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[PMID]: 29524627
[Au] Autor:Matschke LA; Rinné S; Snutch TP; Oertel WH; Dolga AM; Decher N
[Ad] Address:Institute for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Vegetative Physiology and Marburg Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior - MCMBB, Philipps-University Marburg, 35037 Marburg, Germany; Clinic for Neurology, Philipps-University Marburg, 35037 Marburg, Germany. Electronic address: lina.matschke@staff.uni-mar
[Ti] Title:Calcium-activated SK potassium channels are key modulators of the pacemaker frequency in locus coeruleus neurons.
[So] Source:Mol Cell Neurosci;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9327
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The physiological, intrinsic activity of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is important for the control of sleep/wakefulness, cognition and autonomous body functions. Dysregulations of the LC-noradrenergic network contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and are key findings in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, identifying ion channels mediating the intrinsic pacemaking mechanism of LC neurons, which is in turn directly coupled to Ca homeostasis and cell survival signaling pathways, can help to foster our understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons in neurodegenerative diseases. Small-conductance Ca -activated K (SK) channels regulate the intrinsic firing patterns in different central neurons and are essential regulators of the intracellular Ca homeostasis. However, the role of SK channels for the intrinsic pacemaking of LC neurons in mice is still unclear. Therefore we performed qPCR expression analysis as well as patch clamp recordings of in vitro brainstem slices, for instance testing SK channel blockers and activators like apamin and NS309, respectively. Although we found a transcriptional expression of SK1, SK2 and SK3 channels, SK2 was the predominantly expressed subunit in mouse LC neurons. Using perforated-patch clamp experiments, we found that SK channels are essential regulators of the intrinsic pacemaking of LC neurons, mediating a large fraction of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in these cells. Consistent with previous observations that a concerted action of L- and T-type Cav channels is essential for the pacemaking of LC neurons, we found that SK channel activation, and the respective AHP amplitude, is primarily coupled to Ca influx via these types of Ca channels. Our study identified SK2 channels as drug targets for the tuning of the pacemaker frequency in disorders involving a dysregulation of the LC.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 102403 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29373121
[Au] Autor:Ferguson BR; Gao WJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
[Ti] Title:Thalamic Control of Cognition and Social Behavior Via Regulation of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acidergic Signaling and Excitation/Inhibition Balance in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex.
[So] Source:Biol Psychiatry;, 2017 Dec 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2402
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The mediodorsal thalamus plays a critical role in cognition through its extensive innervation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but how the two structures cooperate at the single-cell level to generate associated cognitive functions and other mPFC-dependent behaviors remains elusive. Maintaining the proper balance between excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) is of principal importance for organizing cortical activity. Furthermore, the PFC E/I balance has been implicated in successful execution of multiple PFC-dependent behaviors in both animal research and the context of human psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Here, we used a pharmacogenetic strategy to decrease mediodorsal thalamic activity in adult male rats and evaluated the consequences for E/I balance in PFC pyramidal neurons as well as cognition, social interaction, and anxiety. RESULTS: We found that dampening mediodorsal thalamic activity caused significant reductions in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic signaling and increased E/I balance in the mPFC and was concomitant with abnormalities in these behaviors. Furthermore, by selectively activating parvalbumin interneurons in the mPFC with a novel pharmacogenetic approach, we restored gamma-aminobutyric acidergic signaling and E/I balance as well as ameliorated all behavioral impairments. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the importance of thalamocortical activation of mPFC gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons in a broad range of mPFC-dependent behaviors. Furthermore, they highlight this circuitry as a platform for therapeutic investigation in psychiatric diseases that involve impairments in PFC-dependent behaviors.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 102403 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29206893
[Au] Autor:Hoche F; Guell X; Vangel MG; Sherman JC; Schmahmann JD
[Ad] Address:Ataxia Unit, Cognitive Behavioral Neurology Unit, Laboratory for Neuroanatomy and Cerebellar Neurobiology, Department of Neurology Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
[Ti] Title:The cerebellar cognitive affective/Schmahmann syndrome scale.
