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[PMID]: 29520403
[Au] Autor:Ueda M; Hayashi K; Egoshi S; Ishimaru Y; Takaoka Y; Yamakoshi H; Dodo K; Sodeoka M
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. ueda@m.tohoku.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:The alkyne-tag Raman imaging of coronatine, a plant pathogen virulence factor, in Commelina communis and its possible mode of action.
[So] Source:Org Biomol Chem;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1477-0539
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We previously reported that coronatine, a virulence factor of plant bacteria, facilitates bacterial infection through an ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-mediated, non-canonical mechanism in the model dicot plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report that this same ER-mechanism is ubiquitous among dicots and monocots, and works by affecting the ethylene signaling pathway widely found in plants. The subcellular localization of coronatine by the alkyne-tag Raman imaging (ATRI) approach provided a convincing clue.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1039/c8ob00097b

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[PMID]: 29165163
[Au] Autor:Shah MD; D'Souza UJA; Iqbal M
[Ad] Address:Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
[Ti] Title:The potential protective effect of Commelina nudiflora L. against carbon tetrachloride (CCl )-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, mediated by suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation.
[So] Source:Environ Health Prev Med;22(1):66, 2017 Sep 11.
[Is] ISSN:1347-4715
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the hepatoprotective potential of Commelina nudiflora against CCl -induced hepatic injury in rats. METHOD: Antioxidant activities were determined. Phytochemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). In the in vivo study, Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with C. nudiflora (150, 300, and 450 mg kg body weight (b.wt.)) once daily for 14 days followed by two doses of CCl (1 ml/kg b.wt.). After 2 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and hepatoprotective analysis was performed. RESULTS: In vitro studies have shown that the extract possessed strong antioxidant activity and has ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-free radicals effectively. GCMS analysis of the C. nudiflora extract revealed the presence of various bioactive compounds. Administration of C. nudiflora significantly reduced the impact of CCl toxicity on serum markers of liver damage, serum aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT). C. nudiflora also increased antioxidant levels of hepatic glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes and ameliorated the elevated hepatic formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by CCl in rats. Histopathological examination indicated that C. nudiflora protect the liver from the toxic effect of CCl and healed lesions such as necrosis, fatty degeneration, and hepatocyte injury as irregular lamellar organization and dilations in the endoplasmic reticulum. The immunohistochemical studies revealed that pretreatment of C. nudiflora decreased the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-modified protein adducts and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Furthermore, overexpression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and prostaglandin E2 is also reduced. CONCLUSION: These findings exhibited the potential prospect of C. nudiflora as functional ingredients to prevent ROS-related liver damage.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171126
[Lr] Last revision date:171126
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12199-017-0673-0

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[PMID]: 28884404
[Au] Autor:Kampemba FM; Tshibangu IM; Nyongombe NU; Hornick JL
[Ad] Address:Department of Zootechny, Faculty of the Agricultural Sciences, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Congo. flokampemba@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Palatability of nine fodders species used by guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).
[So] Source:Trop Anim Health Prod;49(8):1733-1739, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1573-7438
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Nine fodders commonly offered to the guinea pigs by the breeders in Lubumbashi (Democratic Republic of Congo) were compared for chemical composition and for both daily dry matter intake and palatability indices by using 13 three-month-old guinea pigs. Four different plant families were provided to each guinea pig, and each animal was exposed to all the experimental diets studied for 8 consecutive days. The fodder species were three grasses: Trypsacum laxum, Panicum maximum, and Pennisetum purpureum; three trees or bushes Moringa oleifera, Leucaena leucocephala, and Bauhinia variegata; and three flowering plants Bidens oligoflora, Bidens pilosa, and Commelina diffusa. Dry matter content varied from 14 to 44/100 g FM, and CP from 13 to 28/100 g DM. B. variegata and P. purpureum showed the lowest CP value and L. leucocephala the highest. The grasses and the Commelina had higher levels of hemicelluloses than the tree fodders, especially P. maximum (45/100 g DM). High levels of K were found in the grasses and Bidens, and high Ca in the tree fodders and Bidens. The guinea pigs preferred, in a descending order, P. purpureum (0.79), B. pilosa (0.78), C. diffusa (0.78), T. laxum (0.77), P. maximum (0.76), B. oligoflora (0.75), M. oleifera (0.45), L. leucocephala (0.37), and B. variegata (0.33). The DMI and the palatability index were strongly correlated to the ash (r = 0.82; p Ë‚ 0.05) and the potassium (r = 0.88; p Ë‚ 0.05) contents in fodders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171121
[Lr] Last revision date:171121
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11250-017-1386-5

