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[PMID]: 29477551
[Au] Autor:Deviatkin AA; Lukashev AN
[Ad] Address:Institute of Molecular Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia; Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Preparations of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address: andreideviatkin@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Recombination in the rabies virus and other lyssaviruses.
[So] Source:Infect Genet Evol;60:97-102, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1567-7257
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recombination is a common event in RNA viruses; however, in the rabies virus there have been only a few reports of isolated recombination events. Comprehensive analysis found traces of recent recombination events within Arctic, Arctic-like and Africa 1b rabies virus groups, as well as recombination between distinct lyssaviruses. Recombination breakpoints were not linked to gene boundaries and could be detected all over the genome. However, there was no evidence that recombination is an important factor in the genetic variability of the rabies virus. It is therefore likely that recombination in the rabies virus is limited by ecological factors (e.g., rare co-circulation of distinguishable lineages and a narrow window for productive coinfection in most carnivore hosts), rather than molecular barriers (e.g., incompatibility of genome fragments).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29253707
[Au] Autor:Moreira J; Castro R; Lamas C; Ribeiro S; Grinsztejn B; Veloso VG
[Ad] Address:Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: jose.moreira@ini.fiocruz.br.
[Ti] Title:Hyperglycemia during tuberculosis treatment increases morbidity and mortality in a contemporary cohort of HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
[So] Source:Int J Infect Dis;69:11-19, 2017 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3511
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia occurs in tuberculosis (TB), but the long-term impact is unknown. We estimated the prevalence of hyperglycemia and compared the TB treatment outcomes and 1-year mortality rate according to the glycemic status noted during TB treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients who had TB and HIV coinfection and started receiving TB treatment at the Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Brazil, between 2010-2015. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia were defined according to the American Diabetes Association. After excluding for known DM at baseline, the proportion of participants who developed new-onset DM after TB treatment was assessed. TB outcome was classified as successful or adverse (i.e., treatment failure, abandonment, and death). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared by the log-rank test based on the glycemic status of patients. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to assess the association between hyperglycemia and 1-year mortality. Two-sided p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We identified 414 euglycemic patients (87.5%), 49 hyperglycemic patients (10.3%), and 10 patients with known DM (2.1%). Diabetic patients were older compared to the euglycemic and hyperglycemic patients (47.9 vs. 37 vs. 39.7 years, respectively, p=0.001). Diabetic patients frequently had cavitation on chest image compared to hyperglycemic and euglycemic patients (50% vs. 23.4% vs. 15.3%, p=0.007, respectively). Hyperglycemic patients had more new-onset DM at follow-up compared to euglycemic (22 vs. 1; p<0001). Hyperglycemia was associated with adverse outcomes (71.4% vs. 24.6%, p<0.0001) compared to euglycemia. Crude 1-year mortality was significantly higher in patients with hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia (48.9% vs. 7.9%; unadjusted HR: 5.79 (3.74-8.96)). In the adjusted Cox models, hyperglycemia remained a significant factor for increased 1-year mortality (adjusted HR: 3.72 (2.17-6.38)]. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia frequently occurs in HIV-infected patients who commence TB treatment, and it increases the risks of adverse TB outcomes and 1-year mortality. Glucose testing during TB treatment detects patients at risk of adverse outcomes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 28461133
[Au] Autor:Chen DJ; Yao JD
[Ad] Address:Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address: dchen@uwhealth.org.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of turnaround time and total cost of HIV testing before and after implementation of the 2014 CDC/APHL Laboratory Testing Algorithm for diagnosis of HIV infection.
