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[PMID]: 29477656
[Au] Autor:Legeay S; Clere N; Apaire-Marchais V; Faure S; Lapied B
[Ad] Address:MINT, UNIV Angers, INSERM, CNRS, Université Bretagne Loire, IBS-CHU, 4 Rue Larrey, F-49933 Angers, France. Electronic address: samuel.legeay@univ-angers.fr.
[Ti] Title:Unusual modes of action of the repellent DEET in insects highlight some human side effects.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharmacol;825:92-98, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0712
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces favorable repellency against insects by acting on the sensory nervous system. According to emerging literature reports, DEET side effects in humans involve new molecular targets including the cholinergic system, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor and the participation of the second messenger nitric oxide (NO). Most of these molecular events targeted by DEET have previously been characterized in insects while they have been considered as marginal compared to classical repellent properties. Despite these uncommon actions in insects, there is no consensus on the effects in human. Based on these data, this review provides new insights on side effects in human and more largely in mammals by identifying the unusual properties of DEET in insects, which seem to be correlated with adverse effects in mammals. These data will be very helpful to understand better the toxicological effects observed in order to protect non-target organisms from the toxicity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 1179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29240785
[Au] Autor:Lu W; Hwang JK; Zeng F; Leal WS
[Ad] Address:Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:DEET as a feeding deterrent.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189243, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), is a multimodal compound that acts as a spatial repellent as well as an irritant (contact repellent), thus being perceived by the insect's olfactory and gustatory systems as an odorant and a tastant, respectively. Soon after DEET was developed, almost 6 decades ago, it was reported that it reduced mosquito feeding on blood mixed with this repellent. It is now known that the mosquito proboscis senses contact repellents with the tips (labella) of the labium, which remain in direct contact with the outer layers of the skin, while the stylets, including the feeding deterrent sensor (labrum), penetrate the skin. We designed a behavioral assay that allowed us to measure feeding deterrence without complications from contact or spatial repellency. Using the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, we demonstrate here that when DEET was mixed with blood and covered by Parafilm® layers, the mean number of landings and duration of contacts with surfaces covering blood mixed with DEET or blood plus solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide) did not differ significantly thus implying that DEET did not leak to the outer surface. The feeding times, however, were significantly different. When blood was mixed either with 0.1 or 1% DEET, female southern house mosquitoes spent significantly (P<0.0001) less time feeding than the time spent feeding on blood mixed only with the solvent. By contrast, significant differences in the mean times of feeding on blood containing 1% picaridin and blood plus solvent were significant at 5%, but not at 1% level. Like DEET, the contact repellent and insecticide, permethrin, caused a significant (P<0.0001) reduction in feeding time. We, therefore, concluded, that in this context, DEET, permethrin, and, to a lesser extent, picaridin, act as feeding deterrents.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Culex/drug effects
DEET/pharmacology
Feeding Behavior/drug effects
Insect Repellents/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Culex/physiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Insect Repellents); 134-62-3 (DEET)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189243

  3 / 1179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29502900
[Au] Autor:Molins-Delgado D; García-Sillero D; Díaz-Cruz MS; Barceló D
[Ad] Address:Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Title:On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for insect repellent residue analysis in surface waters using atmospheric pressure photoionization.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr A;, 2018 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3778
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Insect repellents (IRs) are a group of organic chemicals whose function is to prevent the ability of insects of landing in a surface. These compounds have been found in the environment and may pose a risk to non-target organisms. In this study, an on-line solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method was developed using an atmospheric photoionization source (SPE-HPLC-(APPI)-MS/MS). The use of the APPI as an alternative ionization technique to electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) allowed expanding the range of analytical techniques suitable for the analysis of IRs, so far relied in gas chromatography. High sensitivity and precision was reached with method limits of quantification between 0.2 and 4.6 ng l and interday and intraday precision equal or below 15%. The validated method was applied to the study of surface water samples from three European river basins with different flow regime (Adige River in Italy, Sava River in the Balkans, and Evrotas River in Greece). The results showed that two IRs (DEET and Bayrepel) were ubiquitous in the Sava and Evrotas basins, reaching concentrations as high as 105 µg l of Bayrepel in the Sava River, and 5 µg l of DEET in the Evrotas River. Densely populated areas and effluent waste waters are pointed out as the responsible for this pollution. In the alpine river Adige, only three samples showed low levels of IRs (6.01-37.8 ng l ). The concentrations measured were used to perform an environmental risk assessment based on the hazard quotients (HQs) estimation approach by using the chronic and acute eco-toxicity data available. The results revealed that despite the high frequency and eventually high concentrations of these IRs determined in the three basins, only few sites were at risk, with 1 < HQs < 3.3.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 1179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29494905
[Au] Autor:Greenstein KE; Lew J; Dickenson ERV; Wert EC
[Ad] Address:Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA), P.O. Box 99954, Las Vegas, NV 89193-9954, United States.
