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[PMID]: 29524716
[Au] Autor:Tollefsen MH; Vik A; Skandsen T; Sandrød O; Deane SF; Rao V; Moen KG
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
[Ti] Title:Patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: Impact of preinjury platelet inhibitor or warfarin treatment.
[So] Source:World Neurosurg;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1878-8769
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECT: We aimed to examine the effect of preinjury antithrombotic medication on clinical and radiological neuroworsening in TBI and study the effect on outcome. METHODS: 184 consecutive patients ≥50 years old with moderate and severe TBI admitted to a level 1 trauma center were included. Neuroworsening was assessed clinically by using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and radiologically by using Rotterdam CT score on repeated time points. Functional outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 6 months postinjury. RESULTS: The platelet inhibitor group (mean age 77.3, n=43) and the warfarin group (mean age 73.2, n=20) were significantly older than the non-user group (mean age 63.7, n=121, p ≤ 0.001). 74% in the platelet inhibitor and 85% in the warfarin group were injured by falls. Platelet inhibitors were not significantly associated with clinical or radiological neuroworsening (p=0.37-1.00), while warfarin increased the frequency of worsening in GCS score (p=0.001-0.028) and Rotterdam CT score (p=0.004). In-hospital mortality was higher in the platelet inhibitor group (28%, p=0.030) and the warfarin group (50%, p<0.001) compared to the non-user group (13%). Platelet inhibitors did not predict mortality or worse outcome after adjustment for age, preinjury disability, GCS score and Rotterdam CT score, while warfarin predicted both mortality and worse outcome. CONCLUSION: In this study of patients with moderate and severe TBI, preinjury platelet inhibitors did not cause neuroworsening or predict higher mortality or worse outcome. In contrast, preinjury warfarin caused neuroworsening and was an independent risk factor for mortality and worse outcome at 6 months. Hence, fall prevention and liberal use of CT examinations is important in this patient group.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 20891 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28452700
[Au] Autor:Ghadersohi S; Ference EH; Detwiller K; Kern RC
[Ad] Address:Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
[Ti] Title:Presentation, workup, and management of penetrating transorbital and transnasal injuries: A case report and systematic review.
[So] Source:Am J Rhinol Allergy;31(2):29-34, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-8932
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: A foreign body (FB) penetrating intracranially after passing transorbitally or transnasally is a rare occurrence. However, otolaryngologists are increasingly being asked to participate in the care of these patients for both endoscopic removal of the object and repair of any skull base defects. OBJECTIVE: To assess the presentation, workup, and management of transnasal or transorbital penetrating FB injury. METHODS: Systematic review of the presentation, workup, and management of transnasal or transorbital penetrating FB injury; plus, a case report of a 53-year-old woman with a transorbital penetrating rose bush branch. We searched medical literature data bases, which resulted in 215 total titles, which were then narrowed based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-five cases of transorbital or transnasal low-velocity trauma that involved the paranasal sinuses were reviewed from 33 articles. The average age was 30 years, 40% of the objects were made of wood. Fifty-seven percent of the cases were transorbital, whereas 43% were transnasal. Forty-six percent of the surgical interventions were completed endoscopically or with endoscopic assistance. Complications of injury were common, with 66% of patients experiencing cerebrospinal fluid leaks; 23%, permanent blindness; 17%, meningitis; 14%, ophthalmoplegia; 9%, decreased visual acuity; and 3%, brain abscess. Our patient presented with a traumatic cerebrospinal fluid leak, and recovered well after transorbital and endoscopic removal of the branch, skull base repair, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and antifungal medications. CONCLUSIONS: Transnasal and transorbital penetrating FB injuries are a relatively uncommon occurrence but when they do occur require rapid workup and interdisciplinary management to prevent acute and delayed complications.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/epidemiology
Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology
Endoscopy
Eye Injuries/epidemiology
Head Injuries, Penetrating/epidemiology
Orbit/surgery
Paranasal Sinuses/surgery
Postoperative Complications/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/etiology
Craniocerebral Trauma/surgery
Eye Injuries/surgery
Female
Foreign Bodies
Head Injuries, Penetrating/surgery
Humans
Middle Aged
Skull Base/surgery
United States/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2500/ajra.2017.31.4421

  3 / 20891 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29393419
[Au] Autor:Shi Y; Zhang L; Teng J; Miao W
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, P.R. China.
