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[PMID]: 24996862
[Au] Autor:Belser JA; Tumpey TM
[Ad] Address:Influenza Division, MS G-16, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA.
[Ti] Title:Mammalian models for the study of h7 virus pathogenesis and transmission.
[So] Source:Curr Top Microbiol Immunol;385:275-305, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:0070-217X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mammalian models, most notably the mouse and ferret, have been instrumental in the assessment of avian influenza virus pathogenicity and transmissibility, and have been used widely to characterize the molecular determinants that confer H5N1 virulence in mammals. However, while H7 influenza viruses have typically been associated with conjunctivitis and/or mild respiratory disease in humans, severe disease and death is also possible, as underscored by the recent emergence of H7N9 viruses in China. Despite the public health need to understand the pandemic potential of this virus subtype, H7 virus pathogenesis and transmission has not been as extensively studied. In this review, we discuss the heterogeneity of H7 subtype viruses isolated from humans, and the characterization of mammalian models to study the virulence of H7 subtype viruses associated with human infection, including viruses of both high and low pathogenicity and following multiple inoculation routes. The use of the ferret transmission model to assess the influence of receptor binding preference among contemporary H7 influenza viruses is described. These models have enabled the study of preventative and therapeutic agents, including vaccines and antivirals, to reduce disease burden, and have permitted a greater appreciation that not all highly pathogenic influenza viruses are created equal.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/82_2014_383

  2 / 12967 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25162289
[Au] Autor:Shimamoto S; Ariwaka Y; Ichijima H; Sakata H; Cavanagh HD
[Ad] Address:Shimamoto Eye Clinic (S.S., Y.A.), Fukui, Japan; GPR & Research Department (H.I., H.S.), Menicon Co., Ltd, Nagoya, Japan; and Department of Ophthalmology (H.D.C.), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.
[Ti] Title:Compliance study of contact lens wearers in Japan--part 2: evaluation of a subscribed membership system.
[So] Source:Eye Contact Lens;40(5):305-8, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1542-233X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that membership in a contact lens (CL) supply system is associated with better compliance for regular wearers (members) who belong to the subscription membership system. METHODS: Subjects were 104 members and 100 nonmember wearers of 2-week frequent replacement silicone hydrogel CLs whose clinical information was retrospectively available for 1.5 to 2 years in the interval between September 2010 and August 2012. The average duration of use of a single lens was calculated from the number of lenses supplied during the observation period and surveyed using questionnaires. Subjective symptoms and eye complications were also documented and compared. RESULTS: The average duration of use of a lens was significantly longer in nonmembers (17.8±5.6 days/lens; n=91) than in members (14.2±3.5 days/lens; n=98) (P<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). The number of wearers who replaced their lenses within 15.4 days per lens wear was significantly higher in members (74.5%) as compared with nonmembers (45.1%) (P<0.001, Fisher exact test). Levels of compliance reported by wearers did not match with those indicated in clinical records. In recorded eye complications, the rate of incidence of allergic and giant papillary conjunctivitis tended to be higher in nonmembers as compared with members. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that a membership system could be associated with better compliance was found to be supported by clinical records. It is suggested that a membership system is useful for identifying wearers who want to be more compliant and that better compliance may reduce long-term complications of lens wear.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000050

  3 / 12967 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25083780
[Au] Autor:Ragam A; Kolomeyer AM; Kim JS; Nayak NV; Fang C; Kim E; Chu DS
[Ad] Address:Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science (A.R., A.M.K., J.S.K., N.V.N., C.F., E.K., D.S.C.), Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ; and Metropolitan Eye Research and Surgery Institute (D.S.C.), Palisades Park, NJ.
[Ti] Title:Topical cyclosporine a 1% for the treatment of chronic ocular surface inflammation.
[So] Source:Eye Contact Lens;40(5):283-8, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1542-233X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of topical cyclosporine A (CsA) 1% emulsion in the treatment of chronic ocular surface inflammation (OSI). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with various forms of OSI treated with topical CsA 1% from 2001 to 2012. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (52 eyes) with various forms of OSI, including epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (n=14), chronic follicular conjunctivitis (n=12), Thygeson superficial punctate keratopathy (n=2), and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (n=1), were included. Twenty-seven patients had inflammation refractory to prior therapies. Twenty-four patients received concurrent medications with CsA 1%. Twenty-three of 24 patients on concurrent corticosteroids (CS) were able to taper their use while receiving CsA 1%. Thirteen patients experienced ocular discomfort with CsA 1%; one patient discontinued therapy all together as a result of these side effects; another switched to CsA 0.5% with improvement of adverse symptoms. Inflammation was controlled in 22 (92%) of the 24 patients who received CsA 1% for at least 2 months in duration. CONCLUSION: Topical CsA 1% helps to control inflammation and spares CS use in patients with chronic OSI.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000055

