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[PMID]: 29382248
[Au] Autor:Sahu R; Verma R; Dixit S; Igietseme JU; Black CM; Duncan S; Singh SR; Dennis VA
[Ad] Address:a Department of Biological Sciences , Alabama State University , Montgomery , AL , USA.
[Ti] Title:Future of human Chlamydia vaccine: potential of self-adjuvanting biodegradable nanoparticles as safe vaccine delivery vehicles.
[So] Source:Expert Rev Vaccines;17(3):217-227, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1744-8395
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: There is a persisting global burden and considerable public health challenge by the plethora of ocular, genital and respiratory diseases caused by members of the Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Chlamydia. The major diseases are conjunctivitis and blinding trachoma, non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility, and interstitial pneumonia. The failures in screening and other prevention programs led to the current medical opinion that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is the best approach to protect humans from chlamydial infections. Unfortunately, there is no human Chlamydia vaccine despite successful veterinary vaccines. A major challenge has been the effective delivery of vaccine antigens to induce safe and effective immune effectors to confer long-term protective immunity. The dawn of the era of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles and the adjuvanted derivatives may accelerate the realization of the dream of human vaccine in the foreseeable future. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current status of human chlamydial vaccine research, specifically the potential of biodegradable polymeric nanovaccines to provide efficacious Chlamydia vaccines in the near future. Expert commentary: The safety of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles-based experimental vaccines with or without adjuvants and the array of available chlamydial vaccine candidates would suggest that clinical trials in humans may be imminent. Also, the promising results from vaccine testing in animal models could lead to human vaccines against trachoma and reproductive diseases simultaneously.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1080/14760584.2018.1435279

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[PMID]: 29212448
[Au] Autor:Guo W; Jelocnik M; Li J; Sachse K; Polkinghorne A; Pannekoek Y; Kaltenboeck B; Gong J; You J; Wang C
[Ad] Address:Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:From genomes to genotypes: molecular epidemiological analysis of Chlamydia gallinacea reveals a high level of genetic diversity for this newly emerging chlamydial pathogen.
[So] Source:BMC Genomics;18(1):949, 2017 Dec 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2164
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chlamydia (C.) gallinacea is a recently identified bacterium that mainly infects domestic chickens. Demonstration of C. gallinacea in human atypical pneumonia suggests its zoonotic potential. Its prevalence in chickens exceeds that of C. psittaci, but genetic and genomic research on C. gallinacea is still at the beginning. In this study, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of C. gallinacea strain JX-1 isolated from an asymptomatic chicken, and comparative genomic analysis between C. gallinacea strains and related chlamydial species. RESULTS: The genome of C. gallinacea JX-1 was sequenced by single-molecule, real-time technology and is comprised of a 1,059,522-bp circular chromosome with an overall G + C content of 37.93% and sequence similarity of 99.4% to type strain 08-1274/3. In addition, a plasmid designated pJX-1, almost identical to p1274 of the type strain, except for two point mutations, was only found in field strains from chicken, but not in other hosts. In contrast to chlamydial species with notably variable polymorphic membrane protein (pmp) genes and plasticity zone (PZ), these regions were conserved in both C. gallinacea strains. There were 15 predicted pmp genes, but only B, A, E1, H, G1 and G2 were apparently intact in both strains. In comparison to chlamydial species where the PZ may be up to 50 kbp, C. gallinacea strains displayed gene content reduction in the PZ (14 kbp), with strain JX-1 having a premature STOP codon in the cytotoxin (tox) gene, while tox gene is intact in the type strain. In multilocus sequence typing (MLST), 15 C. gallinacea STs were identified among 25 strains based on cognate MLST allelic profiles of the concatenated sequences. The type strain and all Chinese strains belong to two distinct phylogenetic clades. Clade of the Chinese strains separated into 14 genetically distinct lineages, thus revealing considerable genetic diversity of C. gallinacea strains in China. CONCLUSIONS: In this first detailed comparative genomic analysis of C. gallinacea, we have provided evidence for substantial genetic diversity among C. gallinacea strains. How these genetic polymorphisms affect C. gallinacea biology and pathogenicity should be addressed in future studies that focus on phylogenetics and host adaption of this enigmatic bacterial agent.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171220
[Lr] Last revision date:171220
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12864-017-4343-9

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[PMID]: 28937705
[Au] Autor:Cluver C; Novikova N; Eriksson DO; Bengtsson K; Lingman GK
[Ad] Address:Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg, Western Cape, South Africa, 7505.