[Ti] Title:HMGB1 mediates microglia activation via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in coriaria lactone induced epilepsy.
[So] Source:Mol Med Rep;17(4):5125-5131, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1791-3004
[Cp] Country of publication:Greece
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Epilepsy is a chronic and recurrent disease of the central nervous system, with a complex pathology. Recent studies have demonstrated that the activation of glial cells serve an important role in the development of epilepsy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of high­mobility group box­1 (HMGB1) in mediating the activation of glial cells through the toll­like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor (NF)­κB signaling pathway in seizure, and the underlying mechanism. The brain tissue of post­surgery patients with intractable epilepsy after resection and the normal control brain tissue of patients with craniocerebral trauma induced intracranial hypertension were collected. The expression level and distribution pattern of HMGB1, OX42 and NF­κB p65 were detected by immunohistochemistry. HMGB1, TLR4, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), NF­κB p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels were detected by western blotting, and serum cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)­1, IL­6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)­α, transforming growth factor (TGF)­ß and IL­10 in patients with epilepsy and craniocerebral trauma were detected by ELISA. And cell model of epilepsy was established by coriaria lactone (CL)­stimulated HM cell, and the same factors were measured. The potential toxic effect of HMGB1 on HM cells was evaluated by MTT and 5­ethynyl­2­deoxyuridine assays. The results demonstrated that compared with the control group, levels of HMGB1, TLR4, RAGE, NF­κB p65 and iNOS in the brain of the epilepsy group were significantly increased, and increased cytokine levels of IL­1, IL­6, TNF­α, TGF­ß and IL­10 in patients with epilepsy were also observed. At the same time, the above results were also observed in HM cells stimulated with CL. Overexpression of HMGB1 enhanced the results, while HMGB1 small interfering RNA blocked the function of CL. There was no significant toxic effect of HMGB1 on HM cells. In conclusion, overexpression of HMGB1 potentially promoted epileptogenesis. CL­induced activation of glial cells may act via up­regulation of HMGB1 and TLR4/RAGE receptors, and the downstream transcription factor NF­κB.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.3892/mmr.2018.8485

  4 / 20891 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29275555
[Au] Autor:Wang JJ; Li HZ; Fan HY; Chen C; Zhang SY; Liu C; Wang JJ; Cai WX; Zhang QT
[Ad] Address:Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Service Platform, Academy of Forensic Science, Shanghai 200063, China.
[Ti] Title:[Applied Value of Electroencephalogram in Assessment of Mild Psychiatry Impairment].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(5):501-505, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To explore the applied value of electroencephalogram (EEG) in assessment of psychiatric impairment among patients with mental disorders due to traumatic brain injury. METHODS: According to the ICD-10, a total of 271 subjects were enrolled and assessed with the criterion of mental disorders due to traumatic brain injury. Activity of Daily Living Scale (ADL), Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) and Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS) were used to evaluate the severity of patients. All the participants were tested by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and examined by EEG. RESULTS: Totally 215 patients accomplished the study. The results of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the severity of craniocerebral injury and the scores of FAQ, SDSS and ADL showed significant difference among the patients with different severity of EEG ( <0.05). The grades of psychiatric impairment showed significant difference among the patients with different abnormal EEG ( <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EEG can reflect the severity of craniocerebral injury, assist evaluate the social function and activity of daily living of patients with mental disorders due to traumatic brain injury, and distinguish the mild psychiatric impairment grades, which suggest that EEG has a certain reference value in the assessment of psychiatric impairment.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.05.011

  5 / 20891 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29231022
[Au] Autor:Li CH; Huang LN; Zhang MC; He M
[Ad] Address:Shanghai Xuhui Mental Health Center, Shanghai 200232, China.
