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[PMID]: 29508455
[Au] Autor:Palma JA; Kaufmann H
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Dysautonomia Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
[Ti] Title:Treatment of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies.
[So] Source:Mov Disord;33(3):372-390, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1531-8257
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system afflicts most patients with Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies such as dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure, reducing quality of life and increasing mortality. For example, gastrointestinal dysfunction can lead to impaired drug pharmacodynamics causing a worsening in motor symptoms, and neurogenic orthostatic hypotension can cause syncope, falls, and fractures. When recognized, autonomic problems can be treated, sometimes successfully. Discontinuation of potentially causative/aggravating drugs, patient education, and nonpharmacological approaches are useful and should be tried first. Pathophysiology-based pharmacological treatments that have shown efficacy in controlled trials of patients with synucleinopathies have been approved in many countries and are key to an effective management. Here, we review the treatment of autonomic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies, summarize the nonpharmacological and current pharmacological therapeutic strategies including recently approved drugs, and provide practical advice and management algorithms for clinicians, with focus on neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, dysphagia, sialorrhea, gastroparesis, constipation, neurogenic overactive bladder, underactive bladder, and sexual dysfunction. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/mds.27344

  2 / 23751 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29432808
[Au] Autor:Grønlund D; Poulsen JL; Krogh K; Brock C; Liao D; Gregersen H; Drewes AM; Olesen AE
[Ad] Address:Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:The impact of naloxegol on anal sphincter function - Using a human experimental model of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharm Sci;117:187-192, 2018 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0720
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Opioid treatment interferes with anal sphincter function and its regulation during defecation. This may result in straining, incomplete evacuation, and contribute to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD). Employing an experimental model of oxycodone-induced OIBD, we hypothesized that co-administration of the peripherally acting µ-opioid antagonist naloxegol would improve anal sphincter function in comparison to placebo. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized crossover trial, 24 healthy males were assigned to a six-day treatment of oral oxycodone 15 mg twice daily in combination with either oral naloxegol 25 mg once daily or placebo. At baseline and at day 6, anal resting pressure and the recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) were evaluated using manometry and rectal balloon distension. Furthermore, the functional lumen imaging probe was used to measure distensibility of the anal canal. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed with the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom (PAC-SYM) questionnaire and the Bristol Stool Form Scale. RESULTS: During oxycodone treatment, naloxegol improved RAIR-induced sphincter relaxation by 15% (-45.9 vs -38.8 mm Hg; P < 0.01). No differences in anal resting pressure and anal canal distensibility were found between treatments (all P > 0.5). Naloxegol improved PAC-SYM symptoms (mean score over days; 2.6 vs 4.5, P < 0.001) and improved stool consistency scores (mean score over days; 3.3 vs 2.9, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this experimental model of OIBD, naloxegol improved the RAIR and reduced gastrointestinal symptoms. Hence, in contrast to conventional laxatives, naloxegol may regulate opioid-induced anal sphincter dysfunction and facilitate the defecation process.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 23751 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523666
[Au] Autor:Lei YY; Ho SC; Cheng A; Kwok C; Lee CI; Cheung KL; Lee R; Loong HHF; He YQ; Yeo W
[Ad] Address:From the Department of Clinical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, the Chinese University of Hong Kong; Division of Epidemiology, the Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories; and Department of Clinical Oncology, Princess Margaret Ho
[Ti] Title:Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Guideline Is Associated With Better Health-Related Quality of Life Among Chinese Patients With Breast Cancer.
