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[PMID]: 29169369
[Au] Autor:Arshad N; Mehreen A; Liaqat I; Arshad M; Afrasiab H
[Ad] Address:Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. najmaarshad@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:In vivo screening and evaluation of four herbs against MRSA infections.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):498, 2017 Nov 23.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported high in vitro antibacterial efficacy of Althaea officinalis, Ziziphus jujuba, Cordia latifolia and Thymus vulgaris out of a total 21 plants against wide range of bacteria including MRSA. This study was therefore, designed to confirm efficacy of these four herbs against MRSA in an animal model. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted to establish the dose of S. aureus (KY698020) required to induce clinical infection. Afterword, in main trial, efficacy of aforementioned plant extracts on the course of sore throat was checked by evaluating general health, gross lesion score, bacterial load and hematology in mice. RESULTS: Pilot study revealed that 40 µl dose of 10 CFU/ml could induce infection which persist upto 08 days post infection. Mice treated with T. vulgaris and Z. jujuba showed reduction in gross lesion score of both heart and lungs. Treatment with only some plants could significantly decrease bacterial load of throat (T. vulgaris) heart, blood and joint (C. latifolia, and T. vulagris). Hematological indicators confirmed in vivo control of MRSA infection in all treatment groups except A. officinalis. CONCLUSION: This is first report confirming in vivo anti-MRSA potential of C. latifolia and T. vulgaris and highlight the need to explore bioactive constituents of these plants. Moreover, previously reported in vitro antibacterial efficiency of A. officinalis could not be validated in current study.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171124
[Lr] Last revision date:171124
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-2001-z

  2 / 226 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29030035
[Au] Autor:Sciarrone D; Giuffrida D; Rotondo A; Micalizzi G; Zoccali M; Pantò S; Donato P; Rodrigues-das-Dores RG; Mondello L
[Ad] Address:Dipartimento di "Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed Ambientali", University of Messina, Polo Annunziata, Viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Quali-quantitative characterization of the volatile constituents in Cordia verbenacea D.C. essential oil exploiting advanced chromatographic approaches and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr A;1524:246-253, 2017 Nov 17.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3778
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Boraginaceae, Varronia curassavica Jacq. synonym) is a medicinal plant, native from Brazil, especially the leaves are used in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to extend the characterization of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from this plant, by using GC-FID, GC-MS, and chiral GC. Moreover, to further clarify the composition of the volatile fraction, preparative multidimensional-GC (prep-MDGC) was used to collect unknown compounds, followed by NMR characterization. Specifically, the chemical characterization, both qualitative and quantitative, of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from Cordia verbenacea cultivated in the Minas Gerais area (central area of Brazil) was investigated for the first time. The principal components from a quantitative point of view were α-pinene (25.32%; 24.48g/100g) and α-santalene (17.90%; 17.30g/100g), belonging to the terpenes family. Chiral-GC data are reported for the enantiomeric distribution of 7 different components. Last, to obtain the complete characterization of the essential oil constituents, prep-MDGC analysis was used to attain the isolation of two compounds, not present in the principal MS databases, which were unambiguously identified by NMR investigation as (E)-α-santalal and (E)-α-bergamotenal, reported for the first time in Cordia verbenacea essential oil.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171028
[Lr] Last revision date:171028
[St] Status:In-Process

  3 / 226 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28977692
[Au] Autor:Arcila Hernández LM; Sanders JG; Miller GA; Ravenscraft A; Frederickson ME
[Ad] Address:Department of Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B2, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements.
[So] Source:Ecology;, 2017 Oct 04.
[Is] ISSN:0012-9658
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to defend their host plants against herbivores, or whether plant defense is a by-product benefit of ant foraging for insect prey. Because the food offered by ant-plants is usually nitrogen-poor, arboreal ants may balance their diets by consuming insect prey or associating with microbial symbionts to acquire nitrogen, potentially shifting the costs and benefits of plant defense for the ant partner. To determine the effect of ant diet on an ant-plant mutualism, we compared the behavior, morphology, fitness, stable isotope signatures, and gaster microbiomes of A. octoarticulatus ants nesting in Cordia nodosa trees maintained for nearly a year with or without insect herbivores. At the end of the experiment, ants from herbivore exclosures preferred protein-rich baits more than ants in the control (i.e., herbivores-present) treatment. Furthermore, workers in the control treatment were heavier than in the herbivore-exclusion treatment, and worker mass predicted reproductive output, suggesting that foraging for insect prey directly increased ant colony fitness. The gaster microbiome of ants was not significantly affected by the herbivore exclusion treatment. We conclude that the defensive behavior of some phytoecious ants is a by-product of their need for external protein sources; thus, the consumption of insect herbivores by ants benefits both the ant colony and the host plant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171004
[Lr] Last revision date:171004
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/ecy.2036

