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[PMID]: 29117184
[Au] Autor:Rossetto M; Ens EJ; Honings T; Wilson PD; Yap JS; Costello O; Round ER; Bowern C
[Ad] Address:National Herbarium of NSW, Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
[Ti] Title:From Songlines to genomes: Prehistoric assisted migration of a rain forest tree by Australian Aboriginal people.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0186663, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Prehistoric human activities have contributed to the dispersal of many culturally important plants. The study of these traditional interactions can alter the way we perceive the natural distribution and dynamics of species and communities. Comprehensive research on native crops combining evolutionary and anthropological data is revealing how ancient human populations influenced their distribution. Although traditional diets also included a suite of non-cultivated plants that in some cases necessitated the development of culturally important technical advances such as the treatment of toxic seed, empirical evidence for their deliberate dispersal by prehistoric peoples remains limited. Here we integrate historic and biocultural research involving Aboriginal people, with chloroplast and nuclear genomic data to demonstrate Aboriginal-mediated dispersal of a non-cultivated rainforest tree. RESULTS: We assembled new anthropological evidence of use and deliberate dispersal of Castanospermum australe (Fabaceae), a non-cultivated culturally important riparian tree that produces toxic but highly nutritious water-dispersed seed. We validated cultural evidence of recent human-mediated dispersal by revealing genomic homogeneity across extensively dissected habitat, multiple catchments and uneven topography in the southern range of this species. We excluded the potential contribution of other dispersal mechanisms based on the absence of suitable vectors and current distributional patterns at higher elevations and away from water courses, and by analyzing a comparative sample from northern Australia. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative studies integrating evolutionary and anthropological data will continue to reveal the unexpected impact that prehistoric people have had on current vegetation patterns. A better understanding of how traditional practices shaped species' distribution and assembly will directly inform cultural heritage management strategies, challenge "natural" species distribution assumptions, and provide innovative baseline data for pro-active biodiversity management.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171108
[Lr] Last revision date:171108
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186663

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[PMID]: 27986123
[Au] Autor:Hong YP; Chen C; Guo WY; Zhao L; Mei FC; Xiang MW; Wang WX
[Ad] Address:Department of General Surgery, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, PR China; Central Laboratory, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, PR China.
[Ti] Title:Effects of Castanospermine on Inflammatory Response in a Rat Model of Experimental Severe Acute Pancreatitis.
[So] Source:Arch Med Res;47(6):436-445, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5487
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory disorder characterized by autodigestion of pancreatic tissue resulting in local pancreatic injury or systemic inflammatory response. Castanospermine (CAST) is an alkaloid from the Castanospermum australe, known as an anti-inflammatory agent and immunosuppressant in animal experiments. However, whether CAST can attenuate AP remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of CAST on sodium taurocholate (STC)-induced severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats and the pertinent mechanism. METHODS: SAP was induced in rats by a retrograde infusion of 5% STC (1 mL/kg) into the biliopancreatic duct. CAST (10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was then administered via intraperitoneal injection. Measurement of serum amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and pancreas pathological grading was used to estimate the severity of pancreatitis. Serum levels of interleukin (IL) -1ß, IL-6 and IL-10 were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nuclear factor (NF) -κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression in pancreas was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Administration of CAST following SAP was found to ameliorate the acute pancreatic tissue injury and exhibit a more appropriately protective effect at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. In addition, it decreased the interleukin production in serum and NF-κB activation, TNF-α, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 up-regulation in pancreatic tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that CAST exerts a protective effect on SAP in rats.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
Indolizines/therapeutic use
Pancreatitis/prevention & control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Acute Disease
Animals
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
Interleukin-10/blood
Interleukin-1beta/blood
Interleukin-6/blood
Male
NF-kappa B/metabolism
Pancreas/drug effects
Pancreas/metabolism
Pancreatitis/chemically induced
Pancreatitis/metabolism
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Taurocholic Acid
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Up-Regulation
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (IL10 protein, human); 0 (Indolizines); 0 (Interleukin-1beta); 0 (Interleukin-6); 0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha); 0 (Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1); 126547-89-5 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1); 130068-27-8 (Interleukin-10); 5E090O0G3Z (Taurocholic Acid); Q0I3184XM7 (castanospermine)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170526
[Lr] Last revision date:170526
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161218
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27011919
[Au] Autor:Hibberd AD; Clark DA; Trevillian PR; Mcelduff P
[Ad] Address:Adrian D Hibberd, David A Clark, Paul R Trevillian, Newcastle Transplant Unit, Division of Surgery, John Hunter Hospital, Hunter Region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Interaction between castanospermine an immunosuppressant and cyclosporin A in rat cardiac transplantation.