[So] Source:J Clin Virol;91:69-72, 2017 06.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5967
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Updated recommendations for HIV diagnostic laboratory testing published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories incorporate 4th generation HIV immunoassays, which are capable of identifying HIV infection prior to seroconversion. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare turnaround time and cost between 3rd and 4th generation HIV immunoassay-based testing algorithms for initially reactive results. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical microbiology laboratory database at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN was queried for 3rd generation (from November 2012 to May 2014) and 4th generation (from May 2014 to November 2015) HIV immunoassay results. All results from downstream supplemental testing were recorded. Turnaround time (defined as the time of initial sample receipt in the laboratory to the time the final supplemental test in the algorithm was resulted) and cost (based on 2016 Medicare reimbursement rates) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 76,454 and 78,998 initial tests were performed during the study period using the 3rd generation and 4th generation HIV immunoassays, respectively. There were 516 (0.7%) and 581 (0.7%) total initially reactive results, respectively. Of these, 304 (58.9%) and 457 (78.7%) were positive by supplemental testing. There were 10 (0.01%) cases of acute HIV infection identified with the 4th generation algorithm. The most frequent tests performed to confirm an HIV-positive case using the 3rd generation algorithm, which were reactive initial immunoassay and positive HIV-1 Western blot, took a median time of 1.1 days to complete at a cost of $45.00. In contrast, the most frequent tests performed to confirm an HIV-positive case using the 4th generation algorithm, which included a reactive initial immunoassay and positive HIV-1/-2 antibody differentiation immunoassay for HIV-1, took a median time of 0.4 days and cost $63.25. Overall median turnaround time was 2.2 and 1.5 days, and overall median cost was $63.90 and $72.50 for 3rd and 4th generation algorithms, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both 3rd and 4th generation HIV immunoassays had similar total numbers of tests performed and positivity rates during the study period. A greater proportion of reactive 4th generation immunoassays were confirmed to be positive, and the 4th generation algorithm identified several cases of acute HIV infection that would have been missed by the 3rd generation algorithm. The 4th generation algorithm had a more rapid turnaround time but higher cost for confirmed positive HIV infections and overall, compared to the 3rd generation algorithm.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: AIDS Serodiagnosis
Algorithms
HIV Infections/diagnosis
Immunoassay
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: AIDS Serodiagnosis/economics
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Costs and Cost Analysis
HIV Antibodies/blood
HIV Infections/economics
HIV Infections/virology
HIV-1/genetics
HIV-1/immunology
HIV-2/genetics
HIV-2/immunology
Humans
Immunoassay/economics
Immunoassay/methods
Mass Screening/economics
Mass Screening/legislation & jurisprudence
Mass Screening/methods
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
Sensitivity and Specificity
United States
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (HIV Antibodies)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 29523966
[Au] Autor:Parisi SG; Andreis S; Mengoli C; Menegotto N; Cavinato S; Scaggiante R; Andreoni M; Palù G; Basso M; Cattelan AM
[Ad] Address:Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Via Gabelli 63, 35100, Padova, Italy. saverio.parisi@unipd.it.
[Ti] Title:Soluble CD163 and soluble CD14 plasma levels but not cellular HIV-DNA decrease during successful interferon-free anti-HCV therapy in HIV-1-HCV co-infected patients on effective combined anti-HIV treatment.
[So] Source:Med Microbiol Immunol;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1831
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Soluble CD163, soluble CD14 and cellular HIV-1-DNA levels reflect two different aspects of HIV infection: immune activation and the reservoir of infected cells. The aim of this study was to describe their relationships in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients successfully treated for both HCV and HIV infections. Fifty-five patients were recruited and studied prior to the start of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) (T0), at week 12 of DAA treatment (T1) and 24 weeks after T0 (T2). The subjects were classified as having undetectable plasma HIV viraemia (UV) or low-level viraemia (LLV) in the 18 months before T2. Plasma levels of sCD163 and of sCD14 were comparable in patients with UV and in subjects with LVL at T0, T1 and T2. The HIV DNA level was positively correlated with LLV but not with sCD163 and sCD14 levels; these two markers of inflammation were positively correlated (p = 0.017). Soluble CD163 and sCD14 decreased over time from T0 to T2 (p = 0.000 and p = 0.034, respectively). In conclusion, the significant decrease in sCD163 and sCD14 levels in patients cured of HCV infection, regardless of the presence of LLV, suggests a main role for HCV in immune activation in HIV-HCV co-infected patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00430-018-0538-1

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[PMID]: 29523319
[Au] Autor:Pasechnik O; Vyazovaya A; Vitriv S; Tatarintseva M; Blokh A; Stasenko V; Mokrousov I
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology, Omsk State Medical University, Omsk, Russia.
[Ti] Title:Major genotype families and epidemic clones of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Omsk region, Western Siberia, Russia, marked by a high burden of tuberculosis-HIV coinfection.
