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[PMID]: 26796813
[Au] Autor:Petersen EE; Staples JE; Meaney-Delman D; Fischer M; Ellington SR; Callaghan WM; Jamieson DJ
[Ti] Title:Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak - United States, 2016.
[So] Source:MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep;65(2):30-3, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1545-861X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6502e1

  2 / 13495 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26694802
[Au] Autor:Yoou MS; Park CL; Kim MH; Kim HM; Jeong HJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea....
[Ti] Title:Inhibition of MDM2 expression by rosmarinic acid in TSLP-stimulated mast cell.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharmacol;771:191-8, 2016 Jan 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0712
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rosmarinic acid (RA) has an anti-inflammatory property while thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has an important role in mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the regulatory effect of RA in TSLP-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells, and short ragweed pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis mouse model. As a result, we found that RA significantly decreased the TSLP-induced mast cell proliferation and murine double minute (MDM) 2 expression. RA significantly decreased the levels of interleukin (IL)-13 and phosphorylated the signal transducer and activation of transcription 6 in the TSLP-stimulated HMC-1 cells. RA induced the increment of p53 levels, caspase-3 activation, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and the reduction of the procaspase-3 and Bcl2. RA significantly reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 on the TSLP-stimulated HMC-1 cells. In addition, RA significantly reduced the levels of IgE, IL-4, and TSLP in the short ragweed pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis mouse model. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that RA has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on TSLP-induced inflammatory reactions. These effects of RA are likely to be mediated through inhibiting the MDM2 increased by TSLP.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 13495 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26153408
[Au] Autor:Alves DA; Honko AN; Kortepeter MG; Sun M; Johnson JC; Lugo-Roman LA; Hensley LE
[Ad] Address:Defense Health Agency Veterinary Services, Defense Health Headquarters, Falls Church, Virginia....
[Ti] Title:Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;213(1):57-60, 2016 Jan 1.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1512
[Cu] Class update date: 160113
[Lr] Last revision date:160113
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv357

  4 / 13495 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25387895
[Au] Autor:Mitchell DA; Sayour EJ; Reap E; Schmittling R; DeLeon G; Norberg P; Desjardins A; Friedman AH; Friedman HS; Archer G; Sampson JH
[Ad] Address:UF Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Preston A. Wells, Jr. Center for Brain Tumor Therapy, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. duane.mitcehell@neurosurgery.ufl.edu john.sampson@duke.edu....
[Ti] Title:Severe adverse immunologic reaction in a patient with glioblastoma receiving autologous dendritic cell vaccines combined with GM-CSF and dose-intensified temozolomide.
[So] Source:Cancer Immunol Res;3(4):320-5, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:2326-6074
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Therapeutic vaccination of patients with cancer-targeting tumor-associated antigens is a promising strategy for the specific eradication of invasive malignancies with minimal toxicity to normal tissues. However, as increasingly potent modalities for stimulating immunologic responses are developed for clinical evaluation, the risk of inflammatory and autoimmune toxicities also may be exacerbated. In this report, we describe the induction of a severe (grade 3) immunologic reaction in a patient with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) receiving autologous RNA-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccines admixed with GM-CSF and administered coordinately with cycles of dose-intensified temozolomide. Shortly after the eighth administration of the admixed intradermal vaccine, the patient experienced dizziness, flushing, conjunctivitis, headache, and the outbreak of a disseminated macular/papular rash and bilateral indurated injection sites. Immunologic workup of patient reactivity revealed sensitization to the GM-CSF component of the vaccine and the production of high levels of anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies during vaccination. Removal of GM-CSF from the DC vaccine allowed continued vaccination without incident. Despite the known lymphodepletive and immunosuppressive effects of temozolomide, these observations demonstrate the capacity for the generation of severe immunologic reactivity in patients with GBM receiving DC-based therapy during adjuvant dose-intensified temozolomide.
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 151209
[Lr] Last revision date:151209
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0100