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AMORIM, LILIAN
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[PMID]: 28417249
[Au] Autor:Tassi AD; Garita-Salazar LC; Amorim L; Novelli VM; Freitas-Astúa J; Childers CC; Kitajima EW
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Fitopatologia e Nematologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 9, Piracicaba, SP, 13418-900, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Virus-vector relationship in the Citrus leprosis pathosystem.
[So] Source:Exp Appl Acarol;71(3):227-241, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1572-9702
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Citrus leprosis has been one of the most destructive diseases of citrus in the Americas. In the last decade important progress has been achieved such as the complete genome sequencing of its main causal agent, Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), belonging to a new genus Cilevirus. It is transmitted by Brevipalpus yothersi Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), and is characterized by the localized symptoms it induces on the leaves, fruits and stems. It occurs in the American continents from Mexico to Argentina. The virus was until recently considered restricted to Citrus spp. However, it was found naturally infecting other plants species as Swinglea glutinosa Merrill and Commelina benghalensis L., and has been experimentally transmitted by B. yothersi to a large number of plant species. Despite these advances little is known about the virus-vector relationship that is a key to understanding the epidemiology of the disease. Some components of the CiLV-C/B. yothersi relationship were determined using the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. 'IAC Una') as a test plant. They included: (a) the virus acquisition access period was 4 h; (b) the virus inoculation access period was 2 h; (c) the latent period between acquisition and inoculation was 7 h; (d) the period of retention of the virus by a single viruliferous mite was at least 12 days; (d) the percentage of viruliferous individuals from mite colonies on infected tissues ranged from 25 to 60%. The experiments confirmed previous data that all developmental stages of B. yothersi (larva, protonymph and deutonymph, adult female and male) were able to transmit CiLV-C and that transovarial transmission of the virus did not occur. CiLV-C can be acquired from lesions on leaves, fruits and stems by B. yothersi. Based on the distribution of lesions produced by single viruliferous B. yothersi on bean leaves, it is concluded that they tend to feed in restricted areas, usually near the veins. The short latent and transmission periods during the larval stage suggest that the CiLV-C/B. yothersi relationship is of the persistent circulative type.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170510
[Lr] Last revision date:170510
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10493-017-0123-0

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[PMID]: 28158449
[Au] Autor:Shtein I; Shelef Y; Marom Z; Zelinger E; Schwartz A; Popper ZA; Bar-On B; Harpaz-Saad S
[Ad] Address:The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.
[Ti] Title:Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.
[So] Source:Ann Bot;119(6):1021-1033, 2017 Apr 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8290
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background and Aims: Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. Methods: A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Key Results: Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. Conclusions: The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in environmental selection along the course of plant evolution.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Biological Evolution
Cell Wall/ultrastructure
Ferns/anatomy & histology
Magnoliopsida/anatomy & histology
Plant Stomata/ultrastructure
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Ferns/ultrastructure
Magnoliopsida/ultrastructure
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Poaceae/anatomy & histology
Poaceae/ultrastructure
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/aob/mcw275

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[PMID]: 28119424
[Au] Autor:Kono M; Yamori W; Suzuki Y; Terashima I
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Photoprotection of PSI by Far-Red Light Against the Fluctuating Light-Induced Photoinhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana and Field-Grown Plants.
[So] Source:Plant Cell Physiol;58(1):35-45, 2017 01 01.
[Is] ISSN:1471-9053
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:It has been reported that PSI photoinhibition is induced even in wild-type plants of Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and other species by exposure of leaves to fluctuating light (FL) for a few hours. Because plants are exposed to FL in nature, they must possess protective mechanisms against the FL-induced photodamage. Here, using A. thaliana grown at various irradiances, we examined PSI photoprotection by far-red (FR) light at intensities comparable with those observed in nature. Dark-treated leaves were illuminated by red FL alternating high/low light at 1,200/30 µmol m-2 s-1 for 800 ms/10 s. By this FL treatment without FR light for 120 min, the level of photo-oxidizable P700 was decreased by 30% even in the plants grown at high irradiances. The addition of continuous FR light during the FL suppressed this damage almost completely. With FR light, P700 was kept in a more oxidized state in both low- and high-light phases. The protective effect of FR light was diminished more in mutants of the NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH)-mediated cyclic electron flow around PSI (CEF-PSI) than in the PGR5 (proton gradient regulation 5)-mediated CEF-PSI, indicating that the NDH-mediated CEF-PSI would be a major contributor to PSI photoprotection in the presence of FR light. We also confirmed that PSI photoinhibition decreased with the increase in growth irradiance in A. thaliana and field-grown plants, and that this PSI photodamage was largely suppressed by addition of FR light. These results clearly indicate that the most effective PSI protection is realized in the presence of FR light.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Arabidopsis/radiation effects
Commelina/radiation effects
Erigeron/radiation effects
Light
Photosynthesis/radiation effects
Photosystem I Protein Complex/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Arabidopsis/growth & development
Arabidopsis/metabolism
Commelina/growth & development
Commelina/metabolism
Erigeron/growth & development
Erigeron/metabolism
Photosystem II Protein Complex/metabolism
Species Specificity
Sunlight
Time Factors
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Photosystem I Protein Complex); 0 (Photosystem II Protein Complex)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170723
[Lr] Last revision date:170723
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcw215

