Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29281663
[Au] Autor:Prohl A; Ostermann CH; Rummel CD; Roth J; Reinhold P
[Ad] Address:Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis at 'Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut' (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Jena, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Circulating and broncho-alveolar interleukin-6 in relation to body temperature in an experimental model of bovine Chlamydia psittaci infection.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189321, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In rodent models of experimentally induced fever, the important role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a circulating endogenous pyrogen is well established. Studies employing larger animal species and real infections are scarce. Therefore, we assessed bioactive IL-6 in peripheral blood and in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of calves after intra-bronchial inoculation with vital Chlamydia psittaci (Cp), with inactivated Cp, or with BGM cells. Only calves inoculated with vital Cp developed fever (peak at 2-3 days after challenge) and significantly increased IL-6 activity. Controls inoculated with either inactivated Cp or BGM cells also expressed increased bioactive IL-6, but no fever developed. Activity of IL-6 in BALF was significantly higher compared to blood serum. This experimental model of Cp infection revealed no apparent relation between IL-6 in blood and body temperature, but did reveal a relation between IL-6 and other markers of inflammation in BALF. We conclude that a local inflammatory response in the lungs of infected calves caused fever, which developed by mechanisms including other mediators besides IL-6.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Body Temperature
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Cattle Diseases/microbiology
Chlamydophila psittaci/isolation & purification
Interleukin-6/metabolism
Psittacosis/veterinary
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Biomarkers/blood
Biomarkers/metabolism
Cattle
Inflammation/blood
Inflammation/metabolism
Interleukin-6/blood
Male
Prospective Studies
Psittacosis/microbiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Interleukin-6)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180129
[Lr] Last revision date:180129
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189321

  2 / 4320 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28747153
[Au] Autor:Hogerwerf L; Holstege MMC; Benincà E; Dijkstra F; van der Hoek W
[Ad] Address:Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. lenny.hogerwerf@rivm.nl.
[Ti] Title:Temporal and spatial analysis of psittacosis in association with poultry farming in the Netherlands, 2000-2015.
[So] Source:BMC Infect Dis;17(1):519, 2017 07 26.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2334
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Human psittacosis is a highly under diagnosed zoonotic disease, commonly linked to psittacine birds. Psittacosis in birds, also known as avian chlamydiosis, is endemic in poultry, but the risk for people living close to poultry farms is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the temporal and spatial patterns of human psittacosis infections and identify possible associations with poultry farming in the Netherlands. METHODS: We analysed data on 700 human cases of psittacosis notified between 01-01-2000 and 01-09-2015. First, we studied the temporal behaviour of psittacosis notifications by applying wavelet analysis. Then, to identify possible spatial patterns, we applied spatial cluster analysis. Finally, we investigated the possible spatial association between psittacosis notifications and data on the Dutch poultry sector at municipality level using a multivariable model. RESULTS: We found a large spatial cluster that covered a highly poultry-dense area but additional clusters were found in areas that had a low poultry density. There were marked geographical differences in the awareness of psittacosis and the amount and the type of laboratory diagnostics used for psittacosis, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the correlation between the large cluster and poultry density. The multivariable model showed that the presence of chicken processing plants and slaughter duck farms in a municipality was associated with a higher rate of human psittacosis notifications. The significance of the associations was influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of farm density in the model. CONCLUSIONS: Our temporal and spatial analyses showed weak associations between poultry-related variables and psittacosis notifications. Because of the low number of psittacosis notifications available for analysis, the power of our analysis was relative low. Because of the exploratory nature of this research, the associations found cannot be interpreted as evidence for airborne transmission of psittacosis from poultry to the general population. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in Dutch poultry. Also, efforts to promote PCR-based testing for C. psittaci and genotyping for source tracing are important to reduce the diagnostic deficit, and to provide better estimates of the human psittacosis burden, and the possible role of poultry.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Farms/statistics & numerical data
Poultry
Psittacosis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animal Husbandry/statistics & numerical data
Animals
Chickens
Food-Processing Industry/statistics & numerical data
Genotype
Humans
Netherlands/epidemiology
Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Zoonoses/epidemiology
Zoonoses/transmission
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 180120
[Lr] Last revision date:180120
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12879-017-2608-1

