Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Cranial and Nerve and Diseases [Words]
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[PMID]: 29522662
[Au] Autor:Andrysiak -Mamos E; Zochowska E; Kazmierczyk -Puchalska A; Sagan L; Sowinska -Przepiera E; Zajac -Marczewska M; Kojder I; Syrenicz A
[Ti] Title:Cerebrospinal meningitis in a 30 -year -old patient as first manifestation of pituitary macroadenoma.
[So] Source:Pomeranian J Life Sci;61(4):403-10, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2450-4637
[Cp] Country of publication:Poland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: The most common clinical and neurological signs and symptoms of pituitary macroadenomas include headache, vision impairment and cranial nerve palsy. Case report: The patient presented in this article was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at regional hospital; at admission, the patient was unconscious, he had convulsions and spasms, and a 3 -day history of headache and body temperature up to 41.5°C. The patient with suspected neuroinfection was transferred to the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin (PMU), where cerebrospinal meningitis of bacterial etiology was established based on cerebrospinal fluid investigations and the presence of pituitary abscess was suggested based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Magnetic resonance imaging findings included an extensive pathological lesion with the diameter of 27 × 28 × 38 mm located in the sellar-suprasellar region, with intensive peripheral contrast enhancement. The lesion protrudes into the sphenoid sinus through the lowered bottom of sella turcica and the fluid content has also been visualized in the sphenoid sinus. After 10 -day antibiotic therapy, the patient was transferred to neurosurgery ward for surgical treatment. The pathological lesion was partially evacuated during right frontotemporal craniotomy. The patient's general condition after the surgery was moderately severe; the patient was conscious, able to follow simple commands, presenting hemiparesis of the left side of the body, particularly affecting left lower limb and with speech disturbances. The signs of hypopituitarism affecting all hormonal axes were also observed and the patient was transferred to the Department of Endocrinology of the PMU for further treatment. Follow -up MRI scan continued to show the presence of pathological mass in the sellar -suprasellar region, which penetrated into the sphenoid sinus through damaged sellar bottom. After correction of reduced hormone levels and several weeks of antibiotic therapy, the patient was transferred to the Department of Neurosurgery of the PMU for further surgical treatment. Transsphenoidal resection of the sellar -suprasellar tumor and sphenoid sinus reconstruction were performed. Histopathology report confirmed the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. The patient in relatively good condition, with partial hemiparesis on the left side of the body, able to stand with support, not able to walk, with speech disturbances and able to follow commands was transferred to the rehabilitation center. One year later, follow- -up MRI scan showed deepened sella turcica, filled with a mass corresponding to postoperative material. No evidence of disease progression has been found. Conclusion: Neuroinfection may be the first manifestation of pituitary macroadenoma.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29499674
[Au] Autor:Casas P; Ascaso FJ; Vicente E; Tejero-Garcés G; Adiego MI; Cristóbal JA
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario "Lozano Blesa", San Juan Bosco 15, ES-50009, Zaragoza, Spain. paulacasaspascual@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Visual field defects and retinal nerve fiber imaging in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and in healthy controls.
[So] Source:BMC Ophthalmol;18(1):66, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2415
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: To assess the retinal sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients evaluated with standard automated perimetry (SAP). And to correlate the functional SAP results with structural parameters obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: This prospective, observational, case-control study consisted of 63 eyes of 63 OSAHS patients (mean age 51.7 ± 12.7 years, best corrected visual acuity ≥20/25, refractive error less than three spherical or two cylindrical diopters, and intraocular pressure < 21 mmHg) who were enrolled and compared with 38 eyes of 38 age-matched controls. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was measured by Stratus OCT and SAP sensitivities and indices were explored with Humphrey Field Analyzer perimeter. Correlations between functional and structural parameters were calculated, as well as the relationship between ophthalmologic and systemic indices in OSAHS patients. RESULTS: OSAHS patients showed a significant reduction of the sensitivity for superior visual field division (p = 0.034, t-student test). When dividing the OSAHS group in accordance with the severity of the disease, nasal peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly lower in severe OSAHS than that in controls and mild-moderate cases (p = 0.031 and p = 0.016 respectively, Mann-Whitney U test). There were no differences between groups for SAP parameters. We found no correlation between structural and functional variables. The central visual field sensitivity of the SAP revealed a poor Pearson correlation with the apnea-hipopnea index (0.284, p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Retinal sensitivity show minor differences between healthy subjects and OSAHS. Functional deterioration in OSAHS patients is not easy to demonstrate with visual field examination.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Nerve Fibers/pathology
Optic Nerve Diseases/etiology
Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications
Vision Disorders/etiology
Visual Fields
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Case-Control Studies
Female
Healthy Volunteers
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis
Prospective Studies
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis
Tomography, Optical Coherence
Vision Disorders/diagnosis
Visual Field Tests
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180304
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12886-018-0728-z

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[PMID]: 27776979
[Au] Autor:Salman IM; Hildreth CM; Phillips JK
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: ibraheem_muhammed@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:Chronic kidney disease impairs renal nerve and haemodynamic reflex responses to vagal afferent input through a central mechanism.
