-017-2824-3

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[PMID]: 29462910
[Au] Autor:Jia X; Luo H; Xu M; Zhai M; Guo Z; Qiao Y; Wang L
[Ad] Address:College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China. 2012204006@njau.edu.cn.
[Ti] Title:Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity during Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) Kernel Ripening and Its Phenolics Profiles.
[So] Source:Molecules;23(2), 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Pecan ( ) kernels have a high phenolics content and a high antioxidant capacity compared to other nuts-traits that have attracted great interest of late. Changes in the total phenolic content (TPC), condensed tannins (CT), total flavonoid content (TFC), five individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of five pecan cultivars were investigated during the process of kernel ripening. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) was also used to analyze the phenolics profiles in mixed pecan kernels. TPC, CT, TFC, individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity were changed in similar patterns, with values highest at the water or milk stages, lowest at milk or dough stages, and slightly varied at kernel stages. Forty phenolics were tentatively identified in pecan kernels, of which two were first reported in the genus , six were first reported in , and one was first reported in its kernel. The findings on these new phenolic compounds provide proof of the high antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180221
[Lr] Last revision date:180221
[St] Status:In-Process

  4 / 216 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29381450
[Au] Autor:Young C; Bock C; Charlton N; Mattupalli C; Krom ND; Bowen JK; Templeton MD; Plummer K; Wood BW
[Ad] Address:Noble Research Institute LLC, 1290, Ardmore, Oklahoma, United States ; cayoung@noble.org.
[Ti] Title:Evidence for sexual reproduction: identification, frequency and spatial distribution of Venturia effusa (pecan scab) mating type idiomorphs.
[So] Source:Phytopathology;, 2018 Jan 30.
[Is] ISSN:0031-949X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Venturia effusa (syn. Fusicladium effusum), causal agent of pecan scab, is the most prevalent pathogen of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) causing severe yield losses in the southeastern U.S.A. Venturia effusa is currently known only by its asexual (conidial) stage. However, the degree and distribution of genetic diversity observed within and among populations of V. effusa are typical of a sexually reproducing fungal pathogen, and comparable to other Dothideomycetes with a known sexual stage, including the closely related apple scab pathogen, V. inaequalis. Using the mating type idiomorphs from V. inaequalis we identified a single mating-type gene, MAT1-1-1, in a draft genome of V. effusa. The MAT1-1-1 locus is flanked by two conserved genes encoding a DNA lyase (APN2) and a hypothetical protein. The mating type locus spanning the flanking genes was amplified and sequenced from a subset of 14 isolates, of which seven contained MAT1-1-1 and the remaining samples contained MAT1-2-1. A multiplex PCR screen was developed to amplify MAT1-1-1, MAT1-2-1, and a conserved reference gene (TUB2), and used to screen 784 mono-conidial isolates of V. effusa collected from 11 populations of pecan across the southeastern U.S.A. A hierarchical sampling protocol representing region, orchard and tree allowed for analysis of mating type structure at different spatial scales. Analysis of this collection revealed the frequency of the mating type idiomorphs is in a 1:1 equilibrium of MAT1-1:MAT1-2. The apparent equilibrium of the mating type idiomorphs provides impetus for a renewed effort to search for the sexual stage of V. effusa.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180130
[Lr] Last revision date:180130
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-07-17-0233-R

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[PMID]: 29187147
[Au] Autor:Sun ZC; Zhang LS; Wang ZJ
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, School of Forestry and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou, 311300, China.
[Ti] Title:Genome-wide analysis of miRNAs in Carya cathayensis.
[So] Source:BMC Plant Biol;17(1):228, 2017 Nov 29.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2229
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in plant development regulation. Hickory is an economically important plant in which the amount of flowering determines its production. RESULTS: Here, 51 conserved miRNAs, which belong to 16 families and 195 novel miRNAs were identified in hickory genome. For each conserved miRNA family, we used sequences from hickory and other plants to construct a phylogenetic tree, which shows that each family has members in hickory. Some of the conserved miRNA families (i.e., miR167 and miR397) have more members in hickory than in other plants because of gene expansion. MiR166 exhibited tandem duplication with three copies being observed. Many members of these conserved miRNA families were detected in hickory flowers, and the expression patterns of target genes were opposite to those of the related miRNAs, indicating that miRNAs may have important functions in floral regulation of hickory. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, a comprehensive analysis was conducted to identify miRNAs produced in hickory flower organs, demonstrating functional conservation and diversity of miRNA families among hickory, Arabidopsis, grape, and poplar.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171219
[Lr] Last revision date:171219
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12870-017-1180-6

