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[PMID]: 29518973
[Au] Autor:Chang ML; Mei HC; Kuo IC; Hsiao G; Kuo YH; Lee CK
[Ad] Address:Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan. chang76819@yahoo.com.tw.
[Ti] Title:New Terpenoids from Chamaecyparis formosensis (Cupressaceae) Leaves with Modulatory Activity on Matrix Metalloproteases 2 and 9.
[So] Source:Molecules;23(3), 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:is Taiwan's most representative tree, and has high economic value. To date, only a few active chemical constituents have been reported for . In this study, 37 secondary metabolites, including three new compounds ( - ), were extracted from the leaves of . The compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate layer were used at different concentrations to treat HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and to evaluate their effects on matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) expression. Based on extensive analysis of data from high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, the new compounds were identified as 11,12-dihydroxyisodaucenoic acid ( ), 12-hydroxyisodaucenoic acid ( ), and 1-oxo-2α,3ß-dihydroxytotarol ( ). Known compounds - were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with data reported in the literature. Biological activity tests by gelatin zymographic analysis revealed that seven compounds, including new compound , have no cytotoxic effect on HT-1080 cells and were found to increase MMP-2 or MMP-9 expression by 1.25- to 1.59-fold at lower concentrations of 10-50 µM. These naturally derived regulatory compounds could potentially serve as a novel pharmaceutical basis for medical purposes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29448222
[Au] Autor:Knezevic P; Aleksic Sabo V; Simin N; Lesjak M; Mimica-Dukic N
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 3, 21 000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Serbia. Electronic address: petar.knezevic@dbe.uns.ac.rs.
[Ti] Title:A colorimetric broth microdilution method for assessment of Helicobacter pylori sensitivity to antimicrobial agents.
[So] Source:J Pharm Biomed Anal;152:271-278, 2018 Apr 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-264X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Helicobacter pylori is a major infective etiological agent of the upper gastrointestinal tract diseases. The bacterium exhibits resistance to various conventional antibiotics, being usually challenging for eradication. Since there is an urge to consider alternative therapeutic strategies, the aim of the study was to examine selected essential oils of plants belonging to families Cupressaceae (Juniperus communis) and Lamiaceae (Hyssopus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus serpyllum) against H. pylori, using an improved microdilution broth method. The oils were examined in concentration range from 0.03 to 4 µL/mL. The method comprises Brain-heart infusion broth supplemented with yeast extract, horse serum and IsoVitaleX. After 3 day incubation, an equal volume of double strengthen Christensen's urea was added into each well and incubated for additional 4 h. In wells with present H. pylori, the medium changed color from yellow to purple, allowing MIC determination even without a microtitre plate reader. The microtitre format method is convenient as it is less expensive, easier to perform and requires less amount of an anti-H. pylori agent. The improved method enhances specificity to H. pylori, as fast urease activity is almost an exclusive property of this bacterium. The application of the second step incubation with Christensen's urea decreases the possibility of false positive/negative results due to contaminant growth or commonly poor H. pylori growth. Among the examined oils, J. communis, H. officinalis and O. basilicum were not active with the highest applied concentrations, while the most active was T. serpyllum, with MIC 2.0-4.0 µL/mL. This is the first report on essential oils activity of T. serpyllum and H. officinalis against H. pylori.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29352475
[Au] Autor:Hsu CY; Lin GM; Lin HY; Chang ST
[Ad] Address:School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
[Ti] Title:Characteristics of proanthocyanidins in leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana as strong α-glucosidase inhibitors.