[Ti] Title:Investigation of biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple chemical contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;200:248-256, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The evolving demands of drinking water treatment necessitate processes capable of removing a diverse suite of contaminants. Biofiltration can employ biotransformation and sorption to remove various classes of chemicals from water. Here, pilot-scale virgin anthracite-sand and previously used biological activated carbon (BAC)-sand dual media filters were operated for ∼250 days to assess removals of 0.4 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen, 50-140 µg/L manganese, and ∼100 ng/L each of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) spiked into pre-ozonated Colorado River water. Anthracite achieved complete nitrification within 200 days and started removing ibuprofen at 85 days. Limited manganese (10%) removal occurred. In contrast, BAC completely nitrified ammonia within 113 days, removed all manganese at 43 days, and exhibited steady state removal of most TOrCs by 140 days. However, during the first 140 days, removal of caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, naproxen, and trimethoprim decreased, suggesting a shift from sorption to biotransformation. Acetaminophen and sulfamethoxazole were removed at consistent levels, with complete removal of acetaminophen achieved throughout the study; ibuprofen removal increased with time. When subjected to elevated (1 µg/L) concentrations of TOrCs, BAC removed larger masses of chemicals; with a subsequent decrease and ultimate cease in the TOrCs spike, caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim notably desorbed. By the end of operation, anthracite and BAC exhibited equivalent quantities of biomass measured as adenosine triphosphate, but BAC harbored greater microbial diversity (examined with 16S rRNA sequencing). Improved insight was gained regarding concurrent biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple organic and inorganic contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 1179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29454881
[Au] Autor:Kodali M; Hattiangady B; Shetty GA; Bates A; Shuai B; Shetty AK
[Ad] Address:Olin E. Teague Veterans' Medical Center, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple, TX, USA; Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple and College Station, TX, USA; Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M Health
[Ti] Title:Curcumin treatment leads to better cognitive and mood function in a model of Gulf War Illness with enhanced neurogenesis, and alleviation of inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus.
[So] Source:Brain Behav Immun;, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2139
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Diminished cognitive and mood function are among the most conspicuous symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Our previous studies in a rat model of GWI have demonstrated that persistent cognitive and mood impairments are associated with substantially declined neurogenesis, chronic low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus. We tested the efficacy of curcumin (CUR) to maintain better cognitive and mood function in a rat model of GWI because of its neurogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and memory and mood enhancing properties. Male rats were exposed daily to low doses of GWI-related chemicals, pyridostigmine bromide, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin, and 5-minutes of restraint stress for 28 days. Animals were next randomly assigned to two groups, which received daily CUR or vehicle treatment for 30 days. Animals also received 5'-bromodeoxyuridine during the last seven days of treatment for analysis of neurogenesis. Behavioral studies through object location, novel object recognition and novelty suppressed feeding tests performed sixty days after treatment revealed better cognitive and mood function in CUR treated GWI rats. These rats also displayed enhanced neurogenesis and diminished inflammation typified by reduced astrocyte hypertrophy and activated microglia in the hippocampus. Additional studies showed that CUR treatment to GWI rats enhanced the expression of antioxidant genes and normalized the expression of multiple genes related to mitochondrial respiration. Thus, CUR therapy is efficacious for maintaining better memory and mood function in a model of GWI. Enhanced neurogenesis, restrained inflammation and oxidative stress with normalized mitochondrial respiration may underlie better memory and mood function mediated by CUR treatment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180225
[Lr] Last revision date:180225
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 1179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29410208
[Au] Autor:Tavares M; da Silva MRM; de Oliveira de Siqueira LB; Rodrigues RAS; Bodjolle-d'Almeida L; Dos Santos EP; Ricci-Júnior E
[Ad] Address:Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicines, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento Galênico (LADEG), Carlos Chagas Filho Avenue, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro 21941-590, Brazil. Electronic address: mel.tavares@ufrj.br.