[Ti] Title:[Forensic Psychiatric Assessment for Organic Personality Disorders after Craniocerebral Trauma].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(2):158-161, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To explore the occurrence and the differences of clinical manifestations of organic personality disorder with varying degrees of craniocerebral trauma. METHODS: According to the International Classification of Diseases-10, 396 subjects with craniocerebral trauma caused by traffic accidents were diagnosed, and the degrees of craniocerebral trauma were graded. The personality characteristics of all patients were evaluated using the simplified Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). RESULTS: The occurrence rate of organic personality disorder was 34.6% while it was 34.9% and 49.5% in the patients with moderate and severe craniocerebral trauma, respectively, which significantly higher than that in the patients (18.7%) of mild craniocerebral trauma ( <0.05). Compared with the patients without personality disorder, the neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness scores all showed significantly differences ( <0.05) in the patients of mild craniocerebral trauma with personality disorder; the neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores showed significantly differences ( >0.05) in the patients of moderate and severe craniocerebral trauma with personality disorder. The agreeableness and conscientiousness scores in the patients of moderate and severe craniocerebral trauma with personality disorder were significantly lower than that of mild craniocerebral trauma, and the patients of severe craniocerebral trauma had a lower score in extraversion than in the patients of mild craniocerebral trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of craniocerebral trauma is closely related to the incidence of organic personality disorder, and it also affects the clinical features of the latter, which provides a certain significance and help for forensic psychiatric assessment.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Craniocerebral Trauma/pathology
Personality Disorders/psychology
Psychotic Disorders/psychology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
Personality
Personality Disorders/physiopathology
Personality Inventory
Psychotic Disorders/physiopathology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.02.010

  6 / 20891 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511059
[Au] Autor:Plantinga LC; Lynch RJ; Patzer RE; Pastan SO; Bowling CB
[Ad] Address:Departments of Medicine and laura.plantinga@emory.edu.
[Ti] Title:Association of Serious Fall Injuries among United States End Stage Kidney Disease Patients with Access to Kidney Transplantation.
[So] Source:Clin J Am Soc Nephrol;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1555-905X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Serious fall injuries in the setting of ESKD may be associated with poor access to kidney transplant. We explored the burden of serious fall injuries among patients on dialysis and patients on the deceased donor waitlist and the associations of these fall injuries with waitlisting and transplantation. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Our analytic cohorts for the outcomes of ( ) waitlisting and ( ) transplantation included United States adults ages 18-80 years old who ( ) initiated dialysis ( =183,047) and ( ) were waitlisted for the first time ( =37,752) in 2010-2013. Serious fall injuries were determined by diagnostic codes for falls plus injury (fracture, joint dislocation, or head trauma) in inpatient and emergency department claims; the first serious fall injury after cohort entry was included as a time-varying exposure. Follow-up ended at the specified outcome, death, or the last date of follow-up (September 30, 2014). We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to determine the independent associations between serious fall injury and waitlisting or transplantation. RESULTS: Overall, 2-year cumulative incidence of serious fall injury was 6% among patients on incident dialysis; with adjustment, patients who had serious fall injuries were 61% less likely to be waitlisted than patients who did not (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.44). Among incident waitlisted patients (4% 2-year cumulative incidence), those with serious fall injuries were 29% less likely than their counterparts to be subsequently transplanted (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Serious fall injuries among United States patients on dialysis are associated with substantially lower likelihood of waitlisting for and receipt of a kidney transplant. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2018_03_06_CJASNPodcast_18_4_P.mp3.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 20891 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29499671
[Au] Autor:Fahrner R; Rauchfuss F; Scheuerlein H; Settmacher U
[Ad] Address:University Hospital Jena, Division of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Am Klinikum 1, 07740, Jena, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Posttraumatic venous gas in the liver - a case report and review of the current literature.