  4 / 226 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28964874
[Au] Autor:Matos TS; Silva AKO; Quintela AL; Francisco das Chagas Pinto L; Canuto KM; Braz-Filho R; Fonseca MJS; Luna-Costa AM; Paz IA; Nascimento NRF; Silveira ER; Pessoa ODL
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Química Orgânica e Inorgânica, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60971-270 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Neuroinhibitory meroterpenoid compounds from Cordia oncocalyx.
[So] Source:Fitoterapia;123:65-72, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6971
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Five new meroterpenoid compounds designed as rel-10ß,11ß-epoxy-2,11-dimethoxy-8α-hydroxy-8aß-methyl-5α,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aß-octahydro-1,4-anthracendione (1), rel-10ß,11ß-epoxy-8α,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-8aß-methyl-5,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aß-octahydro -1.4-anthracendione (2), rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-furanyl-2-methoxy-8aß-methyl-6,7,8, 8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthracenone (3), rel-10α,11α-epoxy-8α,11ß-dihydroxy-8aß-methyl-5ß,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aß-octahydro-1,4-anthracenediol (4) and rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-carboxyethyl-2-methoxy-8aß-methyl-6,7,8,8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthra-cenone (5), besides seven (6-12) known compounds were isolated from the heartwood and sapwood ethanol extracts of Cordia oncocalyx. Moreover, the main isolated compounds were screened using the electrically driven mice vas deferens bioassay, which has a rich pharmacological receptors diversity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171115
[Lr] Last revision date:171115
[St] Status:In-Process

  5 / 226 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28725626
[Au] Autor:Rahman MA; Sahabjada; Akhtar J
[Ad] Address:Herbal Bioactive Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226026, India.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of anticancer activity of leaves against a human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3.
[So] Source:J Tradit Complement Med;7(3):315-321, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:2225-4110
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mechanisms of antioxidant and apoptosis induction may be involved in the management of cancer by medicinal plants. Aim of the study was designed to evaluate anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of leaves (MECD) against a human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3. Flavonoid content was determined by colorimetric principle and antioxidant activity by various assays. MTT, DCFH-DA and DAPI staining assays were performed for the evaluation of cytotoxicity, analysis of induction of apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity level by MECD against human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3. Flavonoid content was found to be 160 mg QE/g extract. IC values for MECD treatment in various assays based on scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), nitric oxide, peroxy radical, superoxide anion, hydroxy radical were found to be 315.5, 38, 476, 523, 197, 82 µg/ml respectively. MECD exposure to PC3 cells significantly increased the cell death (p < 0.001, IC = 74.5 µg/ml), nuclear condensation, apoptosis (p < 0.001) and induced production of ROS (p < 0.001) initiating apoptotic cascade in a dose dependent manner. This study confirms that MECD possesses antioxidant property and can prevent carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress. MECD possesses anticancer activity and lead to PC3 cell death via induction of apoptosis mediated through excessive ROS generation. Flavonoids in MECD may be responsible for these activities due to dual antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170723
[Lr] Last revision date:170723
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.11.002

  6 / 226 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28584446
[Au] Autor:Khan S; Imran M; Imran M; Pindari N
[Ad] Address:Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow U.P. India.
[Ti] Title:Antimicrobial activity of various ethanolic plant extracts against pathogenic multi drug resistant Candida spp.
[So] Source:Bioinformation;13(3):67-72, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0973-2063
[Cp] Country of publication:Singapore
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A total of 50 Candida isolates were isolated and identified from clinical specimens and these were tested for resistance to various antifungal drugs. It was observed multi-drug resistance in all candida isolates by 84%, 62%, 60%, 76%, 46, 30%, and 22% against fluconazole, clotrimazole, Amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and nystatin tested respectively. The isolates, which were found to be resistant to antifungal drugs were selected and subjected to antifungal testing against six ethanolic plants, extract namely Azadiracta indica, Allium sativum, Cordia dichotoma Ocimum sanctum, Syzygium cumini and Trigonella foenum grecum. All the plant extracts tested were found to effective against all MDR Candida isolates with inhibition zone ranging from 10- 18mm in diameter. Ethanolic extract of Allium sativum was observed most effective against the isolates among all the plants extracts tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all ethanolic plant extract was recorded ranging from 1.56-25mg/ml against MDR candida isolates. Phytochemical analysis of the alcoholic plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavanoid, glycosoid, phenol; phenol, tannins, saponins in all the plants studied. The present study may be successful in identifying the plants with different antimicrobial activity. These plants containing various phytochemicals may be exploited in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant microorganisms.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170611
[Lr] Last revision date:170611
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.6026/97320630013067