[So] Source:Tuberculosis (Edinb);108:163-168, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-281X
[Cp] Country of publication:Scotland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This population-based study characterized Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from HIV-positive and HIV-negative tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Omsk region in Western Siberia, Russia. We sought to gain insight into the major genotype families and epidemic and endemic clones of M. tuberculosis in the area with a high burden and adverse trend of TB/HIV coinfection. The study collection included M. tuberculosis isolates from 207 newly-diagnosed patients with pulmonary TB; 55 (26.5%) of patients were HIV-infected. The M. tuberculosis isolates were subjected to drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing based on spoligotyping and analysis of the robust genotype and cluster-specific markers. Patients with disseminated TB disease were more prevalent in the HIV-positive (34.5%) than in the HIV-negative group (4.6%) (P < .001). The Beijing genotype was predominant (62.3% of isolates), and its major subtypes were 94-32-cluster (Central Asian/Russian strain, n = 80) and B0/W148-cluster (successful Russian strain, n = 28). The main non-Beijing families were represented by Latin-American Mediterranean (14.5%), T family (11.1%), Ural (5.8%), and Haarlem (3.9%). Under multivariate logistic regression analysis, MDR was associated with Beijing genotype and not associated with HIV coinfection status (P < .001). Beijing genotype isolates were found more frequently in TB/HIV patients than in TB HIV-negative patients (74.5% versus 57.9%, respectively; P = .031). The non-Beijing genotypes were mainly drug susceptible except for the drug-resistant Ural SIT262 isolates. To summarize, the alarming situation in the Omsk region in Siberia regarding TB/HIV coinfection is seriously influenced by the active circulation of M. tuberculosis isolates of MDR-associated Beijing genotype. Among the non-Beijing families, emergence of the drug-resistant Ural family strains of spoligotype SIT262 warrants attention.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 176451 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29447196
[Au] Autor:Verani JR; Massora S; Acácio S; Dos Santos RT; Vubil D; Pimenta F; Moura I; Whitney CG; Costa MH; Macete E; Matsinhe MB; Carvalho MDG; Sigaúque B
[Ad] Address:Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among HIV-infected and -uninfected children <5 years of age before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Mozambique.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0191113, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Nasopharyngeal carriage is a precursor for pneumococcal disease and can be useful for evaluating pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact. We studied pre-PCV pneumococcal carriage among HIV-infected and -uninfected children in Mozambique. Between October 2012 and March 2013, we enrolled HIV-infected children age <5 years presenting for routine care at seven HIV clinics in 3 sites, including Maputo (urban-south), Nampula (urban-north), and Manhiça (rural-south). We also enrolled a random sample of HIV-uninfected children <5 years old from a demographic surveillance site in Manhiça. A single nasopharyngeal swab was obtained and cultured following enrichment in Todd Hewitt broth with yeast extract and rabbit serum. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by Quellung reaction and multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with pneumococcal carriage were examined using logistic regression. Overall pneumococcal carriage prevalence was 80.5% (585/727), with similar prevalences among HIV-infected (81.5%, 339/416) and HIV-uninfected (79.1%, 246/311) children, and across age strata. Among HIV-infected, after adjusting for recent antibiotic use and hospitalization, there was no significant association between study site and colonization: Maputo (74.8%, 92/123), Nampula (83.7%, 82/98), Manhiça (84.6%, 165/195). Among HIV-uninfected, report of having been born to an HIV-infected mother was not associated with colonization. Among 601 pneumococcal isolates from 585 children, serotypes 19F (13.5%), 23F (13.1%), 6A (9.2%), 6B (6.2%) and 19A (5.2%) were most common. The proportion of serotypes included in the 10- and 13-valent vaccines was 44.9% and 61.7%, respectively, with no significant differences by HIV status or age group. Overall 36.9% (n = 268) of children were colonized with a PCV10 serotype and 49.7% (n = 361) with a PCV13 serotype. Pneumococcal carriage was common, with little variation by geographic region, age, or HIV status. PCV10 was introduced in April 2013; ongoing carriage studies will examine the benefits of PCV10 among HIV-infected and-uninfected children.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Pneumococcal Infections/immunology
Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage
Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Carrier State/epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Female
HIV Infections/immunology
HIV Infections/microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods
Mozambique/epidemiology
Nasopharynx/immunology
Pneumococcal Infections/physiopathology
Prevalence
Rural Population
Serogroup
Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology
Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity
Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & dosage
Vaccines, Conjugate/therapeutic use
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine); 0 (Pneumococcal Vaccines); 0 (Vaccines, Conjugate)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191113

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[PMID]: 29408935