[So] Source:J Natl Compr Canc Netw;16(3):275-285, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1540-1413
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guideline provides recommendations for cancer prevention among cancer survivors. Limited data have examined whether guideline adherence is related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Chinese patients with breast cancer. An ongoing prospective cohort study involving 1,462 Chinese women with early-stage breast cancer assessed exercise, diet, and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and at 18-months follow-up after diagnosis. Each assessment recorded patient habits within the previous 12 months. HRQoL was evaluated by the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). We first compared the level of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations before and after cancer diagnosis. We then examined whether adherence to these recommendations after diagnosis was associated with HRQoL at 18 months. The mean adherence score significantly increased from baseline (3.2; SD, 1.1) to 18-month follow-up (3.9; SD, 1.1; <.001). Overall, increasing adherence to the WCRF/AICR guideline was associated with higher scores of global health status/quality of life (QoL; =.011), physical ( <.001) and role functioning ( =.024), and lower scores for fatigue ( =.016), nausea and vomiting ( <.001), pain ( =.004), dyspnea ( =.030), loss of appetite ( =.007), and diarrhea ( =.020). Patients with cancer who met the BMI recommendation had higher scores for physical functioning ( =.001) and lower scores for fatigue ( =.024), pain ( <.001), and dyspnea ( =.045). Adherence to physical activity recommendation was associated with better scores of global health status/QoL ( <.001), physical functioning ( =.003), fatigue ( =.002), pain ( =.018), and dyspnea ( =.021). Higher adherence to diet recommendation was associated with lower scores of nausea and vomiting ( =.005), loss of appetite ( =.026), constipation ( =.040), and diarrhea ( =.031). Chinese patients with breast cancer made positive lifestyle changes early after cancer diagnosis. Increased adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations after cancer diagnosis may improve HRQoL. Our data suggest that Chinese patients with breast cancer should follow the WCRF/AICR guideline to improve overall well-being.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.6004/jnccn.2017.7202

  4 / 23751 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522446
[Au] Autor:Elli L; Ferretti F; Branchi F; Tomba C; Lombardo V; Scricciolo A; Doneda L; Roncoroni L
[Ad] Address:Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease, Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy. luca.elli@policlinico.mi.it.
[Ti] Title:Sucrosomial Iron Supplementation in Anemic Patients with Celiac Disease Not Tolerating Oral Ferrous Sulfate: A Prospective Study.
[So] Source:Nutrients;10(3), 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2072-6643
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Patients with celiac disease (CD) frequently suffer from iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and may benefit from iron supplementation. However, intolerance to iron sulfate and duodenal atrophy could reduce the efficacy of this supplementation. This study evaluated the efficacy of a new sucrosomial iron formulation in patients with CD. Consecutive patients with CD and IDA were divided into two groups: patients with a known intolerance to iron sulfate were treated with sucrosomial iron (30 mg of iron/day), while those receiving iron supplementation for the first time were assigned to iron sulfate (105 mg of iron/day). Forty-three patients were enrolled (38 females, mean age 49 ± 9 years). After a follow-up of 90 days both groups showed an increase in Hb levels compared to baseline (+10.1% and +16.2% for sucrosomial and sulfate groups, respectively), and a significant improvement in all iron parameters, with no statistical difference between the two groups. Patients treated with sucrosomial iron reported a lower severity of abdominal symptoms, such as abdominal and epigastric pain, abdominal bloating, and constipation, and a higher increase in general well-being (+33% vs. +21%) compared to the iron sulfate group. Sucrosomial iron can be effective in providing iron supplementation in difficult-to-treat populations, such as patients with CD, IDA, and known intolerance to iron sulfate.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  5 / 23751 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29425110
[Au] Autor:Yamaguchi T; Hothubo T; Morikawa S; Nakamura A; Mori T; Tajima T
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Japan.
[Ti] Title:A Japanese patient with congenital central hypothyroidism caused by a novel IGSF1 mutation.
[So] Source:J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab;31(3):355-359, 2018 Mar 28.
[Is] ISSN:2191-0251
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: IGSF1 abnormality causes diverse symptoms, including congenital central hypothyroidism (CCH), prolactin hyposecretion, testicular enlargement and delayed puberty. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of a male patient who visited our hospital with a chief complaint of abdominal pain and short stature, in whom we identified a novel IGSF1 mutation. He was closely examined because of chronic constipation since infancy, persistent abdominal pain at 14 years of age and marked short stature (-4.7 standard deviation [SD] for normal Japanese boys). He was diagnosed with CCH. Decreased prolactin (PRL) secretion was also observed. IGSF1 analysis revealed a novel mutation at the splicing donor site (c.2065+1G>A) in intron 11. In silico analysis predicted this mutation to be a non-functional splice donor site. After thyroid hormone replacement, his thyroid function, constipation and growth rate improved. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a patient in whom constipation and short stature led to a diagnosis of CCH with a novel IGSF1 mutation.