[So] Source:Auton Neurosci;204:65-73, 2017 05.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7484
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We investigated age- and sex-related changes in reflex renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and haemodynamic responses to vagal afferent stimulation in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using anaesthetised juvenile (7-8weeks) and adult (12-13weeks) Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) and Lewis control rats of either sex (n=63 total), reflex changes in RSNA, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to vagal afferent stimulation (5-s train, 4.0V, 2.0-ms pulses, 1-16Hz) were measured. In all groups, stimulation of the vagal afferents below 16Hz produced frequency-dependent reductions in RSNA, HR and MAP, while a 16Hz stimulus produced an initial sympathoinhibition followed by sympathoexcitation. In juvenile LPK versus age-matched Lewis, sympathoinhibition was reduced when responses were expressed as % baseline (P<0.05), but not as microvolts, while bradycardic responses were greater. Reflex depressor responses were greater (P=0.015) only in juvenile female LPK. In adult LPK, reflex sympathoinhibition (%) was blunted (P<0.05), and an age-related decline apparent (when expressed as microvolts). Reflex reductions in HR and MAP were only diminished (P<0.05) in adult female LPK versus age-matched Lewis. Peak reflex sympathoexcitation at 16Hz did not differ between groups; however, area under the curve values were greater in the LPK versus Lewis (overall, 9±1 versus 19±3µVs, P<0.05) irrespective of age, suggestive of enhanced sympathoexcitatory drive in the LPK. Our data demonstrates a progressive deficit in the central processing of vagal afferent input and a differential sex influence on reflex regulation of autonomic function and blood pressure homeostasis in CKD.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Hemodynamics/physiology
Kidney/innervation
Kidney/physiopathology
Reflex/physiology
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology
Vagus Nerve/physiopathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Afferent Pathways/physiopathology
Animals
Area Under Curve
Blood Pressure/physiology
Cohort Studies
Disease Models, Animal
Female
Heart Rate/physiology
Male
Rats, Inbred Lew
Species Specificity
Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 29293936
[Au] Autor:Rao AK; Lin NH; Jackson KA; Mody RK; Griffin PM
[Ad] Address:Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
[Ti] Title:Clinical Characteristics and Ancillary Test Results Among Patients With Botulism-United States, 2002-2015.
[So] Source:Clin Infect Dis;66(suppl_1):S4-S10, 2017 Dec 27.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6591
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Botulism is classically described as a bilateral, symmetric, descending flaccid paralysis in an afebrile and alert patient without sensory findings. We describe the reported spectrum of clinical findings among persons >12 months of age in the United States during 2002-2015. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collects clinical findings reported by physicians treating suspected cases of botulism nationwide. We analyzed symptoms and signs, and neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results. A case was defined as illness compatible with botulism with laboratory confirmation or epidemiologic link to a confirmed case, and presence or absence of at least 1 sign or symptom recorded. Physicians' differential diagnoses were evaluated. Results: Clinical information was evaluated for 332 botulism cases; data quality and completeness were variable. Most had no fever (99%), descending paralysis (93%), no mental status change (91%), at least 1 ocular weakness finding (84%), and neuroimaging without acute changes (82%). Some had paresthesias (17%), elevated CSF protein level (13%), and other features sometimes considered indicative of alternative diagnoses. Five of 71 (7%) cases with sufficient information were reported to have atypical findings (eg, at least 1 cranial nerve finding that was unilateral or ascending paralysis). Illnesses on the physician differential included Guillain-Barré syndrome (99 cases) and myasthenia gravis (76 cases) and, rarely, gastrointestinal-related illness (5 cases), multiple sclerosis (3 cases), sepsis (3 cases), and Lyme disease (2 cases). Conclusions: Our analysis illustrates that classic symptoms and signs were common among patients with botulism but that features considered atypical were reported by some physicians. Diagnosis can be challenging, as illustrated by the broad range of illnesses on physician differentials.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/cid/cix935

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[PMID]: 29293924
[Au] Autor:Griese SE; Kisselburgh HM; Bartenfeld MT; Thomas E; Rao AK; Sobel J; Dziuban EJ
[Ad] Address:Office of Science and Public Health Practice, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
[Ti] Title:Pediatric Botulism and Use of Equine Botulinum Antitoxin in Children: A Systematic Review.