[So] Source:World J Transplant;6(1):206-14, 2016 Mar 24.
[Is] ISSN:2220-3230
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIM: To investigate the interaction between castanospermine and cyclosporin A (CsA) and to provide an explanation for it. METHODS: The alkaloid castanospermine was prepared from the seeds of Castanospermum austral consistently achieving purity. Rat heterotopic cardiac transplantation and mixed lymphocyte reactivity were done using genetically inbred strains of PVG (donor) and DA (recipient). For the mixed lymphocyte reaction stimulator cells were irradiated with 3000 rads using a linear accelerator. Cyclosporin A was administered by gavage and venous blood collected 2 h later (C2). The blood levels of CsA (Neoral) were measured by immunoassay which consisted of a homogeneous enzyme assay (EMIT) on Cobas Mira. Statistical analyses of interactions were done by an accelerated failure time model with Weibull distribution for allograft survival and logistic regression for the mixed lymphocyte reactivity. RESULTS: Castanospermine prolonged transplant survival times as a function of dose even at relatively low doses. Cyclosporin A also prolonged transplant survival times as a function of dose particularly at doses above 2 mg/kg. There were synergistic interactions between castanospermine and CsA in the prolongation of cardiac allograft survival for dose ranges of CsA by castanospermine of (0 to 2) mg/kg by (0 to 200) mg/kg (HR = 0.986; 95%CI: 0.981-0.992; P < 0.001) and (0 to 3) mg/kg by (0 to 100) mg/kg (HR = 0.986; 95%CI: 0.981-0.992; P < 0.001) respectively. The addition of castanospermine did not significantly increase the levels of cyclosporin A on day 3 or day 6 for all doses of CsA. On the contrary, cessation of castanospermine in the presence of CsA at 2 mg/kg significantly increased the CsA level (P = 0.002). Castanospermine inhibited mixed lymphocyte reactivity in a dose dependent manner but without synergistic interaction. CONCLUSION: There is synergistic interaction between castanospermine and CsA in rat cardiac transplantation. Neither the mixed lymphocyte reaction nor the metabolism of CsA provides an explanation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1603
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160325
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5500/wjt.v6.i1.206

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[PMID]: 25817832
[Au] Autor:Kite GC; Cardoso D; Lewis GP; Zartman CE; de Queiroz LP; Veitch NC
[Ad] Address:Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK. Electronic address: g.kite@kew.org.