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  6 / 23751 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29317145
[Au] Autor:Harding D; Giles SL; Brown MRD; Ter Haar GR; van den Bosch M; Bartels LW; Kim YS; Deppe M; deSouza NM
[Ad] Address:The CRUK Cancer Imaging Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, MRI Unit, Sutton, Surrey, UK.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of Quality of Life Outcomes Following Palliative Treatment of Bone Metastases with Magnetic Resonance-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: An International Multicentre Study.
[So] Source:Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol);30(4):233-242, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1433-2981
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIMS: To determine quality of life (QoL) outcomes after palliation of pain from bone metastases using magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-guided HIFU), measured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C15-PAL and the QLQ-BM22 questionnaires. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients undergoing MR-guided HIFU in an international multicentre trial self-completed the QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BM22 questionnaires before and on days 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 post-treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to represent changes in symptom and functional scales over time and to determine their clinical significance. QoL changes were compared in pain responders and non-responders (who were classified according to change in worst pain score and analgesic intake, between baseline and day 30). RESULTS: Eighteen patients had analysable QoL data. Clinically significant improvements were seen in the QoL scales of physical functioning, fatigue, appetite loss, nausea and vomiting, constipation and pain in the 53% of patients who were classified as responders at day 30. No significant changes were seen in the 47% of patients who were non-responders at this time point. CONCLUSION: Local treatment of pain from bone metastases with MR-guided HIFU, even in the presence of disseminated malignancy, has a substantial positive effect on physical functioning, and improves other symptomatic QoL measures. This indicated a greater response to treatment over and above pain control alone. MR-guided HIFU is non-invasive and should be considered for patients with localised metastatic bone pain and poor QoL.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 23751 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521241
[Au] Autor:Hamedi S; Honarvar M
[Ad] Address:Department of Persian Pharmacy, School of Persian and Complementary Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad. Iran.
[Ti] Title:Beta vulgaris - A mini review of traditional uses in Iran, phytochemistry and pharmacology.
[So] Source:Curr Drug Discov Technol;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1875-6220
[Cp] Country of publication:United Arab Emirates
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Beta vulgaris (family: Chenopodiacea) is now much used in the food industry as a rich source of sugar but it is much less considered in medicine. Beet has been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years to treat a variety of diseases such as constipation, decreased libido, gut and joint pain and dandruff. METHODS: This study introduced the benefits of Beta vulgaris by reviewing of Iranian traditional documents from 10th century until now and also compared modern phytotherapy of plant beet from the electronic data banks such as ISI, Pub Med and Scopus with findings that extracted from traditional literature. RESULTS: This plant is known in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as Selgh (Arabic) or Choghondar (Farsi) and its leaves are used to develop treatments. Results confirmed that the plant referred to as Selgh in traditional books is that the plant Beta vulgaris in contemporary studies. Treatments that have not been evaluated in modern phytotherapy but do appear in traditional treatments include fever, as well as psychological and psychiatric issues. This article tells the history of beet in ITM and can confirm use of plant Beta vulgaris in medicinal practice. The report can be applied for certification of plant Beta vulgaris for researchers and experts. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study can help the researchers in producing therapeutic products and new application.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.2174/1570163815666180308142912

  8 / 23751 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521026
[Au] Autor:Singh P; Surana R; Soni S; Agnihotri A; Ahuja V; Makharia GK; Staller K; Kuo B
[Ad] Address:Division of Gastroenterology, Center for Neurointestinal Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Cross cultural comparison of constipation profiles at tertiary care centers between India and USA.