[Ti] Title:Trends in insect repellent formulations: A review.
[So] Source:Int J Pharm;539(1-2):190-209, 2018 Feb 03.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3476
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The use of natural and synthetic repellents, marketed in different pharmaceutical forms, is growing in the world due to the emerging vector-borne viral diseases as Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever and Malaria. The choice of the ideal formulation will depend on a series of factors to be analyzed: type of repellent active (natural or synthetic), pharmaceutical forms (spray, lotion, cream, gel), action time duration (short or long), environment of exposure and the user (adult, pregnant women, children, newborn). The most used repellents are DEET, IR3535 (Ethyl Butylacetylaminopropionate) (EB), Icaridin (Picaridin) and essential oils, each of them presenting advantages and disadvantages. DEET is the oldest and the most powerful repellent available in the market, thus being the reference standard. For this reason, there are many classic formulations available in the market containing the chemical component DEET in spray forms and lotions. However, due to its toxicity, DEET is not recommended for children up to 6 months and pregnant women. DEET has been an option along with other market-shared products as IR3535 and Icaridin (Picaridin), which present less toxicity in their composition. IR3535 is the less toxic and may be prescribed for children over 6 months of age and pregnant women so that they have been the best option because of the lower toxicity levels presented. IR3535 is the one that has the lowest toxicity level among the three options and may be prescribed for children above 6 months of age and pregnant women. Icaridin is as potent as DEET, but less toxic, and has the advantage of having the long-lasting action among the aforementioned repellents. The new formulations have been based on controlled release systems (CRS). The CRSs for repellents comprise polymer micro/nanocapsules, micro/solid lipid nanoparticles, nanoemulsions/microemulsions, liposomes/niosomes, nanostructured hydrogels and cyclodextrins. There are many formulations based on micro and nanocapsules containing DEET and essential oils to increase repellent action time duration and decrease permeation and consequently, systemic toxicity. The development of new formulations for the IR3535 and Icaridin is a research field yet to be explored. The current trend is the use of natural repellent actives such as essential oils, which present low toxicity, do not harm the environment, but present reduced repellent action time due to rapid evaporation after skin application. CRSs have been used as vehicle of natural repellents to improve long-lasting repellent action, reduce skin permeation and systemic effects.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 1179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29277710
[Au] Autor:Carreras I; Aytan N; Mellott T; Choi JK; Lehar M; Crabtree L; Leite-Morris K; Jenkins BG; Blusztajn JK; Dedeoglu A
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Boston Healthcare System, 150 S Huntington Av, Boston, MA 02130, USA; Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E Concord St, Boston, MA 02118, USA. Electronic address: carreras@bu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Anxiety, neuroinflammation, cholinergic and GABAergic abnormalities are early markers of Gulf War illness in a mouse model of the disease.
[So] Source:Brain Res;1681:34-43, 2018 02 15.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6240
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic disease that affects the 1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans for which treatment is lacking. It has been hypothesized that drugs used to protect military personnel from chemical attacks and insects during the war: pyridostigmine bromide (PB),N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and permethrin (PER) together with stress may have contributed collectively and synergistically to generate GWI. There is a need to find markers of pathology to be used in pre-clinical trials. For this purpose we employed a previously validated mouse model of GWI evoked by daily exposure to PB (1.3 mg/kg), DEET (40 mg/kg), PER (0.13 mg/kg), and 5 min of restraint stress for 28 days to analyze behavior, brain pathology and neurochemical outcomes three months later. GWI-model mice were characterized by increased anxiety, decreased hippocampal levels of N-acetyl aspartate, GABA, the GABA-producing enzyme GAD-67 and microglial activation. We also observed that GWI model was sexually dimorphic on some measures: males had increased while females had decreased protein levels of the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, in the septum and hippocampus and decreased levels of the receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB140, in the hippocampus. Increased hippocampal levels of nerve growth factor were detected in males only. Together the data show behavioral and neuropathological abnormalities detected at 3 months post-exposure and that some of them are sexually dimorphic. Future preclinical studies for GWI may take advantage of this short latency model and should include both males and females as their response to treatment may differ.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180211
[Lr] Last revision date:180211
[St] Status:In-Process

  8 / 1179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29415176
[Au] Autor:Mengoni SL; Alzogaray RA
[Ti] Title:Deltamethrin-resistant German Cockroaches Are Less Sensitive to the Insect Repellents DEET and IR3535 than Non-resistant Individuals.