  5 / 13495 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26338317
[Au] Autor:Tanihara H; Inoue T; Yamamoto T; Kuwayama Y; Abe H; Fukushima A; Suganami H; Araie M; K-115 Clinical Study Group
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan....
[Ti] Title:One-year clinical evaluation of 0.4% ripasudil (K-115) in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
[So] Source:Acta Ophthalmol;94(1):e26-34, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1755-3768
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To investigate the intra-ocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effects and safety of 0.4% ripasudil (K-115), a Rho kinase inhibitor, twice daily for 52 weeks, in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, open-label study, 388 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, OHT or exfoliation glaucoma were enrolled and 354 of them were subdivided into four cohorts (monotherapy, 173; additive therapy to prostaglandin analogs, 62; ß-blockers, 60; or fixed combination drugs, 59). The IOP reduction at trough and peak from baseline and adverse events was investigated. RESULTS: Ripasudil showed IOP-lowering effects over 52 weeks in all the analyses of monotherapy, additive therapy and both subgroups (baseline IOP ≥21 mmHg and <21 mmHg) of monotherapy. The mean IOP reductions at trough and peak at week 52 were -2.6 and -3.7 mmHg for monotherapy, and -1.4 and -2.4, -2.2 and -3.0, and -1.7 and -1.7 mmHg, respectively, for additive therapy described above. The most frequently observed adverse events were conjunctival hyperaemia (n = 264, 74.6%), blepharitis (n = 73, 20.6%) and allergic conjunctivitis (n = 61, 17.2%). Most of the conjunctival hyperaemia findings were mild (97.0%), transient and resolved spontaneously (78.0%). Although 51 patients discontinued from the study due to blepharitis and/or allergic conjunctivitis (blepharitis, 28; allergic conjunctivitis, 17; both, 6), all the events resolved with or without treatment after the discontinuation of ripasudil administration. CONCLUSION: Fifty-two week administration of 0.4% ripasudil revealed IOP-lowering effects and an acceptable safety profile when administered as monotherapy or as additive therapy, in patients with open-angle glaucoma or OHT.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/aos.12829

  6 / 13495 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26739411
[Au] Autor:Jiang N; Yin J; Wen L
[Ad] Address:Department of Allergy, Peking Union Hospital; Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Title:Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy.
[So] Source:Allergy Asthma Immunol Res;8(2):170-3, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:2092-7355
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 160120
[Lr] Last revision date:160120
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160107
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4168/aair.2016.8.2.170