[So] Source:Neurogastroenterol Motil;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2982
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Despite potential differences in patient perception of chronic constipation (CC) in geographically and culturally distinct regions, head-to-head studies comparing the clinical profile, constipation severity, impact on quality of life (QOL) and economic impact are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study of patients presenting with CC to tertiary care centers in the USA and India. Standardized instruments were used to assess constipation subtype, disease severity, disease-specific QOL, somatization, and psychiatric comorbidities. We used multivariable linear regression to determine the predictors of QOL and number of healthcare visits. KEY RESULTS: Sixty-six and 98 patients with CC were enrolled in the USA and India, respectively. Indian patients with CC had significantly more frequent bowel movements/week compared to their USA counterparts (Median 5 vs 3, P < .0001). The proportion of patients with Bristol stool form scale type 1 and 2 was significantly higher in the USA compared to India (65.5% vs 48%, P = .04). Higher depression score (P = .001), more severe constipation symptoms (P = .001) and site of the study being USA (P = .008) independently predicted worse QOL. Indian patients (P < .001) and worse QOL (P = .02) were independent predictors of number of healthcare visits in the last 12 months. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Indian patients with CC have more frequent and softer bowel movements compared to those in the USA suggesting significant differences in perception of CC in different geographic and cultural settings. QOL and economic impact related to constipation varies with geographic/cultural setting irrespective of other clinical and psychosomatic features.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/nmo.13324

  9 / 23751 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521017
[Au] Autor:Song NN; Lu HL; Lu C; Tong L; Huang SQ; Huang X; Chen J; Kim YC; Xu WX
[Ad] Address:Department of Anatomy & Physiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
[Ti] Title:Diabetes-induced colonic slow transit mediated by the up-regulation of PDGFRα cells/SK3 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
[So] Source:Neurogastroenterol Motil;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2982
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: A major complication related to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in diabetic patients is chronic constipation. Constipation has serious negative impacts on quality of life; however, without a comprehensive understanding of the disease, currently available treatments cannot provide a cure. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive cells (PDGFRα cells), which form the SIP syncytium with interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle cells, play important roles in GI motility. In the present study, the contributions of PDGFRα cells to diabetes-induced colonic slow transit were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. METHODS: Western blotting, quantitative PCR, contractile experiments, and intracellular recording were used in the present study. KEY RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the colon length was increased in STZ-treated mice. The colonic transit of artificial fecal pellets in vitro was significantly delayed in STZ-treated mice. The mRNA and protein expression of PDGFRα, small-conductance Ca -activated K channels (SK3), and P2Y1 receptors were increased in the colons of STZ-treated mice. In contractile experiments, the colonic smooth muscles were more sensitive to the SK3 agonist and antagonist (CyPPA and apamin) and the P2Y1 agonist and antagonist (MRS2365 and MRS2500) in STZ-treated mice. Intracellular recordings showed the responses of membrane potentials in colonic smooth muscle cells to CyPPA, apamin, MRS2365, and MRS2500 were more sensitive in STZ-treated mice. The electric field stimulation-induced P2Y1/SK3-dependent fast inhibitory junctional potentials (fIJPs) of colonic smooth muscles were more significantly hyperpolarized in STZ-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: These results suggest that the purinergic neurotransmitters/P2Y1/SK3 signaling pathway is up-regulated in the diabetic colons, thereby mediating diabetes-induced colonic slow transit.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/nmo.13326

  10 / 23751 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29519574
[Au] Autor:Li C; Shanahan S; Livingston MH; Walton JM
[Ad] Address:McMaster Pediatric Surgery Research Collaborative, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Malone appendicostomy versus cecostomy tube insertion for children with intractable constipation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
[So] Source:J Pediatr Surg;, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1531-5037
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Children with intractable constipation are often treated with antegrade continence enemas. This requires the creation of a Malone appendicostomy in the operating room or insertion of a cecostomy tube using endoscopic, radiologic, or surgical techniques. The purpose of this study was to assess the evidence regarding these procedures. METHODS: We conducted a search of Embase, Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science up to October 2016. We included comparative studies of children treated with Malone appendicostomy or cecostomy tube insertion. Two reviewers screened abstracts, reviewed studies, and extracted data. RESULTS: We identified 166 children from three retrospective studies who underwent Malone appendicostomy (n=82) or cecostomy tube insertion (n=84). There were no differences in the number of patients who achieved continence (80% versus 70%, p=0.76), but the need for additional surgery was higher in children treated with Malone appendicostomy (30% versus 12%, p=0.01). Studies reported a variety of tube and stoma-related complications, but quality of life was not assessed using validated measures. CONCLUSION: Malone appendicostomy and cecostomy tube insertion are comparable in terms of achieving continence. Children treated with Malone appendicostomy appear to be more likely to require additional surgery due to early or late complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, 1c.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher


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