[So] Source:Brain;141(1):248-270, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2156
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS; Schmahmann's syndrome) is characterized by deficits in executive function, linguistic processing, spatial cognition, and affect regulation. Diagnosis currently relies on detailed neuropsychological testing. The aim of this study was to develop an office or bedside cognitive screen to help identify CCAS in cerebellar patients. Secondary objectives were to evaluate whether available brief tests of mental function detect cognitive impairment in cerebellar patients, whether cognitive performance is different in patients with isolated cerebellar lesions versus complex cerebrocerebellar pathology, and whether there are cognitive deficits that should raise red flags about extra-cerebellar pathology. Comprehensive standard neuropsychological tests, experimental measures and clinical rating scales were administered to 77 patients with cerebellar disease-36 isolated cerebellar degeneration or injury, and 41 complex cerebrocerebellar pathology-and to healthy matched controls. Tests that differentiated patients from controls were used to develop a screening instrument that includes the cardinal elements of CCAS. We validated this new scale in a new cohort of 39 cerebellar patients and 55 healthy controls. We confirm the defining features of CCAS using neuropsychological measures. Deficits in executive function were most pronounced for working memory, mental flexibility, and abstract reasoning. Language deficits included verb for noun generation and phonemic > semantic fluency. Visual spatial function was degraded in performance and interpretation of visual stimuli. Neuropsychiatric features included impairments in attentional control, emotional control, psychosis spectrum disorders and social skill set. From these results, we derived a 10-item scale providing total raw score, cut-offs for each test, and pass/fail criteria that determined 'possible' (one test failed), 'probable' (two tests failed), and 'definite' CCAS (three tests failed). When applied to the exploratory cohort, and administered to the validation cohort, the CCAS/Schmahmann scale identified sensitivity and selectivity, respectively as possible exploratory cohort: 85%/74%, validation cohort: 95%/78%; probable exploratory cohort: 58%/94%, validation cohort: 82%/93%; and definite exploratory cohort: 48%/100%, validation cohort: 46%/100%. In patients in the exploratory cohort, Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores were within normal range. Complex cerebrocerebellar disease patients were impaired on similarities in comparison to isolated cerebellar disease. Inability to recall words from multiple choice occurred only in patients with extra-cerebellar disease. The CCAS/Schmahmann syndrome scale is useful for expedited clinical assessment of CCAS in patients with cerebellar disorders.awx317media15678692096001.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/brain/awx317

  4 / 102403 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29203121
[Au] Autor:Korol DL; Wang W
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, United States. Electronic address: dlkorol@syr.edu.
[Ti] Title:Using a memory systems lens to view the effects of estrogens on cognition: Implications for human health.
[So] Source:Physiol Behav;187:67-78, 2018 Apr 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-507X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Understanding the organizing and activating effects of gonadal steroids on adult physiology can guide insight into sex differences in and hormonal influences on health and disease, ranging from diabetes and other metabolic disorders, emotion and stress regulation, substance abuse, pain perception, immune function and inflammation, to cognitive function and dysfunction accompanying neurological disorders. Because the brain is highly sensitive to many forms of estrogens, it is not surprising that many adult behaviors, including cognitive function, are modulated by estrogens. Estrogens are known for their facilitating effects on learning and memory, but it is becoming increasingly clear that they also can impair learning and memory of some classes of tasks and may do so through direct actions on specific neural systems. This review takes a multiple memory systems approach to understanding how estrogens can at the same time enhance hippocampus-sensitive place learning and impair striatum-sensitive response learning by exploring the role estrogen receptor signaling may play in the opposing cognitive effects of estrogens. Accumulating evidence suggests that neither receptor subtype nor the timing of treatment, i.e. rapid vs slow, explain the bidirectional effects of estrogens on different types of learning. New findings pointing to neural metabolism and the provision of energy substrates by astrocytes as a candidate mechanism for cognitive enhancement and impairment are discussed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 102403 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29173737
[Au] Autor:Peris TS; Rozenman MS; Sugar CA; McCracken JT; Piacentini J
[Ad] Address:UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles. Electronic address: tperis@mednet.ucla.edu.