[So] Source:J Sci Food Agric;, 2018 Jan 20.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0010
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been a growing demand for natural products with a view to using them as α-glucosidase inhibitors for reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, the hot water extract (HWE) from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder (Cupressaceae) leaves and its soluble fractions were screened for α-glucosidase inhibition properties. The n-butanol-soluble fraction of HWE was further fractionated into 14 subfractions (B1-B14) using a Sephadex LH-20 column. The α-glucosidase-inhibitory activities and proanthocyanidin contents of all subfractions were determined. The structural characteristics of proanthocyanidins in proanthocyanidin-rich fractions were also elucidated. RESULTS: HWE produced a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase at low dose. Its IC value was 1.4 µg mL , showing high inhibitory activity. Subfractions B7-B14 displayed powerful α-glucosidase-inhibitory activities with IC values ranging between 1 and 0.015 µg mL and contained abundant proanthocyanidins exceeding 300 mg g . The proanthocyanidins with higher mean degree of polymerization (mDP), higher proportions of procyanidin dimer (A1 or A2) and (epi)afzelechin of extension units and a lower proportion of epicatechin of terminal units displayed high α-glucosidase-inhibitory activities. CONCLUSION: Proanthocyanidins in HWE were viewed as potential natural α-glucosidase inhibitors for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia. The results indicated that specific structural characteristics of proanthocyanidins would be required for α-glucosidase-inhibitory activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/jsfa.8894

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[PMID]: 29301523
[Au] Autor:Fierascu I; Ungureanu C; Avramescu SM; Cimpeanu C; Georgescu MI; Fierascu RC; Ortan A; Sutan AN; Anuta V; Zanfirescu A; Dinu-Pirvu CE; Velescu BS
[Ad] Address:The National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest, Romania.
[Ti] Title:Genoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of wild-growing Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) native to Romanian southern sub-Carpathian hills.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;18(1):3, 2018 Jan 04.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Juniperus communis L. represents a multi-purpose crop used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industry. Several studies present the possible medicinal properties of different Juniperus taxa native to specific geographical area. The present study aims to evaluate the genoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of hydroalcoholic extract of wild-growing Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) native to Romanian southern sub-Carpathian hills. METHODS: The prepared hydroethanolic extract of Juniperus communis L. was characterized by GC-MS, HPLC, UV-Vis spectrometry and phytochemical assays. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using the DPPH assay, the antifungal effect was studied on Aspergillus niger ATCC 15475 and Penicillium hirsutum ATCC 52323, while the genoprotective effect was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in two inflammation experimental models (dextran and kaolin) by plethysmometry. Male Wistar rats were treated by gavage with distilled water (negative control), the microemulsion (positive control), diclofenac sodium aqueous solution (reference) and microemulsions containing juniper extract (experimental group). The initial paw volume and the paw volumes at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 24 h were measured. RESULTS: Total terpenoids, phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 13.44 ± 0.14 mg linalool equivalent, 19.23 ± 1.32 mg gallic acid equivalent, and 5109.6 ± 21.47 mg rutin equivalent per 100 g of extract, respectively. GC-MS characterization of the juniper extract identified 57 volatile compounds in the sample, while the HPLC analysis revealed the presence of the selected compounds (α-pinene, chlorogenic acid, rutin, apigenin, quercitin). The antioxidant potential of the crude extract was found to be 81.63 ± 0.38% (measured by the DPPH method). The results of the antifungal activity assay (for Aspergillus niger and Penicillium hirsutum) were 21.6 mm, respectively 17.2 mm as inhibition zone. Test results demonstrated the genoprotective potential of J. communis undiluted extract, inhibiting the mitodepressive effect of ethanol. The anti-inflammatory action of the juniper extract, administered as microemulsion in acute-dextran model was increased when compared to kaolin subacute inflammation induced model. CONCLUSION: The hydroalcoholic extract obtained from wild-growing Juniperus communis native to Romanian southern sub-Carpathian hills has genoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Juniperus/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Protective Agents/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry
Antifungal Agents/chemistry
Aspergillus niger/drug effects
Biphenyl Compounds/analysis
Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism
Flavonoids/chemistry
Flavonoids/pharmacology
Inflammation/metabolism
Male
Penicillium/drug effects
Phenols/chemistry
Phenols/pharmacology
Picrates/analysis
Picrates/metabolism
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Protective Agents/chemistry
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Romania
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Biphenyl Compounds); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Picrates); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Protective Agents); DFD3H4VGDH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180216
[Lr] Last revision date:180216
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-2066-8

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[PMID]: 28742458
[Au] Autor:Henricot B; Pérez-Sierra A; Armstrong AC; Sharp PM; Green S
[Ad] Address:First, third, and fifth authors: Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9SY, United Kingdom; second author: Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH, United Kingdom; and fourth author: Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinbur
[Ti] Title:Morphological and Genetic Analyses of the Invasive Forest Pathogen Phytophthora austrocedri Reveal that Two Clonal Lineages Colonized Britain and Argentina from a Common Ancestral Population.
