Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29524917
[Au] Autor:Cardona M; Lewis ET; Turner RM; Alkhouri H; Asha S; Mackenzie J; Perkins M; Suri S; Holdgate A; Winoto L; Chang CW; Gallego-Luxan B; McCarthy S; Kristensen MR; O'Sullivan M; Skjøt-Arkil H; Ekmann AA; Nygaard HH; Jensen JJ; Jensen RO; Pedersen JL; Breen D; Petersen JA; Jensen BN; Mogensen CB; Hillman K; Brabrand M
[Ad] Address:The Simpson Centre for Health Services Research, South Western Sydney Clinical School, The University of New South Wales, PO Box 6087, UNSW, NSW, 1466 Australia. Electronic address: magnolia.cardona@unsw.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:Efficacy of a tool to predict short-term mortality in older people presenting at emergency departments: Protocol for a multi-centre cohort study.
[So] Source:Arch Gerontol Geriatr;76:169-174, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6976
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Prognostic uncertainty inhibits clinicians from initiating timely end-of-life discussions and advance care planning. This study evaluates the efficacy of the CriSTAL (Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care) checklist in emergency departments. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of patients aged ≥65 years with any diagnosis admitted via emergency departments in ten hospitals in Australia, Denmark and Ireland. Electronic and paper clinical records will be used to extract risk factors such as nursing home residency, physiological deterioration warranting a rapid response call, personal history of active chronic disease, history of hospitalisations or intensive care unit admission in the past year, evidence of proteinuria or ECG abnormalities, and evidence of frailty to be concurrently measured with Fried Score and Clinical Frailty Scale. Patients or their informal caregivers will be contacted by telephone around three months after initial assessment to ascertain survival, self-reported health, post-discharge frailty and health service utilisation since discharge. Logistic regression and bootstrapping techniques and AUROC curves will be used to test the predictive accuracy of CriSTAL for death within 90 days of admission and in-hospital death. DISCUSSION: The CriSTAL checklist is an objective and practical tool for use in emergency departments among older patients to determine individual probability of death in the short-term. Its validation in this cohort is expected to reduce clinicians' prognostic uncertainty on the time to patients' death and encourage timely end-of-life conversations to support clinical decisions with older frail patients and their families about their imminent or future care choices.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524882
[Au] Autor:Ajiboye TO; Skiebe E; Wilharm G
[Ad] Address:Antioxidants, Redox Biology and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Nile University of Nigeria, FCT-Abuja, Nigeria; Project Group P2, Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode Branch, Germany. Electronic address: toajiboye@nileuniversity.edu.ng.
[Ti] Title:Phenolic acids potentiate colistin-mediated killing of Acinetobacter baumannii by inducing redox imbalance.
[So] Source:Biomed Pharmacother;101:737-744, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1950-6007
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Phenolic acids with catechol groups are good prooxidants because of their low redox potential. In this study, we provided data showing that phenolic acids, caffeic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid, enhanced colistin-mediated bacterial death by inducing redox imbalance. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these phenolic acids against Acinetobacter baumannii AB5075 were considerably lowered for ΔsodB and ΔkatG mutants. Checkerboard assay shows synergistic interactions between colistin and phenolic acids. The phenolic acids exacerbated colistin-induced oxidative stress in A. baumannii AB5075 through increased superoxide anion generation, NAD + /NADH and ADP/ATP ratio. In parallel, the level of reduced glutathione was significantly lowered. We conclude that phenolic acids potentiate colistin-induced oxidative stress in A. baumannii AB5075 by increasing ROS generation, energy metabolism and electron transport chain activity with a concomitant decrease in glutathione.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524863
[Au] Autor:Kasselman LJ; Vernice NA; DeLeon J; Reiss AB
[Ad] Address:Winthrop Research Institute and Department of Medicine, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA. Electronic address: lkasselman@nyuwinthrop.org.
[Ti] Title:The gut microbiome and elevated cardiovascular risk in obesity and autoimmunity.