  7 / 226 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28298351
[Au] Autor:Pringle EG; Moreau CS
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Program in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA epringle@unr.edu.
[Ti] Title:Community analysis of microbial sharing and specialization in a Costa Rican ant-plant-hemipteran symbiosis.
[So] Source:Proc Biol Sci;284(1850), 2017 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2954
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ants have long been renowned for their intimate mutualisms with trophobionts and plants and more recently appreciated for their widespread and diverse interactions with microbes. An open question in symbiosis research is the extent to which environmental influence, including the exchange of microbes between interacting macroorganisms, affects the composition and function of symbiotic microbial communities. Here we approached this question by investigating symbiosis within symbiosis. Ant-plant-hemipteran symbioses are hallmarks of tropical ecosystems that produce persistent close contact among the macroorganism partners, which then have substantial opportunity to exchange symbiotic microbes. We used metabarcoding and quantitative PCR to examine community structure of both bacteria and fungi in a Neotropical ant-plant-scale-insect symbiosis. Both phloem-feeding scale insects and honeydew-feeding ants make use of microbial symbionts to subsist on phloem-derived diets of suboptimal nutritional quality. Among the insects examined here, ants and pseudococcid scale insects had the most specialized bacterial symbionts, whereas ants appeared to consume or associate with more fungi than bacteria, and coccid scale insects were associated with unusually diverse bacterial communities. Despite these differences, we also identified apparent sharing of microbes among the macro-partners. How microbial exchanges affect the consumer-resource interactions that shape the evolution of ant-plant-hemipteran symbioses is an exciting question that awaits further research.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170403
[Lr] Last revision date:170403
[St] Status:In-Process

  8 / 226 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28266011
[Au] Autor:Oza MJ; Kulkarni YA
[Ad] Address:Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.
[Ti] Title:Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the medicinal species of the genus Cordia (Boraginaceae).
[So] Source:J Pharm Pharmacol;69(7):755-789, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7158
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Cordia (family Boraginaceae) is a genus of deciduous flowering trees or shrubs comprising more than 300 species distributed widely in the tropical regions. The aim of this review was to provide exhaustive scientific information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the 36 important species with medicinal value from the genus Cordia, to divulge prospects for further research on its therapeutic potential. KEY FINDINGS: Leaves, fruit, bark and seed of a majority of the species were found to possess abundant ethnomedicinal value, but leaves were found to be used most frequently to treat many ailments such as respiratory disorders, stomach pain, wound, inflammation, myalgia, cough, dysentery and diarrhoea. The phytochemical investigation of 36 species resulted in isolation of 293 chemical constituents from various chemical classes. The crude extracts, fractions, essential oils and pure compounds isolated from various Cordia species were reported to have a varied range of pharmacological activities. SUMMARY: Many of the traditional uses of the genus Cordia were supported by the results obtained from pharmacological studies performed using various extracts or pure compounds. More attention should be given to the biological evaluation using pure phytochemicals and to identify the mechanism of actions and exploring this genus for new drug discovery.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170608
[Lr] Last revision date:170608
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1111/jphp.12715

  9 / 226 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27966234
[Au] Autor:da Silva AKO; Pinto FDCL; Canuto KM; Torres MDCM; Loiola MIB; Silveira ER; Pessoa ODL
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Química Orgânica e Inorgânica, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60971-270, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Complete H and C NMR assignments of an uncommon 2,3-dihydroxynaphthoquinone isolated from Cordia multispicata (Cham.).
[So] Source:Magn Reson Chem;55(7):682-685, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1097-458X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1612
[Cu] Class update date: 170605
[Lr] Last revision date:170605
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/mrc.4562

  10 / 226 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27701140
[Au] Autor:Owis AI; Abo-Youssef AM; Osman AH
[Ti] Title:Leaves of Cordia boissieri A. DC. as a potential source of bioactive secondary metabolites for protection against metabolic syndrome-induced in rats.
[So] Source:Z Naturforsch C;72(3-4):107-118, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:0939-5075
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cordia boissieri A. DC. (Boraginaceae) is traditionally used as an herbal remedy for diabetes by Hispanic women in Southwestern USA. A recent investigation showed the significant protective effect of ethyl acetate extract against metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the corresponding active principles responsible for this effect and relations between their structure and biological actions remain unclear. Thus, ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography, which yielded seven compounds identified on the basis of spectroscopic data as rutin, hesperidin, kaempferol-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, rosmarinic acid, ß-sitosterol-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and kaempferol. The isolated compounds (5 mg/kg/day) were tested in a fructose enriched-diet rat model using metformin as a standard drug. Blood samples were withdrawn for estimation of MS-associated biomarkers and liver samples were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. The isolated compounds impaired most of the changes associated with MS as evidenced by improved insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, kidney function, lipid profiles and reduced oxidative stress and inflammation by different degrees. It is worth noting that quercetin and kaempferol showed the most potent effect. Structure-activity relationship study revealed that the presence of 2,3-double bond in ring C and ortho-hydroxylation in ring B increases the flavonoids activity while glycosylation or methylation decreased this activity.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Antioxidants/pharmacology
Cordia/chemistry
Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
Kaempferols/pharmacology
Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy
Quercetin/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Acetates/chemistry
Animals
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification
Antioxidants/isolation & purification
Flavonols/isolation & purification
Flavonols/pharmacology
Food, Formulated/adverse effects
Fructose/adverse effects
Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification
Kaempferols/isolation & purification
Male
Metabolic Syndrome/etiology
Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism
Metabolic Syndrome/pathology
Oxidative Stress/drug effects
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Quercetin/isolation & purification
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Secondary Metabolism
Solvents/chemistry
Structure-Activity Relationship
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Acetates); 0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Flavonols); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Kaempferols); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Solvents); 30237-26-4 (Fructose); 731P2LE49E (kaempferol); 76845O8NMZ (ethyl acetate); 9IKM0I5T1E (Quercetin)
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161005
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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