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[PMID]: 29518973
[Au] Autor:Chang ML; Mei HC; Kuo IC; Hsiao G; Kuo YH; Lee CK
[Ad] Address:Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan. chang76819@yahoo.com.tw.
[Ti] Title:New Terpenoids from Chamaecyparis formosensis (Cupressaceae) Leaves with Modulatory Activity on Matrix Metalloproteases 2 and 9.
[So] Source:Molecules;23(3), 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:is Taiwan's most representative tree, and has high economic value. To date, only a few active chemical constituents have been reported for . In this study, 37 secondary metabolites, including three new compounds ( - ), were extracted from the leaves of . The compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate layer were used at different concentrations to treat HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and to evaluate their effects on matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) expression. Based on extensive analysis of data from high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, the new compounds were identified as 11,12-dihydroxyisodaucenoic acid ( ), 12-hydroxyisodaucenoic acid ( ), and 1-oxo-2α,3ß-dihydroxytotarol ( ). Known compounds - were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with data reported in the literature. Biological activity tests by gelatin zymographic analysis revealed that seven compounds, including new compound , have no cytotoxic effect on HT-1080 cells and were found to increase MMP-2 or MMP-9 expression by 1.25- to 1.59-fold at lower concentrations of 10-50 µM. These naturally derived regulatory compounds could potentially serve as a novel pharmaceutical basis for medical purposes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29277539
[Au] Autor:Kim BE; Goleva E; Hall CF; Park SH; Lee UH; Brauweiler AM; Streib JE; Richers BN; Kim G; Leung DYM
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, USA.
[Ti] Title:Skin Wound Healing Is Accelerated by a Lipid Mixture Representing Major Lipid Components of Chamaecyparis obtusa Plant Extract.
[So] Source:J Invest Dermatol;, 2017 Dec 24.
[Is] ISSN:1523-1747
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In chronic nonhealing wounds, the healing process is disrupted and wounds are often infected with bacteria. About 85% of lower extremity amputations in diabetes are attributed to deep infection of foot ulcers. Therefore, infection control is critical for wound care. In this study, we analyzed lipid composition of Chamaecyparis obtusa extract, and we describe the wound-healing properties of its combination of 10 major lipid components. A 10-lipid mixture up-regulated HBD-3 and LL-37 through the olfactory receptor 2AT4 and induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in primary human keratinocytes. In addition, the 10-lipid mixture had direct bactericidal effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes and protected against staphylococcal α-toxin-induced keratinocyte cell death. In an animal model, the 10-lipid mixture accelerated skin wound healing and was also effective in healing wounds superinfected with S. aureus. We suggest that the 10-lipid mixture, because of its wound-healing and antimicrobial properties, can be beneficial for wound treatment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 259 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29352475
[Au] Autor:Hsu CY; Lin GM; Lin HY; Chang ST
[Ad] Address:School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
[Ti] Title:Characteristics of proanthocyanidins in leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana as strong α-glucosidase inhibitors.
[So] Source:J Sci Food Agric;, 2018 Jan 20.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0010
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been a growing demand for natural products with a view to using them as α-glucosidase inhibitors for reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, the hot water extract (HWE) from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder (Cupressaceae) leaves and its soluble fractions were screened for α-glucosidase inhibition properties. The n-butanol-soluble fraction of HWE was further fractionated into 14 subfractions (B1-B14) using a Sephadex LH-20 column. The α-glucosidase-inhibitory activities and proanthocyanidin contents of all subfractions were determined. The structural characteristics of proanthocyanidins in proanthocyanidin-rich fractions were also elucidated. RESULTS: HWE produced a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase at low dose. Its IC value was 1.4 µg mL , showing high inhibitory activity. Subfractions B7-B14 displayed powerful α-glucosidase-inhibitory activities with IC values ranging between 1 and 0.015 µg mL and contained abundant proanthocyanidins exceeding 300 mg g . The proanthocyanidins with higher mean degree of polymerization (mDP), higher proportions of procyanidin dimer (A1 or A2) and (epi)afzelechin of extension units and a lower proportion of epicatechin of terminal units displayed high α-glucosidase-inhibitory activities. CONCLUSION: Proanthocyanidins in HWE were viewed as potential natural α-glucosidase inhibitors for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia. The results indicated that specific structural characteristics of proanthocyanidins would be required for α-glucosidase-inhibitory activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/jsfa.8894

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[PMID]: 29474703
[Au] Autor:Epron D; Dannoura M; Ishida A; Kosugi Y
[Ad] Address:Université de Lorraine, INRA, UMR SILVA, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, 54500 VandÅ“uvre-lès-Nancy, France.