[Ti] Title:Interventions for treating genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy.
[So] Source:Cochrane Database Syst Rev;9:CD010485, 2017 09 22.
[Is] ISSN:1469-493X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (C.trachomatis) infection may lead to pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, preterm labour, low birthweight, preterm rupture of membranes, increased perinatal mortality, postpartum endometritis, chlamydial conjunctivitis and C.trachomatis pneumonia.This review supersedes a previous review on this topic. OBJECTIVES: To establish the most efficacious and best-tolerated therapy for treatment of genital chlamydial infection in preventing maternal infection and adverse neonatal outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (26 June 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) as well as studies published in abstract form assessing interventions for treating genital C.trachomatis infection in pregnancy. Cluster-RCTs were also eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-randomised trials and trials using cross-over design are not eligible for inclusion in this review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted the data using the agreed form. Data were checked for accuracy. Evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 trials (involving 1754 women) although our meta-analyses were based on fewer numbers of studies/women. All of the included studies were undertaken in North America from 1982 to 2001. Two studies were low risk of bias in all domains, all other studies had varying risk of bias. Four other studies were excluded and one study is ongoing.Eight comparisons were included in this review; three compared antibiotic (erythromycin, clindamycin, amoxicillin) versus placebo; five compared an antibiotic versus another antibiotic (erythromycin, clindamycin, amoxicillin, azithromycin). No study reported different antibiotic regimens. Microbiological cure (primary outcome) Antibiotics versus placebo: Erythromycin (average risk ratio (RR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60 to 4.38; two trials, 495 women; I = 68%; moderate-certainty evidence), and clindamycin (RR 4.08, 95% CI 2.35 to 7.08; one trial, 85 women;low-certainty evidence) were associated with improved microbiological cure compared to a placebo control. In one very small trial comparing amoxicillin and placebo, the results were unclear, but the evidence was graded very low (RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.59 to 6.79; 15 women). One antibiotic versus another antibiotic: Amoxicillin made little or no difference in microbiological cure in comparison to erythromycin (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.01; four trials, 466 women; high-certainty evidence), probably no difference compared to clindamycin (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.04; one trial, 101 women; moderate-quality evidence), and evidence is very low certainty when compared to azithromycin so the effect is not certain (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.12; two trials, 144 women; very low-certainty evidence). Azithromycin versus erythromycin (average RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.23; six trials, 374 women; I = 53%; moderate-certainty evidence) probably have similar efficacy though results appear to favour azithromycin. Clindamycin versus erythromycin (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.15; two trials, 173 women; low-certainty evidence) may have similar numbers of women with a microbiological cure between groups.Evidence was downgraded for design limitations, inconsistency, and imprecision in effect estimates. Side effects of the treatment (maternal) (secondary outcome) Antibiotics versus placebo: side effects including nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, were reported in two studies (495 women) but there was no clear evidence whether erythromycin was associated with more side effects than placebo and a high level of heterogeneity (I = 78%) was observed (average RR 2.93, 95% CI 0.36 to 23.76). There was no clear difference in the number of women experiencing side effects when clindamycin was compared to placebo in one small study (5/41 versus 1/44) (RR 6.35, 95% CI 0.38 to 107.45, 62 women). The side effects reported were mostly gastrointestinal and also included resolving skin rashes. One antibiotic versus another antibiotic: There was no clear difference in incidence of side effects (including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain) when amoxicillin was compared to azithromycin based on data from one small study (36 women) (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.31).However, amoxicillin was associated with fewer side effects compared to erythromycin with data from four trials (513 women) (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.46; I = 27%). Side effects included nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramping, rash, and allergic reaction.Both azithromycin (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.34; six trials, 374 women) and clindamycin (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.87; two trials, 183 women) were associated with a lower incidence of side effects compared to erythromycin. These side effects included nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramping.One small study (101 women) reported there was no clear difference in the number of women with side effects when amoxicillin was compared with clindamycin (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.26; 107 women). The side effects reported included rash and gastrointestinal complaints. Other secondary outcomes Single trials reported data on repeated infections, preterm birth, preterm rupture of membranes, perinatal mortality and low birthweight and found no clear differences between treatments.Many of this review's secondary outcomes were not reported in the included studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with antibacterial agents achieves microbiological cure from C.trachomatis infection during pregnancy. There was no apparent difference between assessed agents (amoxicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin) in terms of efficacy (microbiological cure and repeat infection) and pregnancy complications (preterm birth, preterm rupture of membranes, low birthweight). Azithromycin and clindamycin appear to result in fewer side effects than erythromycin.All of the studies in this review were conducted in North America, which may limit the generalisability of the results. In addition, study populations may differ in low-resource settings and these results are therefore only applicable to well-resourced settings. Furthermore, the trials in this review mainly took place in the nineties and early 2000's and antibiotic resistance may have changed since then.Further well-designed studies, with appropriate sample sizes and set in a variety of settings, are required to further evaluate interventions for treating C.trachomatis infection in pregnancy and determine which agents achieve the best microbiological cure with the least side effects. Such studies could report on the outcomes listed in this review.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD010485.pub2

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[PMID]: 28900526
[Au] Autor:Perrone T; Quaglia F
[Ad] Address:Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Lung US features of severe interstitial pneumonia: case report and review of the literature.
