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[PMID]: 29411297
[Au] Autor:Molinari J; Moreno SA
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, 05101, Venezuela. jmvault@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Trypanosoma brucei Plimmer & Bradford, 1899 is a synonym of T. evansi (Steel, 1885) according to current knowledge and by application of nomenclature rules.
[So] Source:Syst Parasitol;95(2-3):249-256, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1573-5192
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Proper application of the principles of biological nomenclature is fundamental for scientific and technical communication about organisms. As other scientific disciplines, taxonomy inherently is open to change, thus species names cannot be final and immutable. Nevertheless, altering the names of organisms of high economical, medical, or veterinary importance can become a complex challenge between the scientific need to have correct classifications, and the practical ideal of having fixed classifications. Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885), T. brucei Plimmer & Bradford, 1899 and