  3 / 4320 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27776489
[Au] Autor:Dube FS; Kaba M; Robberts FJ; Ah Tow L; Lubbe S; Zar HJ; Nicol MP
[Ad] Address:Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. felix.dube@uct.ac.za.
[Ti] Title:Respiratory microbes present in the nasopharynx of children hospitalised with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa.
[So] Source:BMC Infect Dis;16(1):597, 2016 10 24.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2334
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection in children is increasingly thought to be polymicrobial in origin. Children with symptoms suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) may have tuberculosis, other respiratory tract infections or co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens. We aimed to identify the presence of potential respiratory pathogens in nasopharyngeal (NP) samples from children with suspected PTB. METHOD: NP samples collected from consecutive children presenting with suspected PTB at Red Cross Children's Hospital (Cape Town, South Africa) were tested by multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Mycobacterial liquid culture and Xpert MTB/RIF was performed on 2 induced sputa obtained from each participant. Children were categorised as definite-TB (culture or qPCR [Xpert MTB/RIF] confirmed), unlikely-TB (improvement of symptoms without TB treatment on follow-up) and unconfirmed-TB (all other children). RESULTS: Amongst 214 children with a median age of 36 months (interquartile range, [IQR] 19-66 months), 34 (16 %) had definite-TB, 86 (40 %) had unconfirmed-TB and 94 (44 %) were classified as unlikely-TB. Moraxella catarrhalis (64 %), Streptococcus pneumoniae (42 %), Haemophilus influenzae spp (29 %) and Staphylococcus aureus (22 %) were the most common bacteria detected in NP samples. Other bacteria detected included Mycoplasma pneumoniae (9 %), Bordetella pertussis (7 %) and Chlamydophila pneumoniae (4 %). The most common viruses detected included metapneumovirus (19 %), rhinovirus (15 %), influenza virus C (9 %), adenovirus (7 %), cytomegalovirus (7 %) and coronavirus O43 (5.6 %). Both bacteria and viruses were detected in 73, 55 and 56 % of the definite, unconfirmed and unlikely-TB groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in the distribution of respiratory microbes between children with and without TB. Using quadratic discriminant analysis, human metapneumovirus, C. pneumoniae, coronavirus 043, influenza virus C virus, rhinovirus and cytomegalovirus best discriminated children with definite-TB from the other groups of children. CONCLUSIONS: A broad range of potential respiratory pathogens was detected in children with suspected TB. There was no clear association between TB categorisation and detection of a specific pathogen. Further work is needed to explore potential pathogen interactions and their role in the pathogenesis of PTB.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Nasopharynx/microbiology
Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Child
Child, Preschool
Coinfection
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Infant
Male
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Nasopharynx/virology
Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
South Africa
Sputum/microbiology
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 180120
[Lr] Last revision date:180120
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  4 / 4320 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28919691
[Au] Autor:Beena V; Pawaiya RVS; Gururaj K; Singh DD; Mishra AK; Gangwar NK; Gupta VK; Singh R; Sharma AK; Karikalan M; Kumar A
[Ad] Address:Division of Animal Health, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura - 281 122, Uttar Pradesh, India.
[Ti] Title:Molecular etiopathology of naturally occurring reproductive diseases in female goats.
[So] Source:Vet World;10(8):964-972, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:0972-8988
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular etiopathology of occurrence of reproductive diseases in female goats. Reproductive diseases in goats account for major economic losses to goat farmers in terms of valuable loss of offspring and animal productivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 660 female genitalia were examined for pathological conditions (macroscopic and microscopic lesions). The etiopathological study was carried out for the presence of pathogenic organisms such as , , and in the uterus and ovary. Based on the microscopic lesions, suspected samples were subjected to diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for various etiological agents employing 16srRNA genus specific primers for and and gene-based PCR for and nested PCR using gene primers for . For suspected samples, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also performed. RESULTS: In studied female genitalia, 108 (16.30%) showed gross abnormalities with overall 23.32% occurrence of pathological conditions (macroscopic and microscopic lesions). Pathological involvement of the uterus was the highest 68 (62.96%), followed by the ovaries 27 (25%) and other organs. Major uterine condition observed was endometritis (5.60%). In uterine infections, 35 (5.30%) samples were found positive for spp., 12 (1.81%) samples for , and 3 (0.45%) samples were positive for spp. Among the samples positive for by PCR, 3 were found positive by IHC also. was detected by PCR using specific primers in a case of hydrosalpinx. It was concluded that many pathological lesions in female genitalia of functional significance play a major role in infertility in goats. CONCLUSION: The present study concluded that many pathological lesions in female genitalia of functional significance play a major role in infertility in goats.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170922
[Lr] Last revision date:170922
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.14202/vetworld.2017.964-972