  7 / 13495 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26696478
[Au] Autor:Li T; Zhao C
[Ad] Address:Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China.
[Ti] Title:[A preliminary study on the role of substance P in histamine-nasal-spray-induced allergic conjunctivitis in guinea pigs].
[So] Source:Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi;50(10):836-41, 2015 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1673-0860
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the non adrenergic non cholinergic nerve (NANC) and substance P (SP) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis by observing histamine nasal provocation induced conjunctivitis in guinea pigs. METHODS: Forty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into five groups with each group consisting of eight guinea pigs. All anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed either to histamine (0.2%, 5 µl) (group B~E) or saline (5 µl, group A) via unilateral nostril. No pretreatment was done in group A and B while pretreatment was done in groups C~E through injection into the unilateral common carotid artery with cholinergic nerve inhibitor (atropine, 1 mg/kg, group C), cholinergic nerve inhibitor plus adrenergic nerve inhibitors (atropine, 1 mg/kg, phentolamine, 1 mg/kg plus Esmolol, 1 mg/kg, group D) and cholinergic nerve inhibitor, adrenergic nerve inhibitors plus SP receptor antagonist (the same treatment with group D plus D-SP 10(-6) mol/L, 1 µl/g, group E), respectively. To assess the ipsilateral conjunctival inflammatory reaction, conjunctiva leakage with Evans blue dye assessments and HE staining of conjunctival tissues were performed. The SP expression in ipsilateral conjunctival tissue in different groups of guinea pigs were assessed by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. The activity of eosinophils was assessed by eosinophil major basic protein 1 (MBP1) with RT-PCR, meanwhile, the activity of mast cells was assessed by tryptase with RT-PCR. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: At 30 min after nasal application of histamine, ipsilateral conjunctivitis was successfully induced as shown by the change of conjunctiva leakage and histology. The content of Evans blue in ipsilateral conjunctival tissue of group A~E was (13.78 ± 2.48), (29.62 ± 3.31), (19.03 ± 1.47), (18.42 ± 2.52), (14.83 ± 2.14) µg/ml, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between group A and B (t = -10.66, P < 0.05), group B and C (t = 7.97, P < 0.05), group C and E (t = 4.51, P < 0.05). PT-PCR assays showed the relative expression of SP mRNA in ipsilateral conjunctival tissues of group A~E was (1.00 ± 0.04), (1.61 ± 0.09), (1.26 ± 0.03), (1.27 ± 0.06), (1.08 ± 0.05), respectively. There was statistically significant difference between group A and B (t = -22.04, P < 0.05), group B and C (t = 12.93, P < 0.05), group C and E (t = 11.85, P < 0.05). The expression of tryptase of ipsilateral conjunctiva was (1.00 ± 0.01), (1.01 ± 0.05), (1.02 ± 0.17), (1.00 ± 0.14), (1.01 ± 0.20), and the expression of MBP1 was (1.00 ± 0.03), (1.02 ± 0.15), (0.94 ± 0.08), (1.01 ± 0.07), (0.98 ± 0.13) in A~E groups. There was not statistically significant difference among five groups (F value was 1.93, 0.57, both P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Histamine nasal provocation induced allergic inflammatory response of ipsilateral conjunctiva in guinea pigs. Neural factors including NANC nerves and its medium SP participated this nose-ocular reflex process. These data help to develop a more scientific clinical treatment strategy.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1512
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  8 / 13495 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25907207
[Au] Autor:McAnena L; Knowles SJ; Curry A; Cassidy L
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital, Dublin, Ireland....
[Ti] Title:Prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis in adults and neonates.
[So] Source:Eye (Lond);29(7):875-80, 2015 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1476-5454
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To report the prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC) presenting to a tertiary referral maternity hospital (NMH) and a tertiary referral ophthalmic hospital (RVEEH) from 2011 to 2013 and describe the demographics, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ocular infections. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were collected from patients with laboratory confirmed GC. RESULTS: There were 27 556 live births at NMH during the study period, and no case of neonatal GC was identified. Fourteen cases of GC were identified at RVEEH in this period, representing a prevalence of 0.19 cases per 1000 eye emergency attendees. Antibiotic susceptibility data were available on nine cases, of which, all were ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin sensitive. 64.3% of patients were male, with a mean age of 18 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days. All patients presented with unilateral conjunctival injection and purulent discharge. Eight cases had visual impairment at presentation and their mean visual acuity was 6/15. Corneal involvement was present in 25% of patients. Uveitis was not detected. On receipt of positive culture and/or PCR results, treatment was altered in two thirds of patients. All patients were referred for full STI screening and all patients showed a full clinical recovery 1 week posttreatment. CONCLUSION: We observed that GC presented in young adults with a male predominance and was rare in neonates. In cases of unilateral purulent conjunctivitis, there should be a high clinical suspicion of GC, early swab for PCR and culture, and knowledge of current CDC-recommended antibiotic guidelines.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/epidemiology
Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology
Gonorrhea/epidemiology
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
Ophthalmia Neonatorum/diagnosis
Ophthalmia Neonatorum/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use
Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/diagnosis
Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/drug therapy
Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis
Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy
Female
Gonorrhea/diagnosis
Gonorrhea/drug therapy
Hospitals, Maternity/statistics & numerical data
Hospitals, Special/statistics & numerical data
Humans
Ireland/epidemiology
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects
Ophthalmia Neonatorum/drug therapy
Ophthalmology/statistics & numerical data
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Prevalence
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 5E8K9I0O4U (Ciprofloxacin); 75J73V1629 (Ceftriaxone)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 150729
[Lr] Last revision date:150729
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150709
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/eye.2015.57