[So] Source:J Ultrasound;20(3):247-249, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1876-7931
[Cp] Country of publication:Italy
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumonia is reported to account for a relatively large number of cases of CAP. In elderly patients in particular, the clinical presentation can be a severe form of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. The chest X-ray presentation is aspecific. Lung US can show a typical pattern of diffuse interstitial lung syndrome; in some cases, like the present one, the association of multiple B lines with a coarse and thickened pleural line points to a more likely diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia. CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 87-year-old woman with severe interstitial chlamydial pneumonia, for whom lung US was very useful for directing diagnosis and for follow-up during therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The use of lung US in the diagnosis of interstitial syndrome is likely to improve the care of patients in whom the diagnosis is a consideration; it offers better characterization than a chest X-ray and is free from CT radiation. Furthermore, the concept of using lung US for monitoring a patient is one of the major innovations that has emerged from recent studies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170915
[Lr] Last revision date:170915
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s40477-017-0241-x

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[PMID]: 28768558
[Au] Autor:Li L; Luther M; Macklin K; Pugh D; Li J; Zhang J; Roberts J; Kaltenboeck B; Wang C
[Ad] Address:Thompson Bishop Sparks State Diagnostic Laboratory,Auburn, AL,USA.
[Ti] Title:Chlamydia gallinacea: a widespread emerging Chlamydia agent with zoonotic potential in backyard poultry.
[So] Source:Epidemiol Infect;145(13):2701-2703, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1469-4409
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chlamydia gallinacea, a new chlamydial agent, has been reported in four European countries as well as Argentina and China. Experimentally infected chickens with C. gallinacea in previous study showed no clinical signs but had significantly reduced gains in body weight (6·5-11·4%). Slaughterhouse workers exposed to infected chickens have developed atypical pneumonia, indicating C. gallinacea is likely a zoonotic agent. In this study, FRET-PCR confirmed that C. gallinacea was present in 12·4% (66/531) of oral-pharyngeal samples from Alabama backyard poultry. Phylogenetic comparisons based on ompA variable domain showed that 16 sequenced samples represented 14 biotypes. We report for the first time the presence of C. gallinacea in North America, and this warrants further research on the organism's pathogenicity, hosts, transmission, and zoonotic potential.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Chickens
Chlamydia Infections/veterinary
Chlamydia/isolation & purification
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary
Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alabama/epidemiology
Animals
Chlamydia/genetics
Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology
Chlamydia Infections/microbiology
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Poultry Diseases/microbiology
RNA, Bacterial/genetics
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
RNA, Ribosomal, 23S/genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (RNA, Bacterial); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 23S)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171125
[Lr] Last revision date:171125
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170804
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0950268817001650

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[PMID]: 28396349
[Au] Autor:Illingworth M; Hooppaw AJ; Ruan L; Fisher DJ; Chen L
[Ad] Address:Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.
[Ti] Title:Biochemical and Genetic Analysis of the Chlamydia GroEL Chaperonins.