  5 / 4320 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28913776
[Au] Autor:Almamy A; Schwerk C; Schroten H; Ishikawa H; Asif AR; Reuss B
[Ad] Address:Neuroanatomy, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Interactions of antisera to different Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species with the ribosomal protein RPS27a correlate with impaired protein synthesis in a human choroid plexus papilloma cell line.
[So] Source:Immunol Res;, 2017 Sep 14.
[Is] ISSN:1559-0755
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and the Chlamydophila species (CS) Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CPn), and Chlamydophila psittaci (CPs) are suggested to induce autoantibodies causative of several human autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the present study was therefore to identify cellular protein interaction partners with antisera to CT (α-CT) or CS (α-CS) and to identify functional consequences of such interaction in vitro. As detected with a commercial first trimester human prenatal brain multiprotein array (hEXselect, Engine, Germany), the most frequent interaction partner with both α-CT and α-CS was the ribosomal small subunit protein RPS27a. This could be confirmed by Western blot analysis with a recombinant RPS27a sample. In addition, immunocytochemistry with both antisera in the human choroid plexus papilloma cell line HIBCPP revealed a granular cytoplasmic staining, and Western blot analysis with whole-cell protein samples of HIBCPP cells revealed both antisera to label protein bands of different molecular weights and intensity. By 2D Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry, one of the protein spots interacting with α-CT could be identified as the RPS27a. Finally, two different methods for the detection of protein synthesis activity, the SUnSET technique and an HPG fluorescence assay revealed both antisera to cause reduced translational activity in HIBCPP cells. Together with previous findings of RPS27a as an autoimmune target in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), these results suggest that infections with CT and/or CS could induce SLE-associated immune modifications. However, direct evidence for a pathogenic role of these interactions for SLE demands further investigations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170915
[Lr] Last revision date:170915
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12026-017-8952-9

  6 / 4320 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28891690
[Au] Autor:Balsamo G; Maxted AM; Midla JW; Murphy JM; Wohrle R; Edling TM; Fish PH; Flammer K; Hyde D; Kutty PK; Kobayashi M; Helm B; Oiulfstad B; Ritchie BW; Stobierski MG; Ehnert K; Tully TN
[Ti] Title:Compendium of Measures to Control Chlamydia psittaci Infection Among Humans (Psittacosis) and Pet Birds (Avian Chlamydiosis), 2017.
[So] Source:J Avian Med Surg;31(3):262-282, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1082-6742
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Psittacosis, also known as parrot fever and ornithosis, is a bacterial infection that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems in humans. It is caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Reclassification of the order Chlamydiales in 1999 into 2 genera (Chlamydia and Chlamydophila) was not wholly accepted or adopted. This resulted in a reversion to the single, original genus Chlamydia, which now encompasses all 9 species including Chlamydia psittaci. During 2003-2014, 112 human cases of psittacosis were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Nationally Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. While many types of birds can be infected by C psittaci, in general, the literature suggests that human cases can most often occur after exposure to infected parrot-type birds kept as pets, especially cockatiels, parakeets, and conures. In birds, C psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis. Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and avian chlamydiosis to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned with controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures to control C psittaci infections. This document will be reviewed and revised as necessary, and the most current version replaces all previous versions. This document was last revised in 2010. Major changes in this version include a recommendation for a shorter treatment time for birds with avian chlamydiosis, additional information about diagnostic testing, including genotyping, clearer language associated with personal protective equipment recommended for those caring for confirmed or exposed birds, and incorporating a grading scale with recommendations generally based on the United States Preventive Services Task Force's methods.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170911
[Lr] Last revision date:170911
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1647/217-265