[Ti] Title:Estimation of phloem carbon translocation belowground at stand level in a hinoki cypress stand.
[So] Source:Tree Physiol;, 2018 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1758-4469
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:At stand level, carbon translocation in tree stems has to match canopy photosynthesis and carbohydrate requirements to sustain growth and the physiological activities of belowground sinks. This study applied the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to the pressure-flow hypothesis to estimate phloem carbon translocation and evaluate what percentage of canopy photosynthate can be transported belowground in a hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) stand. An anatomical study revealed that, in contrast to sieve cell density, conductive phloem thickness and sieve cell hydraulic diameter at 1.3 m in height increased with increasing tree diameter, as did the concentration of soluble sugars in the phloem sap. At tree level, hydraulic conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude from the smallest to the largest trees in the stand, resulting in a stand-level hydraulic conductance of 1.7 × 10-15 m Pa-1 s-1. The osmotic potential of the sap extracted from the inner bark was -0.75 MPa. Assuming that phloem water potential equalled foliage water potential at predawn, the turgor pressure in the phloem at 1.3 m in height was estimated at 0.22 MPa, 0.59 MPa lower than values estimated in the foliage. With this maximal turgor pressure gradient, which would be lower during day-time when foliage water potential drops, the estimated stand-level rate of carbon translocation was 2.0 gC m-2 day-1 (30% of daily gross canopy photosynthesis), at a time of the year when aboveground growth and related respiration is thought to consume a large fraction of photosynthate, at the expense of belowground activity. Despite relying on some assumptions and approximations, this approach, when coupled with measurements of canopy photosynthesis, may further be used to provide qualitative insight into the seasonal dynamics of belowground carbon allocation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/treephys/tpy016

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[PMID]: 29225186
[Au] Autor:Magori N; Fujita T; Kumamoto E
[Ad] Address:Department of Physiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Hinokitiol inhibits compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharmacol;819:254-260, 2018 Jan 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0712
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Hinokitiol (ß-thujaplicin) is a natural tropolone derivative contained in Chamaecyparis taiwanensis that has various actions including anti-inflammatory activities. Various plant-derived compounds inhibit compound action potentials (CAPs) in a manner dependent on the chemical structure of the compounds; however, the effects of hinokitiol on nerve conduction have not been examined. To determine whether hinokitiol inhibits CAPs and, if so, the chemical structure of hinokitiol that is important in this inhibition, we examined the effects of hinokitiol and its related compounds on fast-conducting CAPs using the frog sciatic nerve and the air-gap method. Hinokitiol concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of CAPs with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC ) value of 0.54mM. A stereoisomer of hinokitiol, γ-thujaplicin, also inhibited CAPs. Although hinokitiol has hydroxyl, carbonyl and isopropyl groups, all of which are bound to its seven-membered ring, tropolone, which lacks the isopropyl group, had no effects on CAPs. Moreover, CAPs were unaffected by kojic acid, which lacks an isopropyl group, and also by guaiazulene, which has an isopropyl group but not carbonyl or hydroxyl groups. Biosol and 4-isopropylphenol, which have isopropyl and hydroxyl groups bound to their six-membered ring, reduced CAP peak amplitudes. This 4-isopropylphenol's activity was more effective than 4-isopropylcyclohexanol and phenol, and less effective than 4-tert-butylphenol and 4-tert-amylphenol; isopropylbenzene had no effects on CAPs. These results indicate that hinokitiol inhibits frog CAPs, possibly through interaction involving its isopropyl, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Hinokitiol, therefore, has an ability to inhibit nerve conduction, which contributes partly to the pharmacological actions of hinokitiol.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180112
[Lr] Last revision date:180112
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29142200
[Au] Autor:Komatsu M; Hirai K; Nagakura J; Noguchi K
[Ad] Address:Department of Mushroom Science and Forest Microbiology, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8687, Japan. kopine@ffpri.affrc.go.jp.
