Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Diarrhea [Words]
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[PMID]: 29524758
[Au] Autor:Shahmohammadi S; Sahraian MA; Shahmohammadi A; Doosti R; Zare-Mirzaie A; Naser Moghadasi A
[Ad] Address:MS Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
[Ti] Title:A presentation of ulcerative colitis after rituximab therapy in a patient with multiple sclerosis and literature review.
[So] Source:Mult Scler Relat Disord;22:22-26, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:2211-0356
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most important demyelinating diseases that affects the central nervous system. Its treatment often involves a long-term disease modifying therapy. According to some studies, the prevalence of autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is higher in MS patients than in the normal population. There are also few studies that have reported the onset of UC after rituximab therapy. The present study presents a report of a 31-years old female patient suffering from aggressive multiple sclerosis, which developed into autoimmune hepatitis during the MS therapy. Thereafter, she received rituximab for the treating both MS and AIH. One week after the third cycle of rituximab (6 doses of 1000 mg), she experienced abdominal pain, fever, and severe bloody diarrhea; finally, she was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). It seems that the administration of certain immunomodulators or immunosuppressive drugs may have a main role in the exacerbation of some autoimmune diseases.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 93261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524654
[Au] Autor:Aktories K; Papatheodorou P; Schwan C
[Ad] Address:Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Albertstr. 25, 79104 Freiburg, Germany; Centre for Biological Signalling Studies (BIOSS), University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address: klaus.aktories@pharmakol.uni-freiburg.de.
[Ti] Title:Binary Clostridium difficile toxin (CDT) - A virulence factor disturbing the cytoskeleton.
[So] Source:Anaerobe;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8274
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Clostridium difficile infection causes antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Major virulence factors of C. difficile are the Rho-glucosylating toxins TcdA and TcdB. In addition, many, so-called hypervirulent C. difficile strains produce the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CDT. CDT causes depolymerization of F-actin and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Thereby, many cellular functions, which depend on actin, are altered. CDT disturbs the dynamic balance between actin and microtubules in target cells. The toxin increases microtubule polymerization and induces the formation of microtubule-based protrusions at the plasma membrane of target cells. Moreover, CDT causes a redistribution of vesicles from the basolateral side to the apical side, where extracellular matrix proteins are released. These processes may increase the adherence of clostridia to target cells. Here, we review the effects of the action of CDT on the actin cytoskeleton and on the microtubule system.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 93261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515727
[Au] Autor:Dairo MD; Ibrahim TF; Salawu AT
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
[Ti] Title:Prevalence and determinants of diarrhoea among infants in selected primary health centres in Kaduna north local government area, Nigeria.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:109, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] Country of publication:Uganda
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: Despite efforts toward the prevention and management of diarrhoea, associated mortality among infants has remained high in Northern Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and identify determinants of diarrhoea among infants in Kaduna North Local Government Area (KNLGA), Nigeria. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey 630 mothers of infants attending three primary health care centers were interviewed. Data was collected on socio-demo graphic characteristics, infant care practices, infant diarrhoea history and mothers knowledge of causes, symptoms and management of diarrhea. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and logistic regression tests at 5% level of significance. Results: Mothers' mean age was 27±5.5 years and 46.1% had secondary education. Infants' mean age was 22.4± 12.8 weeks and 50% were females. Prevalence of diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the study was 21.1%. Only 11.7% of mothers had poor knowledge of diarrhoea. About 76.3% of mothers always washed their hands with soap after cleaning infants' perineum. Majority of infants (84.6%) completed age appropriate immunization while 31.6% were exclusively breastfed. Infants whose mothers sometimes (OR=2.32; 95% CI: 1.4-3.87) or never washed (OR=2.64; 95% CI: 1.19-5.82) their hands with soap after cleaning the infants perineumand those with incomplete age appropriate immunization (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.2-2.896) were more likely to have diarrhoea. Conclusion: Promotion of hygiene and nutrition education for mothers particularly on proper infant feeding practices, hand washing practices and complete immunization of infants is needed to address the diarrhea determinants.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.109.8152

  4 / 93261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515100
[Au] Autor:Kuo CJ; Wang ST; Lin CM; Chiu HC; Huang CR; Lee DY; Chang GD; Chou TC; Chen JW; Chen CS
[Ad] Address:Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
[Ti] Title:A multi-omic analysis reveals the role of fumarate in regulating the virulence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.