[So] Source:Atherosclerosis;271:203-213, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1484
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and autoimmunity is the leading cause of death in these populations and significant residual risk remains despite current treatment approaches. Obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are linked to chronic inflammation, and subjects with these disorders have characteristic shifts in their gut microbiome composition. Recent data suggest that alterations in gut microbial and metabolic composition may be responsible, in part, for induction of chronic inflammation, thus promoting cardiovascular disease. Common microbiome changes observed in obesity, T1DM, RA, and SLE include a decrease in the ratio of bacteria, such as Gram-positive Firmicutes to Gram-negative Bacteroidetes, as well as an overabundance or depletion of certain species, including Prevotella copri. The consequent effects of these shifts include alterations in the metabolic composition of the gut, hyper-activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), upregulation of inflammatory pathways, e.g. c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), increased intestinal permeability, increased C-reactive protein, and increased levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Differential microbiome compositions may also explain sex differences observed in autoimmunity, where a male gut microbiome promotes anti-inflammatory processes as compared to a female pro-inflammatory gut microbiome. Intervention at the level of the microbiota appears to attenuate symptoms in these inflammatory syndromes with probiotic treatment, such as Lactobacilli, playing a uniquely beneficial role in restoring intestinal health, decreasing inflammation, and reducing cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss obesity, T1DM, RA, and SLE in the context of how each unique microbiome profile contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524860
[Au] Autor:Becattini C; Dentali F; Camporese G; Sembolini A; Rancan E; Tonello C; Manina G; Padayattil S; Agnelli G
[Ad] Address:Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine-Stroke Unit, University of Perugia, Italy. Electronic address: cecilia.becattini@unipg.it.
[Ti] Title:Carotid atherosclerosis and risk for ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulant treatment.
[So] Source:Atherosclerosis;271:177-181, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1484
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Whether carotid atherosclerosis is associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) on anticoagulant treatment is undefined. To explore this association, patients with AF on treatment with vitamin K antagonists were included in a multicenter, prospective study. METHODS: At inclusion in the study, patients underwent Doppler-ultrasonography for the assessment of carotid atherosclerosis and then were prospectively followed. Ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were the primary study outcomes; death and its causes were reported. RESULTS: Overall, 587 patients were included in the study. At ultrasonography, 380 patients had carotid atherosclerosis (64.7%) and 45 internal carotid (ICA) stenosis ≥50% (7.7%). During a mean follow-up of 41 ±â€¯15 months, 30 patients had an ischemic stroke or TIA (1.49% per patient-year, 95% CI 0.96-2.03) and 81 patients died (4.01% per patient-year, 95% CI 3.16-4.86). Carotid atherosclerosis was associated with a significant increase in the risk for the composite of ischemic stroke or TIA or death after adjusting for CHA DS VASc (6.0% vs. 3.1% patient-year; HR 1.60, 95% CI 0.99-2.59; p = 0.05). ICA ≥50% was associated with a not significant increase in the risk of ischemic stroke or TIA (2.05% vs. 1.45% patient-year; HR 1.39, 95% CI 0.42-4.58) or all-cause death (6.1% vs. 3.8% patient-year; HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.83-3.32). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF, carotid atherosclerosis is a predictor for the composite of cerebrovascular events or death while on anticoagulant therapy. In patients with AF and carotid atherosclerosis, the clinical benefit of a more intense antithrombotic treatment should be evaluated.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524846
[Au] Autor:Hubig M; Muggenthaler H; Schenkl S; Mall G
[Ad] Address:Institute of Forensic Medicine, Jena University Hospital - Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany. Electronic address: michael.hubig@med.uni-jena.de.
[Ti] Title:Improving stomach content based death time determination by maximum probability estimation.
[So] Source:Forensic Sci Int;285:135-146, 2018 Feb 12.
[Is] ISSN:1872-6283
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Stomach content based death time estimation (SCE), is a well-known technique in forensic sciences. Among more qualitatively oriented approaches the content percentage based method SCE by Tröger, Baur and Spann yields quantitative results and gives stochastic error measures for its outputs. This is possible since the methods estimator, which we call transformed expectation estimator (TEE) as well as the probability distribution of the time between last meal and death are determined numerically, though in SCE the estimator and confidence intervals are presented graphically only. Our articles outcomes are.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524778
[Au] Autor:Fiaz M; Martínez LC; Costa MDS; Cossolin JFS; Plata-Rueda A; Gonçalves WG; Sant'Ana AEG; Zanuncio JC; Serrão JE
[Ad] Address:Department of Entomology, Federal University of Viçosa, 36570-000 Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Electronic address: fiaz.jahania@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Squamocin induce histological and ultrastructural changes in the midgut cells of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;156:1-8, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC and LC of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC and LC of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Results revealed that the maximum damage to midgut cells was found under LC where it showed digestive cells with enlarged basal labyrinth, highly vacuolated cytoplasm, damaged apical surface, cell protrusions to the gut lumen, autophagy and cell death. The midgut goblet cells showed a strong disorganization of their microvilli. Likewise, in insects treated with squamocin, mitochondria were not marked with Mitotracker fluorescent probe, suggesting some molecular damage in these organelles, which was reinforced by decrease in the respiration rate in these insects. These results demonstrate that squamocin has potential to induce enough morphological changes in midgut through epithelial cell damage in A. gemmatalis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524734
[Au] Autor:Keane C; Egan JE; Hawk M
[Ad] Address:University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, 6124 Parran Hall, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA. Electronic address: crkcity@pitt.edu.