[Ti] Title:Potassium fertilisation reduces radiocesium uptake by Japanese cypress seedlings grown in a stand contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;7(1):15612, 2017 Nov 15.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We analysed suppressive effects of potassium (K) fertilisation on radiocesium ( Cs) uptake by hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings from soils contaminated after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Three-year-old seedlings were planted in a clear-cut forest (ca. 4 ha) during June-July 2014, and potassium chloride fertiliser (83 kg K ha ) was applied twice (August 2014 and April 2015). Cs concentrations in the needles in the fertilised plots were one-eighth of those in the control (unfertilised) plots at the end of the second growing season (October 2015). Our results clearly indicated that K fertilisation reduced radiocesium transfer from soil to planted cypress seedlings. A linear mixed model analysis revealed that Cs concentrations in the needles were significantly affected by Cs inventory in the soil (Bq m ) adjacent to the sampled seedlings, exchangeable K concentrations in surface mineral soils (0-5 cm) and fertilisation. The exchangeable K concentrations in surface soils in October 2015 did not differ from those in August 2014 (before fertilisation) in the fertilised plots and in the control plots. These results suggested that the levels of exchangeable K would temporarily increase by fertilisation during the growing season, and radiocesium uptake by tree roots was suppressed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171126
[Lr] Last revision date:171126
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-15401-w

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[PMID]: 29045752
[Au] Autor:Einset J; Collins AR
[Ad] Address:Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PB Box 1046, Sognsvannsveien 9, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.
[Ti] Title:Genome size and sensitivity to DNA damage by X-rays-plant comets tell the story.
[So] Source:Mutagenesis;, 2017 Oct 17.
[Is] ISSN:1464-3804
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Among several factors affecting radiation sensitivity, genome size has received limited attention during the last 50 years since research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) and other locations demonstrated substantial differences in radiation sensitivities, e.g. between tree species with large (e.g. conifers such as pines) versus small (e.g. dicots such as oaks) genome sizes. Taking advantage of the wide range of genome sizes among species, we investigated radiation sensitivity which we define in this study as DNA damage (break frequency) measured with the alkaline comet assay in isolated nuclei exposed to X-rays. As a starting point, we considered two possible explanations for the high radiation sensitivity of plants with large genome sizes: (i) inherently higher sensitivity of larger genomes and/or (ii) impaired DNA repair. In terms of genome size effects, experiments exposing isolated nuclei from six different plant species to X-rays, varying in genome sizes from 2.6 to 19.2 Gbp, showed that larger genomes are more sensitive to DNA damage by a relationship approximating the cube-root of the nuclear volume; e.g. a 10-fold increase in genome size increases sensitivity by about 2-fold. With regard to DNA repair, two conifer species, Sawara cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera, 8.9 Gbp genome size) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, 20 Gbp genome size), both effectively repaired DNA damage within 50 and 70 min, respectively, after acute X-ray exposures. Both species also showed delayed repair of double-strand DNA breaks, as we previously showed with Arabidopsis thaliana and Lolium multiflorum.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171018
[Lr] Last revision date:171018
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/mutage/gex029

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[PMID]: 28965024
[Au] Autor:Ohashi S; Kuroda K; Takano T; Suzuki Y; Fujiwara T; Abe H; Kagawa A; Sugiyama M; Kubojima Y; Zhang C; Yamamoto K
[Ad] Address:Department of Wood Properties and Processing, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI), 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan; Center for Forest Restoration and Radioecology, FFPRI, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan. Electronic address: shinta.res@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Temporal trends in Cs concentrations in the bark, sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood of four tree species in Japanese forests from 2011 to 2016.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;178-179:335-342, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:To understand the changes in radiocesium ( Cs) concentrations in stem woods after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, we investigated Cs concentrations in the bark, sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood of four major tree species at multiple sites with different levels of radiocesium deposition from the FDNPP accident since 2011 (since 2012 at some sites): Japanese cedar at four sites, hinoki cypress and Japanese konara oak at two sites, and Japanese red pine at one site. Our previous report on Cs concentrations in bark and whole wood samples collected from 2011 to 2015 suggested that temporal variations were different among sites even within the same species. In the present study, we provided data on bark and whole wood samples in 2016 and separately measured Cs concentrations in sapwood and heartwood samples from 2011 to 2016; we further discussed temporal trends in Cs concentrations in each part of tree