[So] Source:J Bacteriol;199(12), 2017 Jun 15.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5530
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chaperonins are essential for cellular growth under normal and stressful conditions and consequently represent one of the most conserved and ancient protein classes. The paradigm chaperonin, EcGroEL, and its cochaperonin, EcGroES, assist in the folding of proteins via an ATP-dependent mechanism. In addition to the presence of and homologs, paralogs are found in many bacteria, including pathogens, and have evolved poorly understood species-specific functions. spp., which are obligate intracellular bacteria, have reduced genomes that nonetheless contain three genes, ( ), , and We hypothesized that ChGroEL is the bona fide chaperonin and that the paralogs perform novel -specific functions. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the biochemical properties of ChGroEL and its cochaperonin, ChGroES, and queried the essentiality of the three genes through targeted mutagenesis in ChGroEL hydrolyzed ATP at a rate 25% of that of EcGroEL and bound with high affinity to ChGroES, and the ChGroEL-ChGroES complex could refold malate dehydrogenase (MDH). The chlamydial ChGroEL was selective for its cognate cochaperonin, ChGroES, while EcGroEL could function with both EcGroES and ChGroES. A P35T ChGroES mutant (ChGroESP35T) reduced ChGroEL-ChGroES interactions and MDH folding activities but was tolerated by EcGroEL. Both ChGroEL-ChGroES and EcGroEL-ChGroESP35T could complement an EcGroEL-EcGroES mutant. Finally, we successfully inactivated both paralogs but not , leading to minor growth defects in cell culture that were not exacerbated by heat stress. Collectively, our results support novel functions for the paralogs and solidify ChGroEL as a bona fide chaperonin that is biochemically distinct from EcGroEL. is an important cause of human diseases, including pneumonia, sexually transmitted infections, and trachoma. The chlamydial chaperonin ChGroEL and chaperonin paralog ChGroEL2 have been associated with survival under stress conditions, and ChGroEL is linked with immunopathology elicited by chlamydial infections. However, their exact roles in bacterial survival and disease remain unclear. Our results further substantiate the hypotheses that ChGroEL is the primary chlamydial chaperonin and that the paralogs play specialized roles during infection. Furthermore, ChGroEL and the mitochondrial GroEL only functioned with their cochaperonin, in contrast to the promiscuous nature of GroEL from and , which might indicate a divergent evolution of GroEL during the transition from a free-living organism to an obligate intracellular lifestyle.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Chaperonin 10/genetics
Chaperonin 10/metabolism
Chaperonin 60/genetics
Chaperonin 60/metabolism
Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics
Chlamydia trachomatis/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism
Gene Knockout Techniques
Genes, Essential
Hydrolysis
Malate Dehydrogenase/metabolism
Protein Binding
Protein Folding
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Chaperonin 10); 0 (Chaperonin 60); 8L70Q75FXE (Adenosine Triphosphate); EC 1.1.1.37 (Malate Dehydrogenase)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 171126
[Lr] Last revision date:171126
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170412
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28129377
[Au] Autor:Del Valle-Mendoza J; Orellana-Peralta F; Marcelo-Rodríguez A; Verne E; Esquivel-Vizcarra M; Silva-Caso W; Aguilar-Luis MA; Weilg P; Casabona-Oré V; Ugarte C; Del Valle LJ
[Ad] Address:School of Medicine, Research and Innovation Centre of the Faculty of Health Sciences. Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas-UPC, Lima, Peru.
[Ti] Title:High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(1):e0170787, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. METHODS: A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. RESULTS: Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Acute Disease/epidemiology
Chlamydial Pneumonia/epidemiology
Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Chlamydial Pneumonia/microbiology
Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolation & purification
Chlamydophila pneumoniae/pathogenicity
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification
Mycoplasma pneumoniae/pathogenicity
Peru
Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/microbiology
Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170808
[Lr] Last revision date:170808
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0170787

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[PMID]: 27819396
[Au] Autor:Sessa R; Di Pietro M; Filardo S; Bressan A; Mazzuti L; Serafino S; Fantauzzi A; Turriziani O
[Ad] Address:Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, "Sapienza" University of Rome.
[Ti] Title:Lack of association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with cardiovascular diseases in virologically suppressed HIV patients.
[So] Source:New Microbiol;40(1):33-37, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1121-7138
[Cp] Country of publication:Italy
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health problem in developed countries with over 17 million deaths per year. In the last decade, several infectious agents rather than any single pathogen, including Chlamydia pneumoniae and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have been shown to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular events by inducing systemic inflammation and/or acting directly on the vascular wall. For the first time, we evaluated C. pneumonia DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction in order to shed light on C. pneumonia as a co-factor with HIV in the development of CVDs. C. pneumonia DNA was not detected in our virologically suppressed HIV patients (<37 copies/mL). This finding may be related to high CD4+T cell count (>500 cells/µl) found in HIV patients suggesting functional cell-mediated immunity as a fundamental mechanism for the clearance of chlamydial infection in this population. Larger studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
Cardiovascular Diseases/microbiology
Chlamydophila Infections/complications
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
HIV Infections/complications
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aged
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Female
HIV Infections/drug therapy
Humans
Lipids/blood
Male
Middle Aged
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-HIV Agents); 0 (Lipids)
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170622
[Lr] Last revision date:170622
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161108
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26576707
[Au] Autor:De Puysseleyr L; De Puysseleyr K; Braeckman L; Morré SA; Cox E; Vanrompay D
[Ad] Address:Lab of Immunology and Animal Biotechnology, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Assessment of Chlamydia suis Infection in Pig Farmers.