[So] Source:J Econ Entomol;, 2018 Feb 05.
[Is] ISSN:1938-291X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a serious worldwide pest with a considerable economical and sanitary impact. It is mainly controlled by the application of synthetic insecticides, but repeated use of these substances has promoted the appearance of resistance in cockroach populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to compare the behavior of deltamethrin-susceptible (CIPEIN colony) and deltamethrin-resistant (JUBA and VGBA colonies) first instar nymphs exposed to the repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate (IR3535). Firstly, the behavior of the nymphs was assessed in an experimental arena in the absence of repellents. The parameters Distance Traveled, Velocity, Mobility Time, and Time Spent (in each half of the arena) were quantified using an image analyser, and showed that the behavior elicited by the three colonies was similar. After this, the behavior of the nymphs was quantified in an arena, half of which had been treated with repellent. The repellency of DEET increased as a linear function of log concentration for the three colonies. DEET elicited repellency as from a concentration of 97.49 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN and JUBA colonies and 194.98 µg/cm2 for the VGBA colony. The repellency of IR3535 was weaker and started at a concentration of 389.96 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN colony, 779.92 µg/cm2 for JUBA, and 1559.84 µg/cm2 for VGBA . Finally, nymphs were exposed to 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 DEET:IR3535 mixtures, and a synergistic effect was observed only in the CIPEIN colony.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180207
[Lr] Last revision date:180207
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/jee/toy009

  9 / 1179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29415167
[Au] Autor:Anderson JF; Ferrandino FJ; Vasil MP; Bedoukian RH; Maher M; McKenzie K
[Ad] Address:Department of Entomology and Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT.
[Ti] Title:Repellency of Naturally Occurring or Related Compounds, DEET, and Para-Menthane-3,8-Diol to Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).
[So] Source:J Med Entomol;, 2018 Feb 05.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2928
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), have become a major health nuisance in the past 20 ysin cities and elsewhere throughout many areas of the world. Few studies have reported on repellent compounds that could reduce their transport in luggage. We evaluated the repellency of six naturally occurring or related compounds used in flavor/fragrance applications or structurally related compounds, para-menthane-3,8-diol, and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) to bed bugs in a 183 × 183-cm arena . Repellency was assessed using soft-sided polyester lunch bags serving as surrogates of luggage and barrier cloth towels upon which rested untreated lunch bags. We report for the first time repellency of delta dodecalactone, 2-(3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-nonadien-1-yl)-cyclopentanone (a.k.a. 'methyl apritone'), gamma dodecalactone, and para-menthane-3,8-diol to bed bugs. Propyl dihydrojasmonate, 3-methyl-5-hexyl-2-cyclohexenone, gamma methyl tridecalactone, and DEET are also documented to be repellent to bed bugs. These compounds provided relatively long-term protection. Propyl dihydrojasmonate prevented bed bugs from seeking refuge in treated lunch bags 27 d after treatment, and when applied to cloth towels repelled harborage-seeking bed bugs for 146 d. Methyl apritone blended with 3-methyl-5-hexyl-2-cyclohexenone and delta dodecalactone as an individual compound applied to cloth towels repelled bed bugs for 190 and 276 d, respectively. The above-mentioned compounds, either individually or as blends, may reduce risk of bed bugs seeking harborage in treated suitcases or towels upon which untreated luggage is placed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180207
[Lr] Last revision date:180207
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/jme/tjx253

  10 / 1179 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29197284
[Au] Autor:Ali AM; Rønning HT; Sydnes LK; Alarif WM; Kallenborn R; Al-Lihaibi SS
[Ad] Address:Department of Marine Chemistry, Faculty of Marine Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, PO. Box 80207, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
[Ti] Title:Detection of PPCPs in marine organisms from contaminated coastal waters of the Saudi Red Sea.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;621:654-662, 2018 Apr 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The occurrence of PPCPs in macroalgae, barnacle and fish samples from contaminated coastal waters of the Saudi Red Sea is reported. Solvent extraction followed by solid phase extraction was applied to isolate the compounds, and their quantification was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Atenolol, ranitidine, chlorpheniramine, DEET, and atrazine were detected in one or more macroalgae at
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180208
[Lr] Last revision date:180208
[St] Status:In-Process


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