  4 / 12967 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24127660
[Au] Autor:Johnston PA; Sen M; Hua Y; Camarco D; Shun TY; Lazo JS; Grandis JR
[Ad] Address:1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
[Ti] Title:High-content pSTAT3/1 imaging assays to screen for selective inhibitors of STAT3 pathway activation in head and neck cancer cell lines.
[So] Source:Assay Drug Dev Technol;12(1):55-79, 2014 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8127
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The oncogenic transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is hyperactivated in most cancers and represents a plausible therapeutic target. In the absence of STAT3-selective small-molecule inhibitors, we sought to develop pSTAT3/1 high-content imaging (HCS) assays to screen for selective inhibitors of STAT3 pathway activation in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) tumor cell lines. Based on the expression of the interleukin-6 (IL-6)Rα and gp130 subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex and STAT3, we selected the Cal33 HNSCC cell line as our model. After developing image acquisition and analysis procedures, we rigorously investigated the cytokine activation responses to optimize the dynamic ranges of both assays and demonstrated that the pan-Janus kinase inhibitor pyridone 6 nonselectively inhibited pSTAT3 and pSTAT1 activation with 50% inhibition concentrations of 7.19 ± 4.08 and 16.38 ± 8.45 nM, respectively. The optimized pSTAT3 HCS assay performed very well in a pilot screen of 1,726 compounds from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds and the National Institutes of Health clinical collection sets, and we identified 51 inhibitors of IL-6-induced pSTAT3 activation. However, only three of the primary HCS actives selectively inhibited STAT3 compared with STAT1. Our follow-up studies indicated that the nonselective inhibition of cytokine induced pSTAT3 and pSTAT1 activation by G-alpha stimulatory subunit-coupled G-protein-coupled receptor agonists, and forskolin was likely due to cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated up-regulation of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3. Azelastine, an H1 receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis, and ocular conjunctivitis, was subsequently confirmed as a selective inhibitor of IL-6-induced pSTAT3 activation that also reduced the growth of HNSCC cell lines. These data illustrate the power of a chemical biology approach to lead generation that utilizes fully developed and optimized HCS assays as phenotypic screens to interrogate specific signaling pathways.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
Biological Assay/trends
Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism
High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods
STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism
STAT3 Transcription Factor/antagonists & inhibitors
STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Apoptosis/drug effects
Cell Line, Tumor
Cell Survival/drug effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Design
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods
Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology
Humans
Molecular Imaging/methods
Signal Transduction/drug effects
Spectrometry, Fluorescence/methods
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (STAT1 Transcription Factor); 0 (STAT1 protein, human); 0 (STAT3 Transcription Factor)
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/adt.2013.524

  5 / 12967 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24442485
[Au] Autor:Giannitti F; Barr BC; Brito BP; Uzal FA; Villanueva M; Anderson M
[Ad] Address:1Federico Giannitti, California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, 620 West Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616. fgiannitti@ucdavis.edu.
[Ti] Title:Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections in goats and other animals diagnosed at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System: 1990-2012.
[So] Source:J Vet Diagn Invest;26(1):88-95, 2014 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1943-4936
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a recognized zoonotic food-borne pathogen; however, little is known about the ecology and epidemiology of diseases caused by the bacterium in California. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the knowledge of the diseases caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis in goats, the animal species most frequently reported with clinical yersiniosis to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, to better understand the epidemiology of this disease. A 23-year retrospective study was conducted to characterize the syndromes caused by the bacterium in goats and their temporospatial distribution, and to determine the number of cases in other animal species. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-associated disease was diagnosed in 42 goats from 21 counties, with a strong seasonality in winter and spring. Most cases (88%) were observed within particular years (1999, 2004-2006, 2010-2011). The most frequently diagnosed syndrome was enteritis and/or typhlocolitis (64.3%), followed by abscessation (14.3%), abortion (11.9%), conjunctivitis (4.75%), and hepatitis (4.75%). Among other animal species, 59 cases were diagnosed in non-poultry avian species and 33 in mammals other than goats.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Goat Diseases/microbiology
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections/veterinary
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/isolation & purification
Zoonoses/microbiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Birds
California/epidemiology
Goat Diseases/epidemiology
Goats
Retrospective Studies
Seasons
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections/epidemiology
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections/microbiology
Zoonoses/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1040638713516624