[Au] Autor:Lasser KE; Lunze K; Cheng DM; Blokhina E; Walley AY; Tindle HA; Quinn E; Gnatienko N; Krupitsky E; Samet JH
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health/Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Depression and smoking characteristics among HIV-positive smokers in Russia: A cross-sectional study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0189207, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Globally, persons with HIV infection, depression and substance use disorders have a higher smoking prevalence and smoke more heavily than other populations. These associations have not been explored among Russian smokers with HIV infection and substance use disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes in an HIV-positive cohort of Russian smokers with a history of substance use disorders (alcohol and/or drug use disorders). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of a cohort of HIV-positive regular smokers with a history of substance use disorders recruited in St. Petersburg, Russia in 2012-2015. The primary outcome was heavy smoking, defined as smoking > 20 cigarettes per day. Nicotine dependence (moderate-very high) was a secondary outcome. The main independent variable was a high level of depressive symptoms in the past 7 days (defined as CES-D > = 24). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between depressive symptoms and the outcomes, controlling for age, sex, education, income, running out of money for housing/food, injection drug use, and alcohol use measured by the AUDIT. RESULTS: Among 309 regular smokers, 79 participants (25.6%) had high levels of depressive symptoms, and 65 participants (21.0%) were heavy smokers. High levels of depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with heavy smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.50, 95% CI 0.78-2.89) or with moderate-very high levels of nicotine dependence (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 0.75-2.41). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not detect an association between depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes among HIV-positive regular smokers in Russia.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Depression/epidemiology
HIV Infections/complications
Smoking
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression/complications
Female
HIV Infections/physiopathology
Humans
Male
Russia/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180207
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189207

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[PMID]: 29408897
[Au] Autor:Biru M; Hallström I; Lundqvist P; Jerene D
[Ad] Address:Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:Rates and predictors of attrition among children on antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia: A prospective cohort study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0189777, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Attrition from antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes is a critical challenge among children receiving care in resource-limited settings. Our objective was to determine the rates and predictors of attrition among children on ART in Ethiopia. METHODS: Between December 2014 and September 2016, we conducted a prospective cohort study in eight health facilities in Ethiopia. Eligibility criteria included age 3 months-14 years; being on ART for not more than a month. Outcome was attrition due to death and/or loss to follow-up. Predictor variables were child clinical and socio-demographic characteristics, and caregiver socio-demographic characteristics. We used Cox Regression analyses to examine the association between predictors and outcome. RESULTS: Of 309 children, 304 were included, 52% were male. Their median age was 9 years (Inter-quartile range, IQR, 6-12). At ART initiation, their median CD4 was 362 cells/mm3 (IQR 231-499); and 74.3% had WHO stage 1 or 2 disease. During 287.7 person-years of observation (PYO), 24 attritions were recorded, yielding an attrition rate of 8.3 per 100 PYO (95% CI 5.4-12.1). Of these, six children were reported dead, leading to a mortality rate of 2.1 per 100 PYO (95% CI 0.8-4.3). Eighteen were lost to follow-up (LTFU) leading to LTFU rate of 6.26 per 100 PYO (95% CI: 3.83-9.70). The majority, 14 (58%) of attrition occurred during the first six months of treatment. Age below three years [aHR] = 5.14 (95% CI: 2.07-12.96), rural residence (aHR = 3.97, 95% CI: 1.34-11.78) and baseline Hgb in g/dl < 10 g/dl [aHR] = 5.68 (95% CI: 2.03-6.23) predicted higher risk of attrition. Baseline Hgb < 10 g/dl (aHR = 16.63, 95% CI: 1.64-168.4) and WHO stage III or IV (aHR = 12.25, 95% CI: 1.26-119.05) predicted the death of the child. Higher attrition was documented among children of both biological parents alive and biologically related close family caregivers. CONCLUSION: Younger children, those from rural areas, and children with anaemia were at higher risk of attrition, especially during the early months of treatment, and therefore should be prioritized during treatment follow-up. Further studies should examine underlying reasons for higher attrition.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
HIV Infections/drug therapy
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Ethiopia
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Prospective Studies
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-HIV Agents)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180207
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189777

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[PMID]: 29385208
[Au] Autor:Mupfumi L; Moyo S; Molebatsi K; Thami PK; Anderson M; Mogashoa T; Iketleng T; Makhema J; Marlink R; Kasvosve I; Essex M; Musonda RM; Gaseitsiwe S
[Ad] Address:Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana.