[So] Source:Cell Death Dis;9(3):381, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:2041-4889
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Several molecular mechanisms have been described for the pathogenicity of EHEC; however, the role of bacterial metabolism in the virulence of EHEC during infection in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that aerobic metabolism plays an important role in the regulation of EHEC virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our functional genomic analyses showed that disruption of the genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase complex (Sdh) of EHEC, including the sdhA gene, attenuated its toxicity toward C. elegans animals. Sdh converts succinate to fumarate and links the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the electron transport chain (ETC) simultaneously. Succinate accumulation and fumarate depletion in the EHEC sdhA mutant cells were also demonstrated to be concomitant by metabolomic analyses. Moreover, fumarate replenishment to the sdhA mutant significantly increased its virulence toward C. elegans. These results suggest that the TCA cycle, ETC, and alteration in metabolome all account for the attenuated toxicity of the sdhA mutant, and Sdh catabolite fumarate in particular plays a critical role in the regulation of EHEC virulence. In addition, we identified the tryptophanase (TnaA) as a downstream virulence determinant of SdhA using a label-free proteomic method. We demonstrated that expression of tnaA is regulated by fumarate in EHEC. Taken together, our multi-omic analyses demonstrate that sdhA is required for the virulence of EHEC, and aerobic metabolism plays important roles in the pathogenicity of EHEC infection in C. elegans. Moreover, our study highlights the potential targeting of SdhA, if druggable, as alternative preventive or therapeutic strategies by which to combat EHEC infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41419-018-0423-2

  5 / 93261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29506511
[Au] Autor:Seibt S; Gilchrist CA; Reed PW; Best EJ; Harnden A; Camargo CA; Grant CC
[Ad] Address:Paediatrics, Taranaki Base Hospital, New Plymouth, New Zealand.
[Ti] Title:Hospital readmissions with acute infectious diseases in New Zealand children < 2 years of age.
[So] Source:BMC Pediatr;18(1):98, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2431
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are the leading cause of hospital admissions in young children. Hospitalisation with an infectious disease is a recurrent event for some children. Our objective was to describe risk factors for infectious disease readmission following hospital admission with an infectious disease in the first two years of life. METHODS: We performed a national cohort study of New Zealand children, born 2005-2009, with an infectious disease admission before age 24 months. Children readmitted with an infectious disease within 12 months of the first infectious disease admission were identified. Every infectious disease admission was categorised as a respiratory, enteric, skin and soft tissue, urinary or other infection. Independent associations of demographic and child health factors with infectious disease readmission were determined using multiple variable logistic regression. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2011, there were 69,902 infectious disease admissions for 46,657 children less than two years old. Of these 46,657 children, 10,205 (22%) had at least one infectious disease readmission within 12 months of their first admission. The first infectious disease admission was respiratory (54%), enteric (15%), skin or soft tissue (7%), urinary (4%) or other (20%). Risk of infectious disease readmission was increased if the first infectious disease admission was respiratory (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.78-1.95) but not if it was in any other infectious disease category. Risk factors for respiratory infectious disease readmission were male gender, Pacific or Maori ethnicity, greater household deprivation, presence of a complex chronic condition, or a first respiratory infectious disease admission during autumn or of ≥3 days duration. Fewer factors (younger age, male gender, presence of a complex chronic condition) were associated with enteric infection readmission. The presence of a complex chronic condition was the only factor associated with urinary tract infection readmission and none of the factors were associated with skin or soft tissue infection readmission. CONCLUSIONS: In children less than two years old, infectious disease readmission risk is increased if the first infectious disease admission is a respiratory infectious disease but not if it is another infectious disease category. Risk factors for respiratory infectious disease readmission are different from those for other infectious disease readmissions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12887-018-1079-x

  6 / 93261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29506491
[Au] Autor:Shima H; Tashiro M; Yamada S; Matsuura M; Okada K; Doi T; Minakuchi J; Kawashima S
[Ad] Address:Department of Kidney Disease, Kawashima Hospital, 1-39 Kitasakoichiban-cho, Tokushima, 770-0011, Japan. h.shima@khg.or.jp.