[So] Source:Clin Infect Dis;66(suppl_1):S17-S29, 2017 Dec 27.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6591
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Botulism manifests with cranial nerve palsies and flaccid paralysis in children and adults. Botulism must be rapidly identified and treated; however, clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of noninfant botulism in children are not well described. Methods: We searched 12 databases for peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed reports with primary data on botulism in children (persons <18 years of age) or botulinum antitoxin administration to children. Reports underwent title and abstract screening and full text review. For each case, patient demographic, clinical, and outcome data were abstracted. Results: Of 7065 reports identified, 184 met inclusion criteria and described 360 pediatric botulism cases (79% confirmed, 21% probable) that occurred during 1929-2015 in 34 countries. Fifty-three percent were male; age ranged from 4 months to 17 years (median, 10 years). The most commonly reported signs and symptoms were dysphagia (53%), dysarthria (39%), and generalized weakness (37%). Inpatient length of stay ranged from 1 to 425 days (median, 24 days); 14% of cases required intensive care unit admission; 25% reported mechanical ventilation. Eighty-three (23%) children died. Median interval from illness onset to death was 1 day (range, 0-260 days). Among patients who received antitoxin (n = 193), 23 (12%) reported an adverse event, including rash, fever, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis. Relative risk of death among patients treated with antitoxin compared with patients not treated with antitoxin was 0.24 (95% confidence interval, .14-.40; P < .0001). Conclusions: Dysphagia and dysarthria were the most commonly reported cranial nerve symptoms in children with botulism; generalized weakness was described more than paralysis. Children who received antitoxin had better survival; serious adverse events were rare. Most deaths occurred early in the clinical course; therefore, botulism in children should be identified and treated rapidly.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/cid/cix812

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[PMID]: 28451716
[Au] Autor:Mayer C; Hattingen E; Schild H; Bootz F; Schröck A
[Ad] Address:Klinik für Radiologie, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Deutschland.
[Ti] Title:Interventionelle Radiologie im Kopf-Hals-Bereich. [Interventional radiology in the head and neck region].
[So] Source:HNO;65(6):482-489, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1433-0458
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:In interventional neuroradiology, endovascular embolization represents an important and helpful tool in the treatment of multiple head and neck diseases. These interventional procedures may be performed with curative intent, to reduce the surgical risk within a multimodal treatment concept, or to improve or at least maintain a good quality of life within a palliative therapy concept. In addition to a good understanding of disease pathology, knowledge of vascular anatomy, including collateral vessels and dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomoses, is essential for successful treatment, as is implementation of an established technique using appropriate material. Indications for endovascular embolization are i. otherwise unmanageable bleeding (caused by e. g., trauma, vascular malformation, or tumor), ii. reduction of perioperative bleeding by preoperative embolization in case of a hypervascularized tumor, iii. selective induction of tumor necrosis by palliative embolization to enhance local tumor control. Major complications such as stroke, loss of vision, and cranial nerve palsy are mostly due to a lack of preinterventional evaluation. Regarding neurological deficits, interventions within the supply region of the external carotid artery have a complication rate below 1%.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/diagnostic imaging
Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/therapy
Embolization, Therapeutic/methods
Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy
Hemostatics/therapeutic use
Radiography, Interventional/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Evidence-Based Medicine
Head/blood supply
Head/diagnostic imaging
Humans
Neck/blood supply
Neck/diagnostic imaging
Treatment Outcome
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hemostatics)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00106-017-0354-8

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[PMID]: 29452069
[Au] Autor:Shibata A; Kimura M; Ishibashi K; Umemura M
[Ad] Address:Clinical Fellow, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Ogaki, Japan. Electronic address: akio.st83@gmal.com.
[Ti] Title:Idiopathic Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy: A Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature.
[So] Source:J Oral Maxillofac Surg;, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:1531-5053
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) is a common finding in neurologic diseases when associated with other cranial nerve palsies or further pathology and exhibits characteristic clinical manifestations, including unilateral atrophy of the musculature of the tongue. It occasionally appears as the initial or solitary sign of an intracranial or extracranial space-occupying lesion, head or neck injury, or vascular abnormality of the internal carotid artery. There are few cases of idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP, which should be diagnosed through exclusion. This report describes 2 patients who had different outcomes and presents a literature review of idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP. Case 1 was a 71-year-old man who was referred with a 1-month history of dysphagia and speech impairment. Intraoral examination disclosed marked left-side hemiatrophy of the tongue and deviation toward the left on protrusion. At coronal Tl-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, left-side hemiatrophy of the tongue was clearly visible through deviation of the median septum to the left. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP through exclusion and was treated with steroids and mecobalamin, but he did not recover. Case 2 was a 32-year-old man complaining of tongue weakness for 2 days. On examination, left HNP was evident, with deviation of the tongue to the left on protrusion. He was diagnosed with idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP through exclusion and was treated with steroids. After 3 weeks, the patient had completely recovered. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first detailed literature review on idiopathic isolated unilateral HNP. This condition is very rare but should be considered for diagnosis. It warrants a thorough and stepwise approach for etiologic diagnosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 27972 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29390337
[Au] Autor:González Saldaña N; Galvis Trujillo DM; Borbolla Pertierra AM; Mondragón Pineda AI; Juárez Olguín H
[Ad] Address:Department of Infectology, National Institute of Pediatrics.