  7 / 4320 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28886324
[Au] Autor:Halaji M; Hashempour T; Pouladfar GR; Ghasabi F; Khashei R
[Ad] Address:Department of Bacteriology & Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Atypical bacterial etiology of acute respiratory infections and clinical characterizations among Iranian children.
[So] Source:Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand);63(8):115-119, 2017 Aug 30.
[Is] ISSN:1165-158X
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children younger than 5 years of age are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae are prevalent causative agents of ARIs, worldwide. We sought M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae in respiratory samples from Iranian children with ARIs.  From November 2014 to April 2015, respiratory samples of 150 children aged 1 month to 15 years old were screened for presence of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture methods were used to detect these bacteria in respiratory samples in the form of throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates. A questionnaire containing demographic and clinical information has been filled up for all participants in this study. Our obtained data showed that out of 150 tested samples, 7 (4.7%) were PCR positive for M. pneumoniae and only one (0.7%) positive sample for C. pneumoniae was detected. However, none of the tested samples was detected M. pneumoniae using the bacterial culture method. All patients with ARIs due to M. pneumoniae showed up with sore throat and flu like symptoms. According to our data, PCR method is more sensitive than culture for detection of M. pneumoniae. With regards to our results, it appears that M. pneumoniae and especially C. pneumoniae were infrequent causative agents in our studied population.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170908
[Lr] Last revision date:170908
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.14715/cmb/2017.63.8.24

  8 / 4320 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28879822
[Au] Autor:Aiello AE; Jayabalasingham B; Simanek AM; Diez-Roux A; Feinstein L; Meier HCS; Needham BL; Dowd JB
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology,Gillings School of Global Public Health, and the Carolina Population Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,Chapel Hill, NC,USA.
[Ti] Title:The impact of pathogen burden on leukocyte telomere length in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
[So] Source:Epidemiol Infect;145(14):3076-3084, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1469-4409
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Several infections have been linked to telomere shortening and in some cases these associations have varied by sex. We assessed the association between seropositivity to four persistent pathogens (cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae), and total pathogen burden on leukocyte telomere length in a diverse US sample. Data came from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based cohort study. We utilized cross-sectional survey data, and biological samples from participants tested for pathogens and telomere length (N = 163). Linear regression was used to examine the association between seropositivity for individual pathogens as well as total pathogen burden and telomere length, adjusting for various confounders. CMV seropositivity and increased total pathogen burden level were significantly associated with shorter telomere length among females (ß = -0·1204 (standard error (s.e.) 0·06), P = 0·044) and (ß = -0·1057 (s.e. = 0·05), P = 0·033), respectively. There was no statistically significant association among males. Our findings suggest that prevention or treatment of persistent pathogens, in particular CMV, may play an important role in reducing telomere shortening over the life course among women. Future research is needed to confirm these novel findings in larger longitudinal samples.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bacterial Load
Leukocytes/physiology
Telomere Shortening
Viral Load
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Atherosclerosis/etiology
Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology
Chlamydophila Infections/microbiology
Chlamydophila pneumoniae/physiology
Cytomegalovirus/physiology
Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology
Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology
Female
Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology
Helicobacter Infections/microbiology
Helicobacter pylori/physiology
Herpes Simplex/epidemiology
Herpes Simplex/virology
Herpesvirus 1, Human/physiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Seroepidemiologic Studies
United States/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171125
[Lr] Last revision date:171125
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170908
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0950268817001881