  9 / 13495 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26104284
[Au] Autor:Osuolale O; Okoh A
[Ad] Address:SA-MRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa. 201205709@ufh.ac.za....
[Ti] Title:Incidence of human adenoviruses and Hepatitis A virus in the final effluent of selected wastewater treatment plants in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
[So] Source:Virol J;12:98, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1743-422X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Municipal effluent constitutes a large reservoir of human enteric viruses and bacteria. Contemporary monitoring practices rely on indicator bacteria, and do not test for viruses. Different viruses, including Norwalk-like viruses, Hepatitis A virus (HAV), adenoviruses, and rotaviruses, are important agents of illnesses in humans. The burden of disease caused by adenoviruses manifests as pneumonia, bronchiolitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, and tonsillitis, whereas HAV infection can manifest as acute inflammatory diseases of the liver, fever, anorexia, malaise, nausea, and abdominal discomfort, followed by jaundice and dark urine. The public health implications of these viruses depend upon the physiological status of the wastewater microbial community. METHODS: The occurrence of human adenovirus (HAdV) and HAV was determined in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, over 12 months (September 2012-August 2013). The viruses were detected with real-time PCR, and conventional PCR was used for serotyping. RESULTS: Adenovirus was detected in effluent samples from all five WWTPs and in 64 % of the total samples, whereas HAV was not detected in any effluent sample. At WWPT-A, samples were collected from the final effluent tank (adenoviral concentrations ranged from 1.05 × 10(1) to 1.10 × 10(4) genome/L, with a 41.7 % detection rate) and the discharge point (adenoviral concentrations ranged between 1.2 × 10(1) and 2.8 × 10(4) genome/L, with a 54.5 % detection rate). At WWPT-B, HAdV was detected in 91.7 % of samples, with viral concentrations of 7.92 × 10(1)-2.37 × 10(5) genome/L. The HAdV concentrations at WWPT-C were 5.32 × 10(1)-2.20 × 10(5) genome/L, and the detection rate was 75 %. The adenoviral concentrations at WWPT-D were 1.23 × 10(3)-1.05 × 10(4) genome/L, and the detection rate was 66.7 %. At WWPT-E, the viral concentrations were 1.08 × 10(1)-5.16 × 10(4) genome/L, and the detection rate was 54.5 %. Characterization of the adenoviruses revealed HAdV serotypes 2 (1.4 %) and 41 (7.1 %), in species C and F, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report the prevalence of HAdV in the final effluents of WWTPs in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The adenoviral detection rates indicate the potential contamination of the environment, with adverse effects on public health.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Adenoviridae/isolation & purification
Hepatitis A virus/isolation & purification
Waste Water/virology
Water Purification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Genotype
Humans
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Serotyping
South Africa
Viral Load
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Waste Water)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 150627
[Lr] Last revision date:150627
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150626
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12985-015-0327-z

  10 / 13495 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25889261
[Au] Autor:Di Ianni F; Dodi PL; Cabassi CS; Pelizzone I; Sala A; Cavirani S; Parmigiani E; Quintavalla F; Taddei S
[Ad] Address:Dipartimento di Scienze Medico-Veterinarie, Università di Parma, via del Taglio 10, 43126, Parma, Italy. francesco.diianni@unipr.it....
[Ti] Title:Conjunctival flora of clinically normal and diseased turtles and tortoises.
[So] Source:BMC Vet Res;11:91, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1746-6148
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In captive breed turtles and tortoises conjunctival disease is common. Our aim was to investigate the bacterial and fungal flora present in the eyes of healthy and pathological chelonians and to compare findings in turtles with those in tortoises. RESULTS: Samples were taken from the conjunctival sacs of 34, diseased and healthy, chelonians (18 tortoises and 16 turtles) and submitted to bacterial and fungal investigation. All samples showed bacterial growth. Thirteen animals (38%), harboured a single bacterial species as sole isolate and twenty-one animals (62%) harboured more than one species. Detection of multiple bacterial infection was clearly greater in tortoises compared to turtles. Most frequently isolated bacterial species were Bacillus spp. (13 isolates), Staphylococcus xylosus (10 isolates), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (6 isolates), Staphylococcus sciuri and Aeromonas hydrophila/caviae (each 5 isolates), Ochrobactrum anthropi (3 isolates), Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas luteola (each 2 isolates). Only one isolate of Kocuria varians/rosea, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus lentus, Morganella morganii, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella enterica ssp. arizonae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was evidenced. The presence in 8 animals of Mycoplasma spp. and in 1 animal with severe conjunctivitis of Chlamydia spp. was detected by PCR. Candida spp. was also isolated from two healthy animals. CONCLUSIONS: A clear predominance of Gram positive isolates in tortoises and Gram negative isolates in turtles was found. However, we cannot ascribe the observed difference to the diversity of animal species, as other factors, including especially different characteristics of the living environments, may play a role. Almost all bacterial species isolated may have clinical significance, mostly as opportunistic pathogens, both for humans and animals. That chelonians are often carrier of bacteria with zoonotic potential is a well-known fact, in particular with regard to Salmonella spp. Therefore, it is not surprising the detection of a strain of Salmonella enterica ssp. arizonae in the eye of one of the animals tested. Worthy of note is the finding of Chlamydia spp. in a severe case of conjunctivitis, though we cannot epidemiologically assess a cause-effect relationship between presence of chlamydia and disease.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bacteria/isolation & purification
Bacterial Infections/veterinary
Conjunctivitis/veterinary
Turtles/microbiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Bacteria/classification
Bacterial Infections/microbiology
Case-Control Studies
Conjunctivitis/microbiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 150420
[Lr] Last revision date:150420
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150419
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12917-015-0405-x


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