[So] Source:Phytopathology;107(12):1532-1540, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:0031-949X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Phytophthora austrocedri is causing widespread mortality of Austrocedrus chilensis in Argentina and Juniperus communis in Britain. The pathogen has also been isolated from J. horizontalis in Germany. Isolates from Britain, Argentina, and Germany are homothallic, with no clear differences in the dimensions of sporangia, oogonia, or oospores. Argentinian and German isolates grew faster than British isolates across a range of media and had a higher temperature tolerance, although most isolates, regardless of origin, grew best at 15°C and all isolates were killed at 25°C. Argentinian and British isolates caused lesions when inoculated onto both A. chilensis and J. communis; however, the Argentinian isolate caused longer lesions on A. chilensis than on J. communis and vice versa for the British isolate. Genetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial loci showed that all British isolates are identical. Argentinian isolates and the German isolate are also identical but differ from the British isolates. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms are shared between the British and Argentinian isolates. We concluded that British isolates and Argentinian isolates conform to two distinct clonal lineages of P. austrocedri founded from the same as-yet-unidentified source population. These lineages should be recognized and treated as separate risks by international plant health legislation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cupressaceae/microbiology
Genetic Variation
Juniperus/microbiology
Phytophthora/genetics
Plant Diseases/microbiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Argentina
Forests
Phylogeny
Phytophthora/isolation & purification
Phytophthora/ultrastructure
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
Sporangia
United Kingdom
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180215
[Lr] Last revision date:180215
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170726
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-03-17-0126-R

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[PMID]: 29181675
[Au] Autor:Kim JR; Perumalsamy H; Shin HM; Lee SG; Ahn YJ
[Ad] Address:Experiment and Analysis Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Honam Regional Office, Gunsan-si, Jeollabuk-do, 54096, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Toxicity of Juniperus oxycedrus oil constituents and related compounds and the efficacy of oil spray formulations to Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).
[So] Source:Exp Appl Acarol;73(3-4):385-399, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1572-9702
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The American house dust mite (AHDM), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Pyroglyphidae), is recognized as an important source of allergens in the domestic environment. This study was conducted to determine whether 19 constituents from essential oil of cade, Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae), eight structurally related compounds, and another 16 previously known cade oil constituents were toxic for adult AHDMs and to determine the route of acaricidal action of the test compounds, as well as to assess the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing the oil (10-40 mg/L sprays). In a fabric-circle contact mortality bioassay, methyleugenol (LD , 5.82 µg/cm ) and guaiacol (8.24 µg/cm ) were the most toxic compounds against the mites, and the toxicity of these compounds and benzyl benzoate did not significantly differ. High toxicity was also observed with eugenol, m-cresol, and nerolidol (LD , 12.52-19.52 µg/cm ), and these compounds were significantly more toxic than N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) (LD , 37.67 µg/cm ). Cade applied as 30 or 40 mg/L experimental sprays provided 96 and 100% mortality against the mites, respectively, whereas permethrin (cis:trans, 25:75) 2.5 g/L spray treatment resulted in 17% mortality. In vapor-phase mortality tests, the compounds described were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that toxicity was achieved mainly through the action of vapor. Reasonable mite control in indoor environments can be achieved by spray formulation containing the 40 mg/L cade oil as potential contact-action fumigants.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171219
[Lr] Last revision date:171219
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10493-017-0201-3

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[PMID]: 29112893
[Au] Autor:Zhang L; Peng Y; Uray IP; Shen J; Wang L; Peng X; Brown PH; Tu W; Peng G
[Ad] Address:Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address: hustzlh@126.com.