[Ti] Title:Cilostazol-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis accompanied by IgA nephropathy: a case report.
[So] Source:BMC Nephrol;19(1):52, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2369
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Cilostazol is an antiplatelet drug that is widely prescribed for the prevention of secondary stroke. Adverse reactions to cilostazol include headaches, palpitations, and diarrhea. Little is known about the nephrotoxicity of cilostazol, such as acute kidney injury. We report a biopsy-proven case of diffuse tubulointerstitial nephritis induced by cilostazol. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old woman prescribed cilostazol was hospitalized for acute kidney injury. On admission, her renal function deteriorated, with an increased serum creatinine level. Urinalysis showed hematuria, proteinuria, and hyper-beta2-microglobulinuria. A renal biopsy revealed diffuse tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with IgA nephropathy, and gallium-67 scintigraphy showed uptake in the bilateral kidneys. A drug lymphocyte stimulation test for cilostazol was positive, and the patient was diagnosed with cilostazol-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Despite discontinuation of cilostazol, her renal function rapidly worsened and steroid pulse therapy was initiated, followed by oral high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. After steroid treatment, her serum creatinine level normalized in parallel with urine beta2-microglobulin. CONCLUSION: Cilostazol can induce acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12882-018-0854-0

  7 / 93261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29506478
[Au] Autor:Lee DW; Lee KH; Kim HJ; Kim TY; Kim JS; Han SW; Oh DY; Kim JH; Im SA; Kim TY
[Ti] Title:A phase II trial of S-1 and oxaliplatin in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
[So] Source:BMC Cancer;18(1):252, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2407
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin is a platinum derivative that has shown efficacy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine that has substituted for 5-fluorouracil in many cancers. This was a multicenter, open-label, single-arm phase II trial that evaluated the efficacy of S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. All patients included in the present study were systemic treatment-naïve. Prior treatment with sorafenib was allowed, but other treatments were not. METHODS: Patients received S-1 (40 mg/m twice daily from day 1-14) and oxaliplatin (130 mg/m on day 1) every 3 weeks. The primary end point was time to progression (TTP). Secondary end points included progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), response rate, and safety profile. RESULTS: Thirty six patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma were included in this study. The median TTP was 3.0 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-5.25), and the median OS was 10.3 months (95% CI, 6.4-14.3). Bone metastasis was associated with poorer TTP and OS. The efficacy of SOX was unaffected by prior sorafenib or locoregional therapy. The objective response rate was 13.9%. No grade 4 toxicity or death from adverse events occurred. The most common grade 3 toxicities were neutropenia (13.9%), thrombocytopenia (13.9%), and diarrhea (8.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Although this trial did not meet its primary end point, the SOX regimen showed comparable efficacy and safety to the 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) regimen. As the SOX regimen is easier for patients, SOX may be a reasonable substitute for FOLFOX in hepatocellular carcinoma. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01429961 . Registered 7 September 2011.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12885-018-4039-9

  8 / 93261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29486225
[Au] Autor:Li Z; Liu X; Zhao J; Xu K; Tian T; Yang J; Qiang C; Shi D; Wei H; Sun S; Cui Q; Li R; Niu Y; Huang B
[Ad] Address:The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 215 Hepingxi Road, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, China; Hebei Provincial Center for Clinical Laboratories, 215 Hepingxi Road, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, China.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of a newly developed binary typing with ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing methods for Clostridium difficile.