[Ti] Title:Monomethyl ethers of 4,5-dihydroxypipecolic acid from Petaladenium urceoliferum: Enigmatic chemistry of an enigmatic legume.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;116:198-202, 2015 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Leaves of Petaladenium (Leguminosae), an Amazonian monospecific genus recently revealed as a member of the Amburaneae clade among the earliest-diverging papilionoid legumes, were found to accumulate three monomethyl ethers of 4,5-dihydroxypipecolic acids. These were characterised by spectroscopic means as the (2S,4S,5R) and (2S,4R,5S) epimers of 5-hydroxy-4-methoxypipecolic acid and (2S,4R,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-methoxypipecolic acid. These compounds were not detected in any other genera in the Amburaneae clade or the wider Angylocalyceae-Dipterygeae-Amburaneae (ADA) clade of papilionoid legumes. Hydroxypipecolic acids, however, were detected in leaves of Myrocarpus and Myroxylon (sister genera in the Amburaneae clade), Angylocalyx and Xanthocercis (sister genera in the Angylocalyceae clade) and Monopteryx (Dipterygeae clade), and were also present in Petaladenium. Iminosugars, known to be accumulated by all four genera in the Angylocalyceae clade (Alexa, Angylocalyx, Castanospermum and Xanthocercis), were found to be characteristic of this group within the ADA clade.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Fabaceae/chemistry
Pipecolic Acids/isolation & purification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Molecular Structure
Pipecolic Acids/chemistry
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Stereoisomerism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (4,5-dihydroxypipecolic acid); 0 (Pipecolic Acids)
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Cu] Class update date: 170815
[Lr] Last revision date:170815
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150331
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 25583438
[Au] Autor:Kato A; Hirokami Y; Kinami K; Tsuji Y; Miyawaki S; Adachi I; Hollinshead J; Nash RJ; Kiappes JL; Zitzmann N; Cha JK; Molyneux RJ; Fleet GW; Asano N
[Ad] Address:Department of Hospital Pharmacy, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan. Electronic address: kato@med.u-toyama.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Isolation and SAR studies of bicyclic iminosugars from Castanospermum australe as glycosidase inhibitors.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;111:124-31, 2015 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We report the isolation and structural determination of fourteen iminosugars, containing five pyrrolizidines and five indolizidines, from Castanospermum australe. The structure of a new alkaloid was elucidated by spectroscopic methods as 6,8-diepi-castanospermine (13). Our side-by-side comparison between bicyclic and corresponding monocyclic iminosugars revealed that inhibition potency and spectrum against each enzyme are clearly changed by their core structures. Castanospermine (10) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) have a common d-gluco configuration, and they showed the expected similar inhibition potency and spectrum. In sharp contrast, 6-epi-castanospermine (12) and 1-deoxymannojirimycin (manno-DNJ) both have the d-manno configuration but the α-mannosidase inhibition of 6-epi-castanospermine (12) was much better than that of manno-DNJ. 6,8-Diepi-castanospermine (13) could be regarded as a bicyclic derivative of talo-DNJ, but it showed a complete loss of α-galactosidase A inhibition. This behavior against α-galactosidase A is similar to that observed for 1-epi-australine (6) and altro-DMDP.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/isolation & purification
Alkaloids/pharmacology
Castanospermum/chemistry
Enzyme Inhibitors/isolation & purification
Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
Glycoside Hydrolases/antagonists & inhibitors
Imino Sugars/isolation & purification
Imino Sugars/pharmacology
Indolizines/isolation & purification
Indolizines/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: 1-Deoxynojirimycin/analogs & derivatives
1-Deoxynojirimycin/chemistry
1-Deoxynojirimycin/pharmacology
Alkaloids/chemistry
Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry
Glucosamine/analogs & derivatives
Glucosamine/chemistry
Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry
Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
Imino Sugars/chemistry
Indolizines/chemistry
Piperidines/pharmacology
Stereoisomerism
Structure-Activity Relationship
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (1-deoxy-nojirimycin); 0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Imino Sugars); 0 (Indolizines); 0 (Piperidines); 0V5436JAQW (miglitol); 19130-96-2 (1-Deoxynojirimycin); EC 3.2.1.- (Glycoside Hydrolases); N08U5BOQ1K (Glucosamine); Q0I3184XM7 (castanospermine)
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150217
[Lr] Last revision date:150217
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150114
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 24909952
[Au] Autor:Ballesteros D; Sershen; Varghese B; Berjak P; Pammenter NW
[Ad] Address:Plant Germplasm Conservation Research, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Ring Road, Westville Campus, Durban 4001, South Africa. Electronic address: daniel.ballesteros@uv.es.
[Ti] Title:Uneven drying of zygotic embryos and embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds: challenges and considerations for cryopreservation.