[Ti] Title:Natural product ß-thujaplicin inhibits homologous recombination repair and sensitizes cancer cells to radiation therapy.
[So] Source:DNA Repair (Amst);60:89-101, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1568-7856
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Investigation of natural products is an attractive strategy to identify novel compounds for cancer prevention and treatment. Numerous studies have shown the efficacy and safety of natural products, and they have been widely used as alternative treatments for a wide range of illnesses, including cancers. However, it remains unknown whether natural products affect homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair and whether these compounds can be used as sensitizers with minimal toxicity to improve patients' responses to radiation therapy, a mainstay of treatment for many human cancers. In this study, in order to systematically identify natural products with an inhibitory effect on HR repair, we developed a high-throughput image-based HR repair screening assay and screened a chemical library containing natural products. Among the most interesting of the candidate compounds identified from the screen was ß-thujaplicin, a bioactive compound isolated from the heart wood of plants in the Cupressaceae family, can significantly inhibit HR repair. We further demonstrated that ß-thujaplicin inhibits HR repair by reducing the recruitment of a key HR repair protein, Rad51, to DNA double-strand breaks. More importantly, our results showed that ß-thujaplicin can radiosensitize cancer cells. Additionally, ß-thujaplicin sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibitor in different cancer cell lines. Collectively, our findings for the first time identify natural compound ß-thujaplicin, which has a good biosafety profile, as a novel HR repair inhibitor with great potential to be translated into clinical applications as a sensitizer to DNA-damage-inducing treatment such as radiation and PARP inhibitor. In addition, our study provides proof of the principle that our robust high-throughput functional HR repair assay can be used for a large-scale screening system to identify novel natural products that regulate DNA repair and cellular responses to DNA damage-inducing treatments such as radiation therapy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171120
[Lr] Last revision date:171120
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28985389
[Au] Autor:Azuma W; Nakashima S; Yamakita E; Ishii HR; Kuroda K
[Ad] Address:Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe 675-8501, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Water retained in tall Cryptomeria japonica leaves as studied by infrared micro-spectroscopy.
[So] Source:Tree Physiol;37(10):1367-1378, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1758-4469
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent studies in the tallest tree species suggest that physiological and anatomical traits of tree-top leaves are adapted to water-limited conditions. In order to examine water retention mechanism of leaves in a tall tree, infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy was conducted on mature leaf cross-sections of tall Cryptomeria japonica D. Don from four different heights (51, 43, 31 and 19 m). We measured IR transmission spectra and mainly analyzed OH (3700-3000 cm-1) and C-O (1190-845 cm-1) absorption bands, indicating water molecules and sugar groups, respectively. The changes in IR spectra of leaf sections from different heights were compared with bulk-leaf hydraulics. Both average OH band area of the leaf sections and leaf water content were larger in the upper-crown, while osmotic potential at saturation did not vary with height, suggesting higher dissolved sugar contents of upper-crown leaves. As cell-wall is the main cellular structure of leaves, we inferred that larger average C-O band area of upper-crown leaves reflected higher content of structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Infrared micro-spectroscopic imaging showed that the OH and C-O band areas are large in the vascular bundle, transfusion tissue and epidermis. Infrared spectra of individual tissue showed that much more water is retained in vascular bundle and transfusion tissue than mesophyll. These results demonstrate that IR micro-spectroscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing detailed, quantitative information on the spatial distribution of chemical substances within plant tissues, which cannot be done using conventional methods like histochemical staining. The OH band could be well reproduced by four Gaussian OH components around 3530 (free water: long H bond), 3410 (pectin-like OH species), 3310 (cellulose-like OH species) and 3210 (bound water: short H bond) cm-1, and all of these OH components were higher in the upper crown while their relative proportions did not vary with height. Based on the spectral analyses, we inferred that polysaccharides play a key role in biomolecular retention of water in leaves of tall C. japonica.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171031
[Lr] Last revision date:171031
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1093/treephys/tpx085

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[PMID]: 28985377
[Au] Autor:Williams CB; Reese Næsborg R; Dawson TE
[Ad] Address:Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
[Ti] Title:Coping with gravity: the foliar water relations of giant sequoia.