  6 / 216 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29052847
[Au] Autor:Wagener EA; Kerr WL
[Ad] Address:Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
[Ti] Title:Effects of oil content on the sensory, textural, and physical properties of pecan butter (Carya illinoinensis).
[So] Source:J Texture Stud;, 2017 Oct 20.
[Is] ISSN:1745-4603
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:It has been difficult to produce acceptable pecan butters as the high oil content results in a product that flows and separates too easily. The objective of this work was to create pecan butters with varying oil levels (50-70%) and determine which would give the most acceptable product. Consumers rated pecan butters with 55-60% oil the most acceptable, whether roasted or not. Acceptability varied most in terms of texture and spreadability, but not flavor. Under large deformation firmness varied from 51.8 g (70% oil) to 4,880 g (50%) oil, while "spreadability" ranged from 19.2 to 7748 (g/s). Samples with 70% oil had the lowest viscosity and were Newtonian. Pecan butters with 50-55% oil had high viscosity and were shear thinning. Yield stress decreased with oil content, ranging from 0.014 to 500 Pa. The storage modulus (G') increased from ∼7 Pa for samples with 70% oil up to 260,000 Pa for those with 50% oil. In conjunction, tan δ decreased from 1 to 0.07, showing the products take on much more solid-like behavior as oil is removed. In conclusion, the rheological properties of pecan butter were quite sensitive to the amount of oil in the product. Differences in acceptability were primarily due to "texture" and "spreadability," suggesting there is a limited range of firmness and spreadability that consumers will deem acceptable. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: There has been considerable demand for butters and spreads made from a variety of culinary nuts. Pecans generally have too much oil (∼70%) to make a product with proper consistency and stability. In this study, some of the oil was removed to overcome this problem. It was found that pecan butter with 55-60% oil was most acceptable to consumers and with the level of firmness, yield stress, and spreadability most similar to commercial nut butters. The oil was relatively simple to remove from unroasted nuts, thus manufacturers could easily produce more acceptable pecan butter for the market.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171115
[Lr] Last revision date:171115
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/jtxs.12304

  7 / 216 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29028999
[Au] Autor:Shapiro-Ilan DI; Cottrell TE; Bock C; Mai K; Boykin D; Wells L; Hudson WG; Mizell RF
[Ad] Address:Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Lab, USDA-ARS, 21 Dunbar Road, Byron, GA 31008.
[Ti] Title:Control of Pecan Weevil With Microbial Biopesticides.
[So] Source:Environ Entomol;, 2017 Sep 23.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2936
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pecans Carya illinoinensis ([Wangenh.] K. Koch) (Fagales: Juglandaceae). Control recommendations rely on broad spectrum chemical insecticides. Due to regulatory and environmental concerns, effective alternatives for C. caryae control must be sought for pecan production in conventional and organic systems. We explored the use of microbial biopesticides for control of C. caryae in Georgia pecan orchards. Three experiments were conducted. The first investigated an integrated microbial control approach in an organic system at two locations. Three microbial agents, Grandevo (based on byproducts of the bacterium Chromobacterium subtsugae Martin, Gundersen-Rindal, Blackburn & Buyer), the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, were applied to each treatment plot (0.6 ha) at different times during the season. A second experiment compared the effects of S. carpocapsae and B. bassiana applied as single treatments relative to application of both agents (at different times); survival of C. caryae was assessed approximately 11 mo after larvae were added to pots sunk in an organic pecan orchard. In a conventional orchard (with 1.0 ha plots), the third experiment compared Grandevo applications to a commonly used regime of chemical insecticides (carbaryl alternated with a pyrethroid). All experiments were repeated in consecutive years. The combined pest management tactic (experiment 1) reduced C. caryae infestation relative to non-treated control plots in both locations in 2014 and one of the two locations in 2015 (the other location had less than 1% infestation). In experiment 2, no differences among combined microbial treatments, single-applied microbial treatments or different numbers of application were observed, yet all microbial treatments reduced C. caryae survival relative to the control. In the third experiment, both Grandevo and standard chemical insecticide applications resulted in lower weevil infestation than the control (both years) and there was no difference between the insecticide treatments in 2014 although the chemical insecticide regime had slightly lower infestation in 2015. These results provide evidence that microbial biopesticides can substantially reduce pecan weevil infestations in organic and nonorganic systems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171013
[Lr] Last revision date:171013
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/ee/nvx144