stems, particularly those in Cs distributions between sapwood and heartwood, in relation to their species and site dependencies. Temporal trends in bark and whole wood samples collected from 2011 to 2016 were consistent with those reported in samples collected from 2011 to 2015. Temporal variations in Cs concentrations in barks showed either a decreasing trend or no clear trend, implying that Cs deposition in barks is inhomogeneous and that decontamination is relatively slow in some cases. Temporal trends in Cs concentrations in sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood were different among species and also among sites within the same species. Relatively common trends within the same species, which were increasing, were observed in cedar heartwood, and in oak sapwood and whole wood. On the other hand, the ratio of Cs concentration in heartwood to that in sapwood (fresh weight basis) was commonly increased to more than 2 in cedar, although distinct temporal trends were not found in the other species, for which the ratio was around 1 in cypress and pine and below 0.5 in oak, suggesting that Cs transfer from sapwood to heartwood shows species dependency. Consequently, the species dependency of Cs transfer within the tree appears easily, while that from the environment to the trees can be masked by various factors. Thus, prediction of Cs concentrations in stem wood should be carried out carefully as it still requires investigations at multiple sites with a larger sample size and an understanding of the species-specific Cs transfer mechanism.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cesium Radioisotopes/analysis
Fukushima Nuclear Accident
Radiation Monitoring
Radioactive Pollutants/analysis
Trees/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Chamaecyparis
Cryptomeria
Forests
Wood/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cesium Radioisotopes); 0 (Radioactive Pollutants)
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171110
[Lr] Last revision date:171110
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171002
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  9 / 259 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28947153
[Au] Autor:Dibwe DF; Sun S; Ueda JY; Balachandran C; Matsumoto K; Awale S
[Ad] Address:Division of Natural Drug Discovery, Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan; Division of Medicinal Pharmacology, Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Discovery of potential antiausterity agents from the Japanese cypress Chamaecyparis obtusa.
[So] Source:Bioorg Med Chem Lett;27(21):4898-4903, 2017 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1464-3405
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The chloroform extract of the Japanese cypress Chamaecyparis obtusa was found to kill PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially in the nutrient-deprived medium without causing toxicity in the nutrient rich condition. Phytochemical investigation on this extract led to the isolation of a new sesquiterpene (1), together with the six sesquiterpenes (2-7) and a lignan (8). The isolated compounds were tested for their preferential cytotoxicity activity against five different human pancreatic cancer cell lines [PANC-1, MIA PaCa2, CAPAN-1, PSN-1, and KLM-1] by utilizing an antiausterity strategy. Among them, α-cadinol (2) was identified as the most active constituent. α-Cadinol (2) was found to inhibit the activation of Akt/mTOR pathway, and the hyperactivation of autophagy leading to preferential PANC-1 cell death during nutrient-starvation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171018
[Lr] Last revision date:171018
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 259 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28732171
[Au] Autor:Eaton WD; Shokralla S; McGee KM; Hajibabaei M
[Ad] Address:a Pace University, Biology Department, One Pace Plaza, New York, NY 10038, USA.
[Ti] Title:Using metagenomics to show the efficacy of forest restoration in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.
[So] Source:Genome;60(10):825-836, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1480-3321
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Franklin Parker Preserve within the New Jersey Pine Barrens contains 5000 acres of wetlands habitat, including old-growth Atlantic white cedar (or AWC; Chamaecyparis thyoides) swamps, cranberry bogs, and former cranberry bogs undergoing restoration into AWC forests. This study showed that the C-use efficiency was greater in the old-growth AWC soils than in soils from 8-year-old mid-stage restored AWC stands, which were greater than found in soil from 4-year-old AWC stands-the latter two stands being restored from long-term cranberry bogs. A metagenomic analysis of eDNA extracted from these soils showed that the C-cycle trends were associated with increases in the relative numbers of DNA sequences from several copiotrophic bacterial groups (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria), complex C-decomposing fungal groups (Sordiomycetes, Mortierellales, and Thelephorales), and collembolan and formicid invertebrates. All groups are indicators of successionally more advanced soils, and critical for soil C-cycle activities. These data suggest that the restoration activities studied are enhancing critical guilds of soil biota, and increasing C-use efficiency in the soils of restored habitats, and that the use of metagenomic analysis of soil eDNA can be used in the development of assessment models for soil recovery of wetlands following restoration.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 171003
[Lr] Last revision date:171003
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1139/gen-2015-0199


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