  9 / 4320 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28856082
[Au] Autor:Head BM; Trajtman A; Rueda ZV; Vélez L; Keynan Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Atypical bacterial pneumonia in the HIV-infected population.
[So] Source:Pneumonia (Nathan);9:12, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2200-6133
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are more susceptible to respiratory tract infections by other infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) as their disease progresses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Despite effective antiretroviral therapy, bacterial pneumonia (the most frequently occurring HIV-associated pulmonary illness) remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV-infected population. Over the last few decades, studies have looked at the role of atypical bacterial pneumonia (i.e. pneumonia that causes an atypical clinical presentation or responds differently to typical therapeutics) in association with HIV infection. Due to the lack of available diagnostic strategies, the lack of consideration, and the declining immunity of the patient, HIV co-infections with atypical bacteria are currently believed to be underreported. Thus, following an extensive database search, this review aimed to highlight the current knowledge and gaps regarding atypical bacterial pneumonia in HIV. The authors discuss the prevalence of , , , species and others in the HIV-infected population as well as their clinical presentation, methods of detection, and treatment. Further studies looking at the role of these microbes in association with HIV are required. Increased knowledge of these atypical bacteria will lead to a more rapid diagnosis of these infections, resulting in an improved quality of life for the HIV-infected population.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170903
[Lr] Last revision date:170903
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s41479-017-0036-z

  10 / 4320 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28787457
[Au] Autor:Mölleken K; Hegemann JH
[Ad] Address:Institute for Functional Microbial Genomics, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Acquisition of Rab11 and Rab11-Fip2-A novel strategy for Chlamydia pneumoniae early survival.
[So] Source:PLoS Pathog;13(8):e1006556, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7374
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The initial steps in chlamydial infection involve adhesion and internalization into host cells and, most importantly, modification of the nascent inclusion to establish the intracellular niche. Here, we show that Chlamydia pneumoniae enters host cells via EGFR-dependent endocytosis into an early endosome with a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) membrane identity. Immediately after entry, the early chlamydial inclusion acquires early endosomal Rab GTPases including Rab4, Rab5, Rab7, as well as the two recycling-specific Rabs Rab11 and Rab14. While Rab5, Rab11 and Rab14 are retained in the vesicular membrane, Rab4 and Rab7 soon disappear. Loss of Rab7 enables the C. pneumoniae inclusion to escape delivery to, and degradation in lysosomes. Loss of Rab4 and retention of Rab11/ Rab14 designates the inclusion as a slowly recycling endosome-that is protected from degradation. Furthermore, we show that the Rab11/ Rab14 adaptor protein Rab11-Fip2 (Fip2) is recruited to the nascent inclusion upon internalization and retained in the membrane throughout infection. siRNA knockdown of Fip2 demonstrated that the protein is essential for internalization and infection, and expression of various deletion variants revealed that Fip2 regulates the intracellular positioning of the inclusion. Additionally, we show that binding to Rab11 and Fip2 recruits the unconventional actin motor protein myosin Vb to the early inclusion and that together they regulate the relocation of the nascent inclusion from the cell periphery to the perinuclear region, its final destination. Here, we characterize for the first time inclusion identity and inclusion-associated proteins to delineate how C. pneumoniae establishes the intracellular niche essential for its survival.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Carrier Proteins/metabolism
Chlamydia Infections/metabolism
Chlamydophila pneumoniae/metabolism
Membrane Proteins/metabolism
Virus Internalization
rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cell Line
Endocytosis/physiology
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Humans
Immunoprecipitation
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Carrier Proteins); 0 (Membrane Proteins); 0 (Rab11-FIP2 protein, human); EC 3.6.1.- (rab11 protein); EC 3.6.5.2 (rab GTP-Binding Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171003
[Lr] Last revision date:171003
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170809
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006556


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