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[PMID]: 28812908
[Au] Autor:Farakos SMS; Pouillot R; Johnson R; Spungen J; Son I; Anderson N; Davidson GR; Doren JMV
[Ad] Address:1 U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park, Maryland 20740 (ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6107-5212 [R.P.]); and.
[Ti] Title:A Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Arising from the Consumption of Pecans in the United States.
[So] Source:J Food Prot;80(9):1574-1591, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1944-9097
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A quantitative risk assessment was conducted to assess the risk of human salmonellosis acquired from consumption of pecans in the United States. The model considered the potential for Salmonella survival, growth, and recontamination of pecans from the sheller to the consumer, including steps such as immersion in water, drying, conditioning, cracking, partitioning, and storage. Five theoretical microbial reduction treatment levels (1 to 5 log CFU) were modeled. Data from the 2010 to 2013 surveys by the National Pecan Shellers Association were used for initial prevalence and contamination levels. The impacts of atypical situations in the pecan production system were also evaluated. Higher initial contamination levels, recontamination during processing, and a delay in drying postconditioning were the modeled atypical situations. The baseline model predicted a mean risk of salmonellosis in the United States from consumption of in-shell and shelled pecans processed by cold conditioning with no microbial reduction treatment and no further home cooking as 1 case per 775,193 servings (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1 case per 1,915,709 to 178,253 servings). This predicted risk per serving was estimated as a mean of 529 cases of salmonellosis per year (95% CI: 213 to 2,295 cases). Hot conditioning for shelled pecans and microbial reduction treatment of both shelled and in-shell pecans had a significant impact on the predicted mean risk of illness. Assuming 77% of the shelled pecans sold at retail (i.e., 80% of the retail supply) received hot conditioning, the mean estimated salmonellosis cases per year from consumption of in-shell and shelled pecans uncooked at home was 203 (95% CI: 81 to 882 cases) if no additional microbial reduction treatment were applied. The predicted risk of illness per serving was higher for all atypical situations modeled compared with the baseline model, and delay in drying had the greatest impact on risk.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Carya/microbiology
Food Contamination/analysis
Risk Assessment
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Food Microbiology
Humans
Salmonella Food Poisoning/epidemiology
Salmonella Food Poisoning/prevention & control
United States
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170817
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-511

  9 / 216 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28755577
[Au] Autor:Bo J; Zhishan D
[Ad] Address:Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, Hangzhou, 310053, China.
[Ti] Title:Flavonoids from Carya cathayensis Sarg. leaves inhibit carotid artery lesion formation induced by low blood flow.
[So] Source:Biomed Pharmacother;94:88-92, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1950-6007
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the total flavonoids (TFs) from the leaves of Carya cathayensis Sarg. against early development of atherosclerosis. An in vivo model of carotid arterial partial ligation was established in mice, and the effects of TFs were investigated by morphometric measurements, Cell proliferation measurement and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that TFs could reduce neointima area by 41%, and the adventitial thickening induced by partial ligation was remarkable inhibited by TFs treatment. medial SMCs proliferation was significantly inhibited in TFs treated group. Immunohistochemistry analyses demonstrated that mice with TFs treatment have significant less macrophages accumulation in adventitia. These findings indicated that TFs have inhibitory effect in early atherosclerosis lesion formation model and strong action on reduce the inflammation in vivo.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170920
[Lr] Last revision date:170920
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 216 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28648053
[Au] Autor:Gong Y; Pegg RB
[Ad] Address:Department of Food Science & Technology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The University of Georgia , 100 Cedar Street, Athens, Georgia 30602, United States.
[Ti] Title:Separation of Ellagitannin-Rich Phenolics from U.S. Pecans and Chinese Hickory Nuts Using Fused-Core HPLC Columns and Their Characterization.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;65(28):5810-5820, 2017 Jul 19.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:U.S. pecans and Chinese hickory nuts possess a wide array of phenolic constituents with potential health benefits including phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins. Only limited information is available, however, on their compositions. The present study optimized the separation performance and characterized the low-molecular-weight phenolic fractions of these nuts with C18 and pentafluorophenyl (PFP) fused-core LC columns by employing a kinetic approach. Although both types of reversed-phase columns demonstrated similar performance in general, the PFP column furnished greater plate numbers and superior peak shapes for the low-molecular-weight fractions as well as overall separations of ellagic acid derivatives. The high-molecular-weight fraction of pecans, analyzed by a 3-m HILIC column, possessed more proanthocyanidins than the Chinese hickory nuts with dimers and trimers (31.4 and 18.34 mg/g crude extract, respectively) being present at the greatest levels. Chinese hickory nuts had lower proanthocyanidin content but possessed tetramers and pentamers at 4.46 and 4.01 mg/g crude extract, respectively.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Carya/chemistry
Hydrolyzable Tannins/analysis
Nuts/chemistry
Phenols/analysis
Plant Extracts/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: China
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Hydrolyzable Tannins/isolation & purification
Phenols/isolation & purification
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Proanthocyanidins/analysis
Proanthocyanidins/isolation & purification
United States
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hydrolyzable Tannins); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Proanthocyanidins); 0 (ellagitannin); 18206-61-6 (proanthocyanidin)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170728
[Lr] Last revision date:170728
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170627
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01597


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