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[PMID]: 27768529
[Au] Autor:Contiero RL; Biffe DF; Constantin J; de Oliveira RS; Braz GB; Lucio FR; Schleier JJ
[Ad] Address:a Agronomy Department , Universidade Estadual de Maringá , Maringá, Paraná , Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Effects of nozzle types and 2,4-D formulations on spray deposition.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci Health B;51(12):888-893, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1532-4109
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nozzle types and 2,4-D formulations on spray deposition on different targets. Two field experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design, and treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme. Species in experiment 1 were Sumatran fleabane (Conyza sumatrensis) and Brazil pusley (Richardia brasiliensis) and in experiment 2 were soybeans (Glycine max) and Benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis). For both experiments, the first factor corresponded to spray nozzles with different settings (AD 110.015 - 61 and 105 L ha ; AD 015-D - 75 and 146 L ha ; XR 110.0202 - 200 L ha ; and ADIA-D 110.02 - 208 L ha ) and the second factor consisted of two formulations of 2,4-D (amine and choline). The formulation of 2,4-D choline has contained Colex-D™ Technology. Similar or higher spray deposition was observed on the leaves and artificial targets when using 2,4-D choline as compared to the 2,4-D amine formulation, and these differences in deposition were more evident for nozzles applying lower spray volumes. Deposition was more affected by nozzle type when amine formulation was used, compared to choline formulation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid/administration & dosage
Agriculture/instrumentation
Agriculture/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Brazil
Commelina
Conyza/drug effects
Dimethylamines/administration & dosage
Equipment Design
Plant Weeds/drug effects
Random Allocation
Soybeans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Dimethylamines); 2008-39-1 (2,4-D amine); 2577AQ9262 (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170817
[Lr] Last revision date:170817
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161022
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27693346
[Au] Autor:Neamsuvan O; Bunmee P
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Traditional Thai Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand. Electronic address: oratai.n@psu.ac.th.
[Ti] Title:A survey of herbal weeds for treating skin disorders from Southern Thailand: Songkhla and Krabi Province.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;193:574-585, 2016 Dec 04.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Skin diseases are common health problems which affecting to all ages. In Thailand, the number of patients diagnosed with skin diseases is increasing every year. Nowadays, The Ministry of Public Health is supporting and promoting herbs for treating various disorders, including disorders of the skin to reduce the problem of antibiotic resistance and adverse drug reactions. This study aimed to: (1) enumerate the herbal weeds for treating skin disorders; (2) study local knowledge of weed utilization for treating skin disorders according to the folk healers in Songkhla and Krabi province; and (3) study quantitative data by Informant consensus factor (ICF), Use value (UV) and Fidelity level (FL) value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Field surveys and Semi-structured interviews about the local names, parts of plants used, preparation and use method, as well as local properties were done. The data were further analyzed by descriptive statistics, interpretation and quantitative indexes (ICF, UV as well as FL). RESULTS: The results discovered 44 herbal species of weeds belonging to 41 genera in 25 families. The most used plant families were Amaranthaceae (6 species). Most plants were used to treat abscess (18 species; 40.91%). The highest UV was recorded for Commelina benghalensis (0.65). The highest ICF values were found in vitiligo, ringworm, tinea versicolor and burns (1.00 each). The highest FL values were recorded for Cleome gynandra, Cleome viscosa, Sphenoclea zeylanica, Acmella oleracea, Leersia hexandra, Cyperus involucratus, Phyllanthus urinaria and Iresine herbstii (100.00 each). A review of the literatures revealed that 34 plant species had already been tested for their pharmacological activities. The biological activities associated with treatment of skin diseases can be divided into four categories: antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and antioxidant activity. CONCLUSION: The information indicates that herbal weedy utilization is still importance to the treatment of traditional healers through accumulated experience for a long time. Therefore, this study is a guide to the conservation of folk medicinal knowledge. It might be implied as the basis for drug development and application of herbal weeds to treat skin disorders along with promoting sustainable use of natural resource.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ethnopharmacology
Plant Preparations/therapeutic use
Plant Weeds/chemistry
Plant Weeds/classification
Skin Diseases/drug therapy
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Plant Preparations/administration & dosage
Plant Preparations/isolation & purification
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
Plants, Medicinal/classification
Thailand
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Preparations)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170321
[Lr] Last revision date:170321
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161004