[Ti] Title:Targeted Family Intervention for Complex Cases of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
[So] Source:J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry;56(12):1034-1042.e1, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1527-5418
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Although evidence-based treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, many youth fail to respond, and interventions tailored to the needs of specific subsets of patients are lacking. This study examines the efficacy of a family intervention module designed for cases of OCD complicated by poor family functioning. METHOD: Participants were 62 youngsters aged 8 to 17 years (mean age = 12.71 years; 57% male; 65% white) with a primary diagnosis of OCD and at least 2 indicators of poor family functioning. They were randomized to receive 12 sessions of individual child cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus weekly parent psychoeducation and session review (standard treatment [ST]) or the same 12 child sessions plus 6 sessions of family therapy aimed at improving OCD-related emotion regulation and problem solving (positive family interaction therapy [PFIT]). Blinded raters evaluated outcomes and tracked responders to 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: Compared to ST, PFIT demonstrated better overall response rates on the Clinician Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I; 68% versus 40%, p = .03, φ = 0.28) and rates of remission (58% PFIT versus 27% ST, p = .01, φ = 0.32). PFIT also produced significantly greater reductions in functional impairment, symptom accommodation, and family conflict, and improvements in family cohesion. As expected, these shifts in family functioning constitute an important treatment mechanism, with changes in accommodation mediating treatment response. CONCLUSION: PFIT is efficacious for reducing OCD symptom severity and impairment and for improving family functioning. Findings are discussed in terms of personalized medicine and mechanisms of change in pediatric OCD treatment. Clinical trial registration information-Family Focused Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01409642.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cognitive Therapy/methods
Family Therapy/methods
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy
Parents/education
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Child
Combined Modality Therapy
Family Relations
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Single-Blind Method
Treatment Outcome
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171128
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 102403 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522942
[Au] Autor:Gulpers B; Lugtenburg A; Zuidersma M; Verhey FRJ; Voshaar RCO
[Ad] Address:VIRENZE-RIAGG Maastricht, METggz Maastricht, Regional Institute for Mental Health Care in Outpatients, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Maastricht University Medical Center, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNS) / Alzheimer Centre Limburg and Department of Psychiatry and Psychology / MUMC, M
[Ti] Title:Anxiety disorders and figural fluency: A measure of executive function.
[So] Source:J Affect Disord;234:38-44, 2018 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2517
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Anxiety possibly interferes with executive functioning, although most studies rely on anxiety symptoms or lack control for comorbid depression. The objective of the present study is to examine the association between executive functioning and (individual) anxiety disorders with ak,ld without controlling for depression. METHOD: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, agoraphobia, social phobia, as well as depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview in 82,360 community-dwelling people participating in the Lifelines cohort. Figural fluency as a measure of executive functioning was assessed with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFTT). Linear regression analyses with the RFFT score as the dependent variable and psychiatric diagnosis as independent variables (dummies) were performed, adjusted for potential confounders. Multivariate results are presented with and without adjustment for depression. RESULTS: Presence of any anxiety disorder was associated with worse performance on the RFFT (B = - 0.78, SE = 0.32, p = .015), independent of depression. No dose-response relationship with the number of anxiety disorders was found. Only agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder were significantly associated with the RFFT score in the multivariate models. Agoraphobia remained significant when further adjusted for depressive disorder (B = - 1.14, SE = 0.41, p < .01), while GAD did not (B = 0.013, SE = 0.431, p = .975). LIMITATIONS: Executive function was tested by only one measure, namely figural fluency. CONCLUSION: Agoraphobia is associated with worse executive functioning. Treatment of agoraphobia could be influenced by the executive dysfunction which clinicians should be aware of when regular treatment fails.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 102403 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522938
[Au] Autor:Fleck DE; Welge JA; Eliassen JC; Adler CM; DelBello MP; Strakowski SM
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Center for Imaging Research, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address: david.fleck@uc.edu.
[Ti] Title:Factor analysis of regional brain activation in bipolar and healthy individuals reveals a consistent modular structure.
[So] Source:J Affect Disord;234:14-19, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2517
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. RESULTS: Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. CONCLUSIONS: Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 102403 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29476004
[Au] Autor:Meles SK; Renken RJ; Janzen A; Vadasz D; Pagani M; Arnaldi D; Morbelli S; Nobili F; Mayer G; Leenders KL; Oertel WHO
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:The metabolic pattern of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder reflects early-stage Parkinson's disease.