[So] Source:Tree Physiol;37(10):1312-1326, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1758-4469
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In tall trees, the mechanisms by which foliage maintains sufficient turgor pressure and water content against height-related constraints remain poorly understood. Pressure-volume curves generated from leafy shoots collected crown-wide from 12 large Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindley) J. Buchholz (giant sequoia) trees provided mechanistic insights into how the components of water potential vary with height in tree and over time. The turgor loss point (TLP) decreased with height at a rate indistinguishable from the gravitational potential gradient and was controlled by changes in tissue osmotica. For all measured shoots, total relative water content at the TLP remained above 75%. This high value has been suggested to help leaves avoid precipitous declines in leaf-level physiological function, and in giant sequoia was controlled by both tissue elasticity and the balance of water between apoplasm and symplasm. Hydraulic capacitance decreased only slightly with height, but importantly this parameter was nearly double in value to that reported for other tree species. Total water storage capacity also decreased with height, but this trend essentially disappeared when considering only water available within the typical range of water potentials experienced by giant sequoia. From summer to fall measurement periods we did not observe osmotic adjustment that would depress the TLP. Instead we observed a proportional shift of water into less mobile apoplastic compartments leading to a reduction in hydraulic capacitance. This collection of foliar traits allows giant sequoia to routinely, but safely, operate close to its TLP, and suggests that gravity plays a major role in the water relations of Earth's largest tree species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171031
[Lr] Last revision date:171031
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1093/treephys/tpx074

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[PMID]: 28965257
[Au] Autor:Uguz U; Guvensen A; Tort NS
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100, Izmir, Turkey. ulas.uguz@ege.edu.tr.
[Ti] Title:Annual and intradiurnal variation of dominant airborne pollen and the effects of meteorological factors in Çesme (Izmir, Turkey).
[So] Source:Environ Monit Assess;189(10):530, 2017 Sep 30.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2959
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this present study, airborne pollen in Çesme was investigated between February 17, 2012 and February 17, 2014 using the volumetric method. Çesme, one of Turkey's most important tourism centers, which attracts numerous local and foreign tourists each year, is a district of Izmir, a province in the western part of Turkey. During the 2-year study, 12,905 pollen grains belonging to 64 taxa (33 arboreal, 31 non-arboreal plants) were detected. However, the 2-year data results revealed that the taxa with the pollen concentration more than 4% in the atmosphere were Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (4268 pollen, 33.07%), Olea europaea (1614 pollen grains, 12.51%), Pinaceae (1085 pollen grains, 8.41%), Quercus spp. (1081 pollen grains, 8.38%), Pistacia spp. (743 pollen grains, 5.76%), and Poaceae (557 pollen grains, 4.32%), all of which comprised 72.44% of the total count. The relationship between the daily pollen counts belonging to these six taxa and the hourly average temperature (°C), daily precipitation (mm), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (km/h) was assessed using the Spearman correlation test, and significant results were determined. During the study, the intradiurnal distribution of the aforementioned pollen varied. The highest pollen concentration was detected between 11:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. (first year 30.3%; second year 30.1%).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171003
[Lr] Last revision date:171003
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10661-017-6238-2


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