[Ti] Title:Effects of naloxone distribution to likely bystanders: Results of an agent-based model.
[So] Source:Int J Drug Policy;55:61-69, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4758
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose deaths in the US rose dramatically in the past 16 years, creating an urgent national health crisis with no signs of immediate relief. In 2017, the President of the US officially declared the opioid epidemic to be a national emergency and called for additional resources to respond to the crisis. Distributing naloxone to community laypersons and people at high risk for opioid overdose can prevent overdose death, but optimal distribution methods have not yet been pinpointed. METHODS: We conducted a sequential exploratory mixed methods design using qualitative data to inform an agent-based model to improve understanding of effective community-based naloxone distribution to laypersons to reverse opioid overdose. The individuals in the model were endowed with cognitive and behavioral variables and accessed naloxone via community sites such as pharmacies, hospitals, and urgent-care centers. We compared overdose deaths over a simulated 6-month period while varying the number of distribution sites (0, 1, and 10) and number of kits given to individuals per visit (1 versus 10). Specifically, we ran thirty simulations for each of thirteen distribution models and report average overdose deaths for each. The baseline comparator was no naloxone distribution. Our simulations explored the effects of distribution through syringe exchange sites with and without secondary distribution, which refers to distribution of naloxone kits by laypersons within their social networks and enables ten additional laypersons to administer naloxone to reverse opioid overdose. RESULTS: Our baseline model with no naloxone distribution predicted there would be 167.9 deaths in a six month period. A single distribution site, even with 10 kits picked up per visit, decreased overdose deaths by only 8.3% relative to baseline. However, adding secondary distribution through social networks to a single site resulted in 42.5% fewer overdose deaths relative to baseline. That is slightly higher than the 39.9% decrease associated with a tenfold increase in the number of sites, all distributing ten kits but with no secondary distribution. This suggests that, as long as multiple kits are picked up per visit, adding secondary distribution is at least as effective as increasing sites from one to ten. Combining the addition of secondary distribution with an increase in sites from one to ten resulted in a 61.1% drop in deaths relative to the baseline. Adding distribution through a syringe exchange site resulted in a drop of approximately 65% of deaths relative to baseline. In fact, when enabling distribution through a clean-syringe site, the secondary distribution through networks contributed no additional drops in deaths. CONCLUSION: Community-based naloxone distribution to reverse opioid overdose may significantly reduce deaths. Optimal distribution methods may include secondary distribution so that the person who picks up naloxone kits can enable others in the community to administer naloxone, as well as targeting naloxone distribution to sites where individuals at high-risk for opioid overdose death are likely to visit, such as syringe-exchange programs. This study design, which paired exploratory qualitative data with agent-based modeling, can be used in other settings seeking to implement and improve naloxone distribution programs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524715
[Au] Autor:Ramakrishna R; Hsu WC; Mao J; Sedrakyan A
[Ad] Address:- Department Of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York USA.
[Ti] Title:Surgeon Annual and Cumulative Volumes Predict Early Postoperative Outcomes After Brain Tumor Resection.
[So] Source:World Neurosurg;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1878-8769
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Surgeon volume has been previously shown to impact patient outcomes. However, data related to neuro-oncologic surgery is limited and does not include neurologic morbidities as an outcomes measure. In this study, we aimed to determine if 5-year surgeon cumulative and annual volumes predict early postoperative outcomes in patients following brain tumor surgery. METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients (n=10, 258) undergoing brain tumor resection between 2005 and 2014 were included for study utilizing the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperation System. Surgeons were categorized by their cumulative and annual surgical volume. RESULTS: Patients treated by high cumulative/high annual (HC/HA) volume surgeons had shorter length of stay (median 5 days vs 8 days vs 8 days vs 6 days respectively, p<0.01), lower charges (median 70,025 vs $77,043 vs $93,715 vs $77,018 respectively, p<0.01) and less non-routine discharge (41% vs 48% vs 50.9% vs 43.9% respectively, p<0.01) compared with patients treated by surgeons from the LC/LA, LC/HA, HC/LA groups. Similarly, HC/HA volume surgeons also had lower rate of hydrocephalus (9.9% vs 10.4% vs 13.7% respectively, p=0.02), medical complications (6.9% vs 11.2% vs 11.5% respectively, p<0.01), neurologic complications (44.1% vs 46.8% vs 48.1% respectively, p=0.03), 30-day reoperation (5.1% vs 6.9% vs 7.1% respectively, p<0.01) and 30-day death (3.3% vs 5.4% vs 5.2%, p<0.01) compared with LC/LA and LC/HA volume surgeons. CONCLUSION: There is some evidence for improved postoperative outcomes when surgery is performed by high cumulative and high annual volume surgeons. This suggests that subspecialization in surgical neurooncology should be considered.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 895261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524655
[Au] Autor:Huang J; Li G; Qian X; Xu G; Zhao Y; Huang J; Liu Q; He T; Guo X
[Ad] Address:Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, 38 Xueyuan Road, 100191 Beijing, China. Electronic address: jing_huang@bjmu.edu.cn.