[So] Source:J Nucl Med;, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1535-5667
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other Lewy-body disorders. Spatial covariance analysis of [ F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography ( F-FDG-PET) data has disclosed a specific brain pattern of altered glucose metabolism in PD. In this study, we identify the metabolic pattern underlying iRBD and compare it to the known PD pattern. To understand the relevance of the iRBD pattern to disease progression, we study the expression of the iRBD pattern in de novo PD patients. The iRBD-related pattern was identified in F-FDG-PET scans of 21 patients with polysomnographically-confirmed iRBD and 19 controls using spatial covariance analysis. Expression of the iRBD-related pattern was subsequently computed in F-FDG-PET scans of 44 controls and 38 de novo, treatment-naïve PD patients. Of these 38 PD patients, 24 had probable RBD according to the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire. Neuropsychological evaluation showed mild cognitive impairment in 20 PD patients (PD-MCI), of whom sixteen also had concomitant RBD and roughly half (11/20) had bilateral motor symptoms. The iRBD-related pattern was characterized by relative hypermetabolism in cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, sensorimotor cortex, and hippocampus, and by relative hypometabolism in middle cingulate, temporal, occipital and parietal cortices. This topography partially overlapped with the PD-related pattern (PDRP). The iRBD-related pattern was significantly expressed in PD patients compared to controls (P<0.0001). iRBD-related pattern expression was not significantly different between PD patients with and without probable RBD, or between PD patients with unilateral or bilateral parkinsonism. iRBD-related pattern expression was higher in PD-MCI patients, compared to PD patients with preserved cognition ( = 0.001). Subject scores on the iRBD-related pattern were highly correlated to subject scores on the PDRP (r=0.94, P<0.0001). In conclusion, our results show that the iRBDRP is an early manifestation of the PDRP. Expression of both PDRP and iRBDRP was higher in patients with a more severe form of PD (PD-MCI), which indicates that expression of the two patterns increases with disease severity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 102403 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29377930
[Au] Autor:Eghdam A; Hamidi U; Bartfai A; Koch S
[Ad] Address:Health Informatics Centre (HIC), Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:Facebook as communication support for persons with potential mild acquired cognitive impairment: A content and social network analysis study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191878, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Social media has the potential to increase social participation and support for the well-being of individuals with chronic medical conditions. To date, Facebook is the most popular social medium for different types of communication. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the potential use of Facebook as a means of communication for persons with potential Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment (MACI), a non-progressive mild cognitive impairment after an acquired brain injury. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with potential MACI, specifically persons with perceived brain fatigue after brain injury, communicate through Facebook, to classify the content of the communication and to visualize the frequency and types of interactions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A social network analysis of the interactions between members' and a qualitative content analysis of a whole year's communication of a public Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain were performed. RESULTS: The results showed how members use social media technology and Facebook as a means for communication and support for their condition. Individual group members showed very different patterns of communication and interactions. However, for the group as a whole, the most frequent topics in their communication were related to informational support and banter in posts, and socialization in comments. The findings also showed that the majority of members only communicated with few other members and had few direct communications. The most used communication feature of Facebook was likes in form of "thumbs-up". CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that social media and in this case Facebook is used for communication and social support by persons with potential MACI, and revealed that their communication behavior is similar to the healthy population. Further studies relating specific cognitive problems of the participants to the use of social media would provide more reliable results for this specific group.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cognition Disorders/psychology
Communication
Social Media
Social Support
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Female
Humans
Male
Patient Advocacy
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191878

  10 / 102403 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29278027
[Au] Autor:Madhavadas S; Subramanian S; Kutty BM
[Ad] Address:1 Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bangalore, India.
[Ti] Title:Environmental enrichment improved cognitive deficits more in peri-adolescent than in adult rats after postnatal monosodium glutamate treatment.
[So] Source:Physiol Int;104(4):271-290, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:2498-602X
[Cp] Country of publication:Hungary
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Exposure to enriched environment (EE) is known to promote sensory, cognitive, and motor stimulation with intensified levels of novelty and complexity. In this study, we investigated the positive regulatory effect of short-term exposure to EE on establishing functional recovery in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. Unless treated, MSG rats exhibited peripheral insulin resistance, cognitive deficits, and a reduction in the total hippocampal volume with decreased neuron count in the DG, CA3, and CA1 subfields. These MSG rats were exposed to short-term EE for 15 days for a period of 6 h/day, beginning either at 45 or at 75 days of age. EE exposure has improved insulin sensitivity, yielded a significant increase in total hippocampal volume along with increase in neuron number in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus in both age groups. However, as assessed by radial arm maze task, which relies upon the positive reinforcement to test spatial memory, and the Barnes maze task, which utilizes an aversive learning strategy, a complete recovery of cognitive function could be achieved in 2-month-old rats only and not among 3-month-old rats, thus highlighting the importance of critical window period for EE interventions in restoring the memory functions. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of EE paradigm in prevention of cognitive disorders.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cognition Disorders/prevention & control
Cognition Disorders/physiopathology
Cognition
Environment
Hippocampus/physiopathology
Physical Stimulation/methods
Sodium Glutamate
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cognition Disorders/chemically induced
Hippocampus/drug effects
Hippocampus/pathology
Male
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Treatment Outcome
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:W81N5U6R6U (Sodium Glutamate)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171227
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1556/2060.104.2017.4.7


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