[So] Source:Cryobiology;69(1):100-9, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2392
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cryopreservation is the most promising option for the long-term germplasm conservation of recalcitrant-seeded species. However, the variable post-cryo success achieved with the excised zygotic explants traditionally used for cryopreservation has been a concern for some time. Differential drying rates amongst explants of different species, uneven drying amongst explants within a batch of seeds and uneven drying across tissues within individual embryos could be contributory factors to this variable success and these phenomena form the foci of the present study. Using zygotic explants from a range of recalcitrant-seeded species, which included sub-tropical dicotyledonous trees and sub-tropical monocotyledonous geophytes, the study showed that embryo morphology and anatomy are critical determinants of the drying characteristics of the different tissues composing the explant and hence, post-cryo survival. The results suggest that the rates of drying of explants to water contents (WCs) in the theoretically optimal range for successful cryopreservation are species-specific, and that more rapid drying rates may promote post-cryo survival. However, the large variation in WC amongst individual explants in bulk samples challenges the selection of the theoretically optimum WC for cryopreservation. As a consequence of differential drying rates across the different tissues composing explants, either lethal ice crystal damage or desiccation damage may sometimes be likely in tissues responsible for the onwards development of the embryo. Drying times for cryopreservation of such explants should, therefore, be selected on the basis of WC of segments containing root or shoot meristem, rather than embryo bulk WC. Drying intensity and duration also interact with explant morphology and embryo/axis size and anatomy to bring about - or preclude - post-cryo survival.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cryopreservation/methods
Desiccation
Seeds/cytology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Calorimetry
Castanospermum/embryology
Conservation of Natural Resources/methods
Cryoprotective Agents
Liliaceae/embryology
Meliaceae/embryology
Strychnos/embryology
Water
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cryoprotective Agents); 059QF0KO0R (Water)
[Em] Entry month:1509
[Cu] Class update date: 140815
[Lr] Last revision date:140815
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140610
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 24672339
[Au] Autor:Sajeesh T; Parimelazhagan T
[Ad] Address:Bioprospecting Laboratory, Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore,Tamil Nadu 641 046, India.
[Ti] Title:Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and GC-MS studies on Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & C. Fraser ex Hook.
[So] Source:ScientificWorldJournal;2014:587807, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1537-744X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Castanospermum australe and to profile phytochemicals by GC-MS. The ethanolic extracts were prepared by successive solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. The analgesic activity was analyzed by hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test whereas anti-inflammatory study was done by carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of C. australe were safe even at a higher dose of 2000 mg/kg whereas ethanol extract of seed was toxic at the same dose. In both hot plate method (5.85 s) and acetic acid-induced writhing test (57%), the leaf ethanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (P < 0.001) at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract was exhibited by the reduction in paw linear diameter by 64.76% at 400 mg/kg in carrageenan induced paw oedema. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed sixteen major compounds of which 1,7-dimethyl-4,10-dioxa-1,7-diazacyclododecane, (+)-N-methylephedrine, and permethylspermine were found to be pharmaceutically and the most important. These findings justify that C. australe can be a valuable natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory source which seemed to provide potential phytotherapeutics against various ailments.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Analgesics/chemistry
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry
Castanospermum/chemistry
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
Plant Extracts/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Analgesics/isolation & purification
Analgesics/pharmacology
Animals
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Female
Mice
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Toxicity Tests
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Analgesics); 0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140328
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1155/2014/587807

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[PMID]: 24043848
[Au] Autor:Delahaie J; Hundertmark M; Bove J; Leprince O; Rogniaux H; Buitink J
[Ad] Address:Université d'Angers, UMR 1345 Institut de Recherche en Horticulture et Semences, SFR 4207 QUASAV, PRES L'UNAM, 49045 Angers, France.
[Ti] Title:LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance.