  6 / 12967 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 23997224
[Au] Autor:Gu L; Ning H; Qian X; Huang Q; Hou R; Almourani R; Fu M; Blackshear PJ; Liu J
[Ad] Address:Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104;
[Ti] Title:Suppression of IL-12 production by tristetraprolin through blocking NF-kcyB nuclear translocation.
[So] Source:J Immunol;191(7):3922-30, 2013 Oct 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Tristetraprolin (TTP), an mRNA-binding protein, plays a significant role in regulating the expression of adenylate-uridylate-rich elements containing mRNAs. Mice deficient of TTP (TTP(-/-)) develop a systemic autoimmune inflammatory syndrome characterized by cachexia, conjunctivitis, and dermatitis. IL-12 plays a crucial role in immune defense against infectious and malignant diseases. In this study, we found increased production of IL-12 during endotoxic shock and enhanced Th1 cells in TTP knockout mice. The levels of IL-12 p70 and p40 protein as well as p40 and p35 mRNA were also increased in activated macrophages deficient of TTP. In line with these findings, overexpression of TTP suppressed IL-12 p35 and p40 expression at the mRNA and promoter level, whereas it surprisingly had little effects on their mRNA stability. Our data showed that the inhibitory effects of TTP on p35 gene transcription were completely rescued by overexpression of NF-кB p65 and c-Rel but not by the p50 in activated macrophages. Our data further indicated that TTP acquired its inhibition on IL-12 expression through blocking nuclear translocation of NF-кB p65 and c-Rel while enhancing p50 upon stimulation. In summary, our study reveals a novel pathway through which TTP suppresses IL-12 production in macrophages, resulting in suppression of Th1 cell differentiation. This study may provide us with therapeutic targets for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Interleukin-12/biosynthesis
NF-kappa B/metabolism
Tristetraprolin/genetics
Tristetraprolin/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus
Animals
Cell Differentiation/genetics
Cell Differentiation/immunology
Cell Line
Cell Nucleus/metabolism
Gene Expression Regulation
Humans
Interleukin-12/genetics
Male
Mice
Mice, Knockout
RNA, Messenger/genetics
Shock, Septic/genetics
Shock, Septic/immunology
Shock, Septic/metabolism
Th1 Cells/cytology
Th1 Cells/immunology
Th1 Cells/metabolism
Transcription, Genetic
Tristetraprolin/deficiency
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Tristetraprolin); 187348-17-0 (Interleukin-12)
[Em] Entry month:1311
[Cu] Class update date: 141009
[Lr] Last revision date:141009
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:130923
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1300126

  7 / 12967 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25289722
[Au] Autor:Ishida W; Fukuda K; Harada Y; Yagita H; Fukushima A
[Ad] Address:*Department of Ophthalmology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, Japan; and †Department of Immunology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Oral immunotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.
[So] Source:Cornea;33 Suppl 11:S32-6, 2014 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1536-4798
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:: Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be a desirable treatment for allergic diseases. Currently, antigen-specific immunotherapy is performed by administering disease-causing antigens subcutaneously or sublingually. These approaches induce long-term remission in patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The oral route is an alternative to subcutaneous and sublingual routes, and can also induce long-term remission, a phenomenon known as "oral tolerance." The effectiveness of oral tolerance has been reported in the context of autoimmune diseases, food allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in both human patients and animal models. However, few studies have examined its efficacy in animal models of allergic conjunctivitis. Previously, we showed that ovalbumin feeding suppressed ovalbumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis, indicating the induction of oral tolerance is effective in treating experimental allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, transgenic rice has been developed that can induce oral tolerance and reduce the severity of anaphylaxis. The major Japanese cedar pollen antigens in transgenic rice, Cryptomeria japonica 1 and C. japonica 2, were deconstructed by molecular shuffling, fragmentation, and changes in the oligomeric structure. Thus, transgenic rice may be an effective treatment for allergic conjunctivitis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000241