[Ti] Title:Immunological non-response and low hemoglobin levels are predictors of incident tuberculosis among HIV-infected individuals on Truvada-based therapy in Botswana.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0192030, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: There is a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV antiretroviral programmes in Africa. However, few studies have looked at predictors of incident TB while on Truvada-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens. METHODS: We estimated TB incidence among individuals enrolled into an observational cohort evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of Truvada-based cART in Gaborone, Botswana between 2008 and 2011. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to determine predictors of incident TB. RESULTS: Of 300 participants enrolled, 45 (15%) had a diagnosis of TB at baseline. During 428 person-years (py) of follow-up, the incidence rate of TB was 3.04/100py (95% CI, 1.69-5.06), with 60% of the cases occurring within 3 months of ART initiation. Incident cases had low baseline CD4+ T cell counts (153cells/mm3 [Q1, Q3: 82, 242]; p = 0.69) and hemoglobin levels (9.2g/dl [Q1, Q3: 8.5,10.1]; p<0.01). In univariate analysis, low BMI (HR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.58-0.91; p = 0.01) and hemoglobin levels <8 g/dl (HR = 10.84; 95%CI: 2.99-40.06; p<0.01) were risk factors for TB. Time to incident TB diagnosis was significantly reduced in patients with poor immunological recovery (p = 0.04). There was no association between baseline viral load and risk of TB (HR = 1.75; 95%CI: 0.70-4.37). CONCLUSION: Low hemoglobin levels prior to initiation of ART are significant predictors of incident tuberculosis. Therefore, there is potential utility of iron biomarkers to identify patients at risk of TB prior to initiation on ART. Furthermore, additional strategies are required for patients with poor immunological recovery to reduce excess risk of TB while on ART.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: HIV Infections/complications
Hemoglobins/metabolism
Tuberculosis/complications
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Botswana
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Female
HIV Infections/blood
HIV Infections/immunology
Humans
Male
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors
Tuberculosis/blood
Tuberculosis/diagnosis
Tuberculosis/immunology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hemoglobins)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0192030

  10 / 176451 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29385188
[Au] Autor:Hamad I; Abou Abdallah R; Ravaux I; Mokhtari S; Tissot-Dupont H; Michelle C; Stein A; Lagier JC; Raoult D; Bittar F
[Ad] Address:Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, AP-HM, URMITE, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
[Ti] Title:Metabarcoding analysis of eukaryotic microbiota in the gut of HIV-infected patients.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191913, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Research on the relationship between changes in the gut microbiota and human disease, including AIDS, is a growing field. However, studies on the eukaryotic component of the intestinal microbiota have just begun and have not yet been conducted in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, eukaryotic community profiling is influenced by the use of different methodologies at each step of culture-independent techniques. Herein, initially, four DNA extraction protocols were compared to test the efficiency of each method in recovering eukaryotic DNA from fecal samples. Our results revealed that recovering eukaryotic components from fecal samples differs significantly among DNA extraction methods. Subsequently, the composition of the intestinal eukaryotic microbiota was evaluated in HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers through clone sequencing, high-throughput sequencing of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2) amplicons and real-time PCRs. Our results revealed that not only richness (Chao-1 index) and alpha diversity (Shannon diversity) differ between HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers, depending on the molecular strategy used, but also the global eukaryotic community composition, with little overlapping taxa found between techniques. Moreover, our results based on cloning libraries and ITS1/ITS2 metabarcoding sequencing showed significant differences in fungal composition between HIV-infected patients and healthy volunteers, but without distinct clusters separating the two groups. Malassezia restricta was significantly more prevalent in fecal samples of HIV-infected patients, according to cloning libraries, whereas operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis were significantly more abundant in fecal samples of HIV-infected patients compared to healthy subjects in both ITS subregions. Finally, real-time PCR showed the presence of Microsporidia, Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis and Hymenolepis diminuta in different proportions in fecal samples from HIV patients as compared to healthy individuals. Our work revealed that the use of different sequencing approaches can impact the perceived eukaryotic diversity results of the human gut. We also provide a more comprehensive view of the eukaryotic community in the gut of HIV-infected patients through the complementarity of the different molecular techniques used. Combining these various methodologies may provide a gold standard for a more complete characterization of the eukaryotic microbiome in future studies.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
HIV Infections/microbiology
Intestines/microbiology
Microbiota
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Case-Control Studies
Humans
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191913


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