[So] Source:Transbound Emerg Dis;64(3):826-833, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1865-1682
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chlamydia suis infections are endemic in domestic pigs in Europe and can lead to conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and reproductive failure. Currently, the knowledge on the zoonotic potential of C. suis is limited. Moreover, the last decades, porcine tetracycline resistant C. suis strains have been isolated, which interfere with treatment of chlamydial infections. In this study, the presence of C. suis was examined on nine Belgian pig farms, using Chlamydia culture and a C. suis specific real-time PCR in both pigs and farmers. In addition to diagnosis for C. suis, the farmers' samples were examined using a Chlamydia trachomatis PCR. Additionally, the Chlamydia isolates were tested for the presence of the tet(C) resistance gene. C. DNA was demonstrated in pigs on all farms, and eight of nine farmers were positive in at least one anatomical site. None of the farmers tested positive for C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis isolates were obtained from pigs of eight farms. Nine porcine C. suis isolates possessing a tet(C) gene were retrieved, originating from three farms. Moreover, C. suis isolates were identified in three human samples, including one pharyngeal and two rectal samples. These findings suggest further research on the zoonotic transfer of C. suis from pigs to humans is needed.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology
Chlamydia Infections/microbiology
Chlamydia/classification
Farmers
Swine Diseases/microbiology
Zoonoses
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Belgium
Humans
Occupational Exposure
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Swine
Swine Diseases/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171018
[Lr] Last revision date:171018
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151119
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tbed.12446

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[PMID]: 27978822
[Au] Autor:Fukumoto T; Matsuo J; Okubo T; Nakamura S; Miyamoto K; Oka K; Takahashi M; Akizawa K; Shibuya H; Shimizu C; Yamaguchi H
[Ad] Address:Hokkaido University Hospital, Nishi-5 Kita-14 Jo, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8648, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Acanthamoeba containing endosymbiotic chlamydia isolated from hospital environments and its potential role in inflammatory exacerbation.
[So] Source:BMC Microbiol;16(1):292, 2016 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2180
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Environmental chlamydiae belonging to the Parachlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect Acanthamoeba, a free-living amoeba, and are a risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia. However, whether amoebae harboring environmental chlamydiae actually survive in hospital environments is unknown. We therefore isolated living amoebae with symbiotic chlamydiae from hospital environments. RESULTS: One hundred smear samples were collected from Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; 50 in winter (February to March, 2012) and 50 in summer (August, 2012), and used for the study. Acanthamoebae were isolated from the smear samples, and endosymbiotic chlamydial traits were assessed by infectivity, cytokine induction, and draft genomic analysis. From these, 23 amoebae were enriched on agar plates spread with heat-killed Escherichia coli. Amoeba prevalence was greater in the summer-collected samples (15/30, 50%) than those of the winter season (8/30, 26.7%), possibly indicating a seasonal variation (p = 0.096). Morphological assessment of cysts revealed 21 amoebae (21/23, 91%) to be Acanthamoeba, and cultures in PYG medium were established for 11 of these amoebae. Three amoebae contained environmental chlamydiae; however, only one amoeba (Acanthamoeba T4) with an environmental chlamydia (Protochlamydia W-9) was shown the infectious ability to Acanthamoeba C3 (reference amoebae). While Protochlamydia W-9 could infect C3 amoeba, it failed to replicate in immortal human epithelial, although exposure of HEp-2 cells to living bacteria induced the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-8. Comparative genome analysis with KEGG revealed similar genomic features compared with other Protochlamydia genomes (UWE25 and R18), except for a lack of genes encoding the type IV secretion system. Interestingly, resistance genes associated with several antibiotics and toxic compounds were identified. CONCLUSION: These findings are the first demonstration of the distribution in a hospital of a living Acanthamoeba carrying an endosymbiotic chlamydial pathogen.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification
Acanthamoeba/microbiology
Chlamydia/isolation & purification
Environmental Microbiology
Hospitals
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Base Sequence
Chlamydia/genetics
Cytokines/metabolism
DNA, Bacterial/genetics
Genes, Bacterial
Humans
Phylogeny
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Seasons
Symbiosis
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170531
[Lr] Last revision date:170531
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161217
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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