[Ti] Title:Linezolid-associated optic neuropathy in a pediatric patient with Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum: A case report.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);96(50):e9200, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Toxic optic neuropathies are alterations of the optic nerve and can be caused by environmental, pharmacological, or nutritional agents. CASE: It is about a 7-year-old male patient, a native of the State of Mexico, Mexico who was diagnosed with cervical mycobacterial lymphadenitis that required management with linezolid. OBSERVATIONS: After 7 months of treatment, visual acuity of the left eye decreased and was accompanied by headache. Neuroinfection and other central nervous system affections were discarded. An adverse effect related to treatment with linezolid was suspected, and linezolid was suspended. The symptoms subsided after discontinuation; however, the patient continued to show decreased visual acuity of the left eye, assessed by his ability to count 2 fingers. The right eye remained unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Neurotoxicity can be decreased by reducing the total dose of linezolid or by administrating it in an intermittent form. To avoid progression and loss of vision, we suggest frequent periodic ophthalmological evaluation in patients treated with linezolid.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
Linezolid/adverse effects
Lymphadenitis/drug therapy
Lymphadenitis/microbiology
Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/drug therapy
Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/microbiology
Optic Nerve Diseases/chemically induced
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Child
Humans
Male
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
Visual Acuity
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); ISQ9I6J12J (Linezolid)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009200

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[PMID]: 29410201
[Au] Autor:Ahlbrecht J; Hillebrand LK; Schwenkenbecher P; Ganzenmueller T; Heim A; Wurster U; Stangel M; Sühs KW; Skripuletz T
[Ad] Address:Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address: ahlbrecht.jonas@mh-hannover.de.
[Ti] Title:Cerebrospinal fluid features in adults with enteroviral nervous system infection.
[So] Source:Int J Infect Dis;68:94-101, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3511
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of adults with nervous system infections caused by enteroviruses, with special emphasis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: The data of 46 patients who were PCR-positive for enteroviruses in the CSF between 2002 and 2017 were evaluated. RESULTS: Meningitis was the most common clinical manifestation (89%), followed by encephalitis (7%) and isolated cranial nerve involvement (4%). Twenty percent of patients reported a sudden onset of severe headache that led to the initial suspected diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage. General signs of infection, such as fever, elevated C-reactive protein, and an elevated white blood cell count, were found in only 61%. Most patients exhibited consistent inflammatory CSF changes, with elevated cell counts (85%) and blood-CSF barrier dysfunction (83%). Patients with normal CSF cell counts were significantly older, less frequently presented with meningitis, and exhibited lower peripheral white blood cell counts. Sequencing revealed species Enterovirus B in all patients, with most sequences related to echovirus 30. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of CSF pleocytosis, isolated cranial nerve involvement, and only infrequent general signs of infection may impede the diagnosis of enteroviral nervous system infections. A thorough CSF analysis including PCR is essential for a reliable diagnosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180226
[Lr] Last revision date:180226
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 27972 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29397523
[Au] Autor:Robson AG; Nilsson J; Li S; Jalali S; Fulton AB; Tormene AP; Holder GE; Brodie SE
[Ad] Address:Department of Electrophysiology, Moorfields Eye Hospital, 162 City Road, London, UK. anthony.robson@moorfields.nhs.uk.
[Ti] Title:ISCEV guide to visual electrodiagnostic procedures.
[So] Source:Doc Ophthalmol;136(1):1-26, 2018 02.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2622
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Clinical electrophysiological testing of the visual system incorporates a range of noninvasive tests and provides an objective indication of function relating to different locations and cell types within the visual system. This document developed by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision provides an introduction to standard visual electrodiagnostic procedures in widespread use including the full-field electroretinogram (ERG), the pattern electroretinogram (pattern ERG or PERG), the multifocal electroretinogram (multifocal ERG or mfERG), the electrooculogram (EOG) and the cortical-derived visual evoked potential (VEP). The guideline outlines the basic principles of testing. Common clinical presentations and symptoms are described with illustrative examples and suggested investigation strategies.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Electrodiagnosis/standards
Electrooculography
Electrophysiology/organization & administration
Electroretinography/methods
Evoked Potentials, Visual
Practice Guidelines as Topic
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
International Agencies
Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis
Retinal Diseases/diagnosis
Societies, Medical
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180205
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10633-017-9621-y


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