[Ti] Title:The burden of ischemic heart disease related to ambient air pollution exposure in a coastal city in South China.
[So] Source:Environ Res;164:255-261, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0953
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Air pollution is considered one of the most important risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD), which is a major public health concern. The disease burden of IHD has continued to rise in China in the past two decades. However, epidemiological studies examining the associations between air pollution and IHD have been scarce in China, and the only studies were conducted in severe air pollution areas, where air pollution levels seriously exceed the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines. Whether the influence of air pollution on IHD in areas with relatively low levels of air pollution differs from the influence of high pollution levels in heavily studied areas was unknown until now. Furthermore, the estimation of the disease burden of IHD related to air pollution has been very limited. METHODS: We conducted a time-series study to estimate the short-term burden of ambient air pollution on IHD using the indicator of years of life lost (YLL), based on 10 322 IHD deaths from 2011 to 2015 in Ningbo, a coastal city in South China. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of fine particle (PM ), sulfur dioxide (SO ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO ) were 49.58 µg/m , 21.34 µg/m and 43.41 µg/m , respectively. A 10 µg/m increase in PM , SO and NO was associated with changes in YLL of 0.71 (95%CI: - 0.21,1.64), 3.31 (95%CI: 0.78, 5.84), and 2.27 (95%CI: 0.26, 4.28) years, respectively. Relatively stronger impacts were found for gaseous pollutants than PM . A larger increase in YLL was found in the younger population than in the older population for NO exposure. In addition, estimations of the effects of SO and NO on YLL were higher for males than females. SO exposure was positively associated with YLL in widowed group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlighted the importance of stringent air pollution control, especially for gaseous pollutants. Furthermore, using the indicator of YLL, considering the occurrence of death at different ages, provided more information for resource allocation and protection of vulnerable populations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 895261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524651
[Au] Autor:Il Kim S; De Medeiros BAS; Byun BK; Lee S; Kang JH; Lee B; Farrell BD
[Ad] Address:Museum of Comparative Zoology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address: sikim@g.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Title:West meets east: How do rainforest beetles become circum-Pacific? Evolutionary origin of Callipogon relictus and allied species (Cerambycidae: Prioninae) in the New and Old Worlds.
[So] Source:Mol Phylogenet Evol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9513
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The longhorn beetle genus Callipogon Audinet-Serville represents a small group of large wood-boring beetles whose distribution pattern exhibits a unique trans-Pacific disjunction between the East Asian temperate rainforest and the tropical rainforest of the Neotropics. To understand the biogeographic history underlying this circum-Pacific disjunct distribution, we reconstructed a molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Prioninae with extensive sampling of Callipogon using multilocus sequence data of 99 prionine and four parandrine samples (ingroups), together with two distant outgroup species. Our sampling of Callipogon includes 18 of the 24 currently accepted species, with complete representation of all species in our focal subgenera. Our phylogenetic analyses confirmed the purported affinity between the Palearctic Callipogon relictus and its Neotropical congeners. Furthermore, based on molecular dating under the fossilized birth-death (FBD) model with comprehensive fossil records and probabilistic ancestral range reconstructions, we estimated the crown group Callipogon to have originated in the Paleocene circa 60 million years ago (Ma) across the Neotropics and Eastern Palearctics. The divergence between the Palearctic C. relictus and its Neotropical congeners is explained as the result of a vicariance event following the demise of boreotropical forest across Beringia at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. As C. relictus represents the unique relictual species that evidentiates the lineage's expansive ancient distribution, we evaluated its conservation importance through species distribution modelling. Though we estimated a range expansion for C. relictus by 2050, we emphasize a careful implementation of conservation programs towards the protection of primary forest across its current habitats, as the species remains highly vulnerable to habitat disturbance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


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