  8 / 12967 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25240805
[Au] Autor:Ondas O; Keles S
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, Erbaa Government Hospital, Tokat, Turkey.
[Ti] Title:Central corneal thickness in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis.
[So] Source:Med Sci Monit;20:1687-90, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1643-3750
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate central corneal thickness in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the Atatürk University School of Medicine between April 2011 and June 2013. The study group included 60 eyes of 30 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Sixty eyes of 30 healthy individuals without any ophthalmic or systemic pathology were used as a control group. The central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasonic pachymetry. RESULTS: In each group, all subjects included in the study had a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/25 or better. In the study group past medical histories revealed eczema in 19 patients, asthma in 16, and atopic dermatitis in 15. During clinical examination cicatricial conjunctivitis was noted in 5 patients, giant papillae in 4, symblepharon in 2, and entropion in 2. The mean central corneal thickness was 523.45±18.03 µm in the study group (mean age: 37.05±5.7 years) and 540.30±38.91 µm in the control group (mean age: 36.55±7.1 years), and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of corneal thickness is important in situations such as corneal refractive surgery and contact lens use, and is an essential parameter in a wide range of ocular disorders, including glaucoma and keratoconus. Therefore, ophthalmologists should be aware of the low central corneal thickness in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1409
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.12659/MSM.890825

  9 / 12967 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25157846
[Au] Autor:Santana EA; Harrison A; Zhang X; Baker BD; Kelly BJ; White P; Liu Y; Munson RS
[Ad] Address:The Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America; The Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America; Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State Univers...
[Ti] Title:HrrF is the Fur-regulated small RNA in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(8):e105644, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are Gram-negative commensal bacteria that reside in the nasopharynx. NTHi can also cause multiple upper and lower respiratory tract diseases that include sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, and otitis media. In numerous bacterial species the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) acts as a global regulator of iron homeostasis by negatively regulating the expression of iron uptake systems. However in NTHi strain 86-028NP and numerous other bacterial species there are multiple instances where Fur positively affects gene expression. It is known that many instances of positive regulation by Fur occur indirectly through a small RNA intermediate. However, no examples of small RNAs have been described in NTHi. Therefore we used RNA-Seq analysis to analyze the transcriptome of NTHi strain 86-028NPrpsL and an isogenic 86-028NPrpsLΔfur strain to identify Fur-regulated intergenic transcripts. From this analysis we identified HrrF, the first small RNA described in any Haemophilus species. Orthologues of this small RNA exist only among other Pasteurellaceae. Our analysis showed that HrrF is maximally expressed when iron levels are low. Additionally, Fur was shown to bind upstream of the hrrF promoter. RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify targets of HrrF which include genes whose products are involved in molybdate uptake, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis. The stability of HrrF is not dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq. This study is the first step in an effort to investigate the role small RNAs play in altering gene expression in response to iron limitation in NTHi.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105644

  10 / 12967 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25286651
[Au] Autor:Kielbowicz Z; Ploneczka-Janeczko K; Kuropka P
[Ti] Title:Insight into behavior of epithelial cells of the feline conjunctiva in chronic conjunctivitis as a possible limitation in detection of Chlamydophila spp.
[So] Source:Pol J Vet Sci;17(3):441-5, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1505-1773
[Cp] Country of publication:Poland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aims of this work was documentation of the reactivity of feline conjunctival epithelial cells in chronic conjunctivitis and the investigation of a possible correlation of histological findings in conjunctiva with a limitation in detection of the pathogen. In this observational study, conjunctival swab samples collected from six cats suffering from chronic conjunctivitis were monitored for Chlamydophila spp. infection for one month, every ten days. Chlamydophilosis was diagnosed by conventional PCR, and confirmed by sequencing analysis. A lack of coherence with results in subsequent studies using PCR did not allow an accurate diagnosis. Additional bioptat samples of conjunctiva were collected for diagnostic purposes and stained in haematoxylin and eosin following the Giemsa method for light microscopic analysis. Additionally the samples were incubated for 15 min with IMAGEN Chlamydia conjugate (IMAGEN Chlamydia reagent kit, Dako, UK), allowing immunofluorescence detection of Chlamydophila spp. Within the epithelium an increased number of goblet cells, as well as general enlargement of the epithelium and a reduced number of normal epithelial cells, was observed. Only in areas of low epithelium could structures similar to the elementary bodies of Chlamydophila spp. be distinguished. The presented data document a possible limitation in molecular evidence for chlamydophila infection in some naturally infected cats, taking into account histological conditions in conjunctiva at the same time.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process


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