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27521948
[Au] Autor:Yang R; Guo F; Li J; Su N; Shao Z; Zan S
[Ad] Address:College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241003, China. Electronic address: yangruyi@mail.ahnu.edu.cn.
[Ti] Title:Effect of copper tolerant Elsholtzia splendens on bacterial community associated with Commelina communis on a copper mine spoil.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);46:165-73, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Facilitation, or positive plant-plant interaction, has received increasing concern from ecologists over the last two decades. Facilitation may occur through direct mitigation of severe environments or indirect mediation by a third participant from the same or different trophic levels. The copper (Cu) tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens facilitates the establishment and growth of co-occurring Commelina communis through indirect enrichment of microbial activity. However, whether and how E. splendens impacts the microbial community that is associated with C. communis is less known. We characterized the soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere of C. communis in the absence and presence of E. splendens using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing. The result showed that the richness of the bacterial community increased, but diversity and evenness remained similar, in the presence of E. splendens. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant bacteria. The relative abundance of dominant and minor bacterial groups showed distinctly different responses to E. splendens. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that variation of the bacterial community was determined by multiple factors and might be driven by the tested soil parameters collectively, or alternatively changed through plant root exudates or other microorganisms. Our results enhance the understanding of how the bacterial community associated with a beneficiary plant responds to a benefactor plant and suggests that the changes of bacterial community composition may have far-reaching influence on plant-soil feedback and the aboveground plant community in the long run.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bacteria
Commelina/physiology
Copper/metabolism
Lamiaceae/physiology
Soil Microbiology
Soil Pollutants/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adaptation, Physiological
Biodegradation, Environmental
Mining
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil Pollutants); 789U1901C5 (Copper)
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170125
[Lr] Last revision date:170125
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160814
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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PubMed Central Full text
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[PMID]: 27499758
[Au] Autor:Li J; Xu H; Song Y; Tang L; Gong Y; Yu R; Shen L; Wu X; Liu Y; Zeng W
[Ad] Address:School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, ChangshaChina; School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, ChangshaChina.
[Ti] Title:Geography Plays a More Important Role than Soil Composition on Structuring Genetic Variation of Pseudometallophyte Commelina communis.
[So] Source:Front Plant Sci;7:1085, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1664-462X
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Pseudometallophytes are excellent models to study microevolution and local adaptation to soil pollution, as they can grow both on metalliferous and contrasting non-metalliferous soils. Although, there has been accumulating evidence for the effects of edaphic conditions and geographical isolation on the genetic structure of pesudometallophytes, it is still a difficult problem in evolutionary biology to assess their relative importance. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of genetic variability, population differentiation and genetic groups in pseudometallophyte Commelina communis with 12 microsatellite loci. Eight metallicolous and six non-metallicolous populations of C. communis were sampled from cupriferous sites and surrounding non-contaminated areas in China. Neither significant reduction in genetic diversity nor apparent founder and bottleneck effects were observed in metallicolous populations of C. communis. Based on Bayesian and Neighbor-Joining clustering analyses and a principal coordinates analysis, all sampled populations were found to be mainly separated into three genetic groups, corresponding well to their geographical locations rather than edaphic origins. Moreover, a significant and strong correlation between population genetic divergence and geographical distance were detected by Mantel test (r = 0.33; P < 0.05) and multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR; ßD = 0.57, P < 0.01). However, the effect of copper concentration on genetic patterns of C. communis was not significant (MMRR; ßE = -0.17, P = 0.12). Our study clearly demonstrated that the extreme edaphic conditions in metalliferous areas had limited effects on the genetic variability in C. communis. Geographic distance played a more important role in affecting the genetic structure of C. communis than soil composition did. In C. communis, the geographically disjunctive populations on metalliferous soils had multiple origins and evolved independently from nearby non-metallicolous populations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1608
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160809
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpls.2016.01085


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