[So] Source:J Microbiol Methods;147:50-55, 2018 Feb 24.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8359
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Clostridium difficile is the causative pathogen for antibiotic-related nosocomial diarrhea. For epidemiological study and identification of virulent clones, a new binary typing method was developed for C. difficile in this study. The usefulness of this newly developed optimized 10-loci binary typing method was compared with two widely used methods ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in 189 C. difficile samples. The binary typing, ribotyping and MLST typed the samples into 53 binary types (BTs), 26 ribotypes (RTs), and 33 MLST sequence types (STs), respectively. The typing ability of the binary method was better than that of either ribotyping or MLST expressed in Simpson Index (SI) at 0.937, 0.892 and 0.859, respectively. The ease of testing, portability and cost-effectiveness of the new binary typing would make it a useful typing alternative for outbreak investigations within healthcare facilities and epidemiological research.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 93261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29474827
[Au] Autor:Mirhoseini A; Amani J; Nazarian S
[Ad] Address:Applied Microbiology Research Center, System Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Review on pathogenicity mechanism of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and vaccines against it.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;117:162-169, 2018 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of diarrhea in children. Colonization factors (CFs) and LT enterotoxin are the major ETEC candidate vaccines. To cause disease, ETEC must adhere to the epithelium of the small intestine by means of CFs. Watery diarrhea is produced due to the effects of the enterotoxins. Vaccine development against ETEC has been identified as an important primary prevention strategy in developing countries and for travelers to these regions. Mucosal immunization can cause secretory IgA antibody (sIgA) responses that prevents the attachment of bacteria to the intestine and are of particular importance for provide protection against ETEC infection. The design of multivalent ETEC vaccine containing various colonization factors and ETEC toxin may provide protection against a wide range of bacterial strains. In this review, the importance and pathogenesis of ETEC, and the latest ETEC vaccine research results are discussed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 93261 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471136
[Au] Autor:Müller LKF; Paiano D; Gugel J; Lorenzetti WR; Santurio JM; de Castro Tavernari F; da Gloria EM; Baldissera MD; Da Silva AS
[Ad] Address:Graduate Program of Animal Sciences - Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Post-weaning piglets fed with different levels of fungal mycotoxins and spray-dried porcine plasma have improved weight gain, feed intake and reduced diarrhea incidence.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;117:259-264, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mycotoxins are responsible for economic losses in the swine production industry, especially during post-weaning, when piglets are physiologically immature. Spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), added to pig diets, may help reduce losses due to mycotoxins. This work investigates the effects of SDPP in post-weaning piglets fed with diets containing natural contaminants or with more contaminants (co-contamination by mycotoxins). Fifty-six castrated weaned piglets were used in a randomized 2 (0 and 6% of SDPP) x 2 (natural contamination or co-contamination with mycotoxin) factorial design, with seven experimental units of two piglets each. The natural contaminants were 0.95 µg/kg aflatoxins +450 µg/kg fumonisins. The co-contaminated diet contained 300 µg/kg aflatoxins +8000 µg/kg fumonisins. Animals were fed 15 days with experimental diets. Feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, diarrhea incidence, and economic feasibility of SDPP treatement were evaluated in three periods of five days each. There was no interaction (P < 0.05) between mycotoxins levels and SDPP. Feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (P < 0.05) in diets supplemented with SDPP. Animals fed with SDPP showed lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea incidence in the 1-10 day and 1-15 day periods. The experimental dose of mycotoxins reduced (P < 0.05) weight gain at 11-15 days. SDPP proved to be economical feasible over the total experimental period (1-15 days). Spray-dried plasma improved weight gain, feed intake and reduced diarrhea incidence in piglets post-weaning, but did not correlate with various levels of mycotoxins.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


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