[So] Source:J Exp Bot;64(14):4559-73, 2013 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2431
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the abscisic acid insensitive3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4 g H2O g DW(-1). Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Adaptation, Physiological
Castanospermum/physiology
Medicago truncatula/physiology
Peptides/metabolism
Plant Proteins/metabolism
Seeds/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Castanospermum/genetics
Cotyledon/metabolism
Desiccation
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Medicago truncatula/genetics
Mutation/genetics
Proteome/metabolism
RNA, Messenger/genetics
RNA, Messenger/metabolism
Seeds/genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Transcriptome/genetics
Water/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Peptides); 0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (Proteome); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (late embryogenesis abundant protein, plant); 059QF0KO0R (Water)
[Em] Entry month:1405
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:130918
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jxb/ert274

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[PMID]: 23063145
[Au] Autor:Bharti SK; Krishnan S; Kumar A; Rajak KK; Murari K; Bharti BK; Gupta AK
[Ad] Address:Department of Biochemistry, Patna University, Patna 800005, Bihar, India. sudhanshu_bharti@rediffmail.com
[Ti] Title:Antihyperglycemic activity with DPP-IV inhibition of alkaloids from seed extract of Castanospermum australe: Investigation by experimental validation and molecular docking.
[So] Source:Phytomedicine;20(1):24-31, 2012 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1618-095X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The antidiabetic actions of Castanospermum australe Cunn., seed (CAS) extract were evaluated in Poloxamer-407 (PX-407) induced T2DM rats. The CAS extract (100 and 150 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally once a day for 5 weeks after the animals were confirmed diabetic. A significant increase in blood glucose, HbA1c and serum insulin levels were observed in T2DM rats in comparison to citrate control rats. Treatment with CAS extract in T2DM rats reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, HbA1c and insulin with significant (p≤0.001) improvement in OGT. The CAS extract treatment also increased (p≤0.001) the K(ITT) and prevented increase in HOMA-R level in T2DM rats. The DPP-IV inhibitory potential of CAS extract showed IC50 value of 13.96 µg/ml whilst the standard Diprotin A displayed the IC50 value of 1.543 µg/ml. Molecular docking of the three reported alkaloids from the seeds of C. australe showed comparable DPP-IV inhibition with berberine. Our data suggest that CAS extract (150 mg/kg body weight) normalizes hyperglycemia in T2DM rats with strong DPP-IV inhibitory potential. The molecular docking showed that among the three alkaloids of seed extract 7-Deoxy-6-epi-castanospermine is a potent DPP-IV inhibitor similar to berberine.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/therapeutic use
Castanospermum/chemistry
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism
Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Indolizines/therapeutic use
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alkaloids/pharmacology
Animals
Berberine/pharmacology
Blood Glucose/metabolism
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism
Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology
Glucose Intolerance/blood
Glucose Intolerance/drug therapy
Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism
Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
Indolizines/pharmacology
Insulin/blood
Insulin Resistance
Molecular Docking Simulation
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
Poloxamer
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Seeds
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors); 0 (Glycated Hemoglobin A); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Indolizines); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0I8Y3P32UF (Berberine); 106392-12-5 (Poloxamer); 129724-72-7 (7-deoxycastanospermine); EC 3.4.14.5 (Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4)
[Em] Entry month:1305
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:121016
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 20698123
[Au] Autor:Hrga I; Mitic B; Alegro A; Dragojlovic D; Stjepanovic B; Puntaric D
[Ad] Address:Department of Ecology, "Dr. Andrija Stampar" Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia.
[Ti] Title:Aerobiology of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in north-west Croatia.
[So] Source:Coll Antropol;34(2):501-7, 2010 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0350-6134
[Cp] Country of publication:Croatia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both study areas, the seasons of chestnut pollination were similar and lasted from June to the end of July, which is comparable to other European cities. A general rule was noticed--the shorter the main pollen season, the higher the pollen peak concentration. Although the pollen season of Fagales pollen is prolonged to summer in the area of inland west-north Croatia due to the genus Castanea summer pollination, the number of days with pollen air concentration higher than 50 per m3 was low and was not likely to have any major effects in allergic individuals. Airborne pollen concentration of Castanea showed positive statistically significant correlation with air temperature and negative non-significant correlation with precipitation. Because of the non-significant differences between the two stations, for a possible long-term forecast model for Fagales airborne pollen for this part of north-west Croatia, aerobiological data obtained from only one station are sufficient.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Acer/physiology
Pollen/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aerobiosis/physiology
Castanospermum/physiology
Croatia
Geography
Seasons
Temperature
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1009
[Cu] Class update date: 100811
[Lr] Last revision date:100811
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:100812
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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