[So] Source:BMC Surg;18(1):14, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2482
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: There are numerous causes of hepatic gas formation that range from serious pathologies to incidental findings, including mesenteric infarction, liver abscess, inflammatory bowel disease or minimally invasive hepatic interventions. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 50-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency room after a car accident. The clinical examination and further diagnostics revealed a craniocerebral injury with a fracture of the skull, concomitant soft tissue lesions and subarachnoidal bleeding. Furthermore, a blunt thoracic trauma with hemopneumothorax due to rib fractures was treated with a chest tube. No obvious abdominal pathology was seen. While in the operating theatre for the surgical revision of the cranial soft tissue lesions, a femoral venous catheter was inserted without any complications. A routine ultrasound of the abdomen six hours after the trauma revealed unclear hepatic gas formation. A contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was performed, and the gas formation was found to be localized within the left hepatic vein. Afterwards, there was no specific treatment of the hepatic venous gas formation, as no alterations of liver function or liver enzymes were seen. The further course of the patient was uneventful regarding the gas formation in the liver, and another ultrasound two days later revealed no further gas in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: The placement of a femoral venous catheter is a risk factor for gas formation in liver veins. No further treatment is needed in cases with stable liver function. To rule out serious pathologies, diagnostic findings (e.g., ultrasound, CT), clinical history and underlying diseases need to be analyzed carefully after the detection of intrahepatic gas formation. With contrast-enhanced CT, the localization of the gas and its potential causes might be detectable.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12893-018-0345-z

  8 / 20891 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29284906
[Au] Autor:Bunc G; Ravnik J; Velnar T
[Ad] Address:Clinical Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Centre, Maribor, Slovenia.
[Ti] Title:May Heading in Soccer Result in Traumatic Brain Injury? A Review of Literature.
[So] Source:Med Arch;71(5):356-359, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0350-199X
[Cp] Country of publication:Bosnia and Herzegovina
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Globally, soccer is the most popular team sport, unifying many fans all around the world. The epidemiological studies so far have confirmed that head playing and hitting the ball with head may cause minor head injuries, which exert their effects in a cumulative way. Methods: Literature search for this review was conducted and data about traumatic brain injury collected from various sources. Results: The consequences of head injury are evident as chronic changes in cognition, including disturbances in concentration and slowing of mental and physical agility. Conclusion: Various recommendations have been issued for the prevention of chronic negative cumulative effects of soccer ball head playing. In addition, the professional soccer players are also exposed to more intense craniocerebral trauma, such as concussions and contusions. These patients require treatment of skilled sports physicians, neurologists and neurosurgeons and some may need long to return to the sport scene again.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.5455/medarh.2017.71.356-359

  9 / 20891 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29506463
[Au] Autor:Page PS; Wei Z; Brooks NP
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics, Madison, Wisconsin.
[Ti] Title:Motorcycle helmets and cervical spine injuries: a 5-year experience at a Level 1 trauma center.
[So] Source:J Neurosurg Spine;:1-5, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1547-5646
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE Motorcycle helmets have been shown to decrease the incidence and severity of traumatic brain injury due to motorcycle crashes. Despite this proven efficacy, some previous reports and speculation suggest that helmet use is associated with a higher likelihood of cervical spine injury (CSI). In this study, the authors examine 1061 cases of motorcycle crash victims who were treated during a 5-year period at a Level 1 trauma center to investigate the association of helmet use with the incidence and severity of CSI. The authors hypothesized that wearing a motorcycle helmet during a motorcycle crash is not associated with an increased risk of CSI and may provide some protective advantage to the wearer. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all cases in which the patient had been involved in a motorcycle crash and was evaluated at a single Level 1 trauma center in Wisconsin between January 1, 2010, and January 1, 2015. Biometric, clinical, and imaging data were obtained from a trauma registry database. The patients were then divided into 2 distinct groups based on whether or not they were wearing helmets at the time of the accident. Baseline and functional characteristics were compared between the 2 groups. The Student t-test was used for continuous variables, and Pearson's chi-square analysis was used for categorical variables. RESULTS In total, 1061 patient charts were examined containing data on 738 unhelmeted (69.6%) and 323 helmeted (30.4%) motorcycle riders. On average, helmeted riders had a much lower Injury Severity Score (p < 0.001). Cervical spine injury occurred in 114 unhelmeted riders (15.4%) compared with only 24 helmeted riders (7.4%) (p < 0.001), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.3 (95% CI 1.44-3.61, p = 0.0005). In the unhelmeted group, 10.8% of patients were found to have a cervical spine fracture compared with only 4.6% of patients in the helmeted group (p = 0.001). Additionally, ligamentous injury occurred more frequently in unhelmeted riders (1.9% vs 0.3%, p = 0.04). No difference was found in the occurrence of cervical strain, cord contusion, or nerve root injury (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The results of this study demonstrate a statistically significant lower likelihood of suffering a CSI among helmeted motorcyclists. Unhelmeted riders sustained a statistically significant higher number of vertebral fractures and ligamentous injuries. The study findings reported here confirm the authors' hypothesis that helmet use does not increase the risk of developing a cervical spine fracture and may provide some protective advantage.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.3171/2017.7.SPINE17540

  10 / 20891 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29206822
[Au] Autor:Berrones-Sanz LD
[Ad] Address:Colegio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Ciudad de México, México.
[Ti] Title:Análisis de los accidentes y las lesiones de los motociclistas en México. Analysis of accidents and injuries on motorcycles in Mexico.
[So] Source:Gac Med Mex;153(6):662-671, 2017 Nov-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0016-3813
[Cp] Country of publication:Mexico
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To analyze the type of injuries and the characteristics and geographical distribution of road accidents where motorcycles were involved in Mexico. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of second-hand information sources was conducted, including the number of accidents (N = 41,881), total number of injured people (N = 13,916) and medical expenses (N = 9,111) associated to motorcycle accidents during 2014. RESULTS: Motorcycles represent 13.14% of the total number of deaths in road accidents in Mexico, and the Southeast region of Mexico registers the highest proportion of fatal injuries. Of the total number of motorcycles, 1.84% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.83-1.86) were involved in a collision. 3.64 (95% CI: 3.39-3.89) people died and 105.5 (95% CI: 104.1-106.8) were injured in every 10,000. Out of the total number of injuries, 76.6% were male and 53.74% were women. 55.1% of deaths were caused by intracranial trauma. Only 16.6% wore a helmet at the time of the accident, and those not wearing a helmet had a 2.11 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; CI 95%: 1.8-2.4) higher chance of head injury. Regarding the severity of the crash, those occurred in suburban areas (OR: 6.58; CI 95%: 5.69-7.60), in unpaved surfaces (OR: 4.13; CI 95%: 3.04-5.61), after low alcohol consumption (OR: 1.89; CI 95%: 1.46-2.44), at night (OR: 2.24; CI 95%: 1.95-2.57) and on weekends (OR: 1.65; CI 95%: 1.44-1.90), had the highest chance of turning into a fatal accident. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the progress made in terms of road safety, motorcycle accidents are still increasing, and the use of a helmet is still proportionally low. More information on these groups and risk factors needs to be available so people are better informed. Also, regulations need improvements regarding the use of security equipment like helmets in order to reduce injuries and fatal accidents.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data
Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology
Motorcycles/statistics & numerical data
Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Craniocerebral Trauma/mortality
Female
Head Protective Devices/utilization
Humans
Infant
Male
Mexico/epidemiology
Middle Aged
Risk Factors
Wounds and Injuries/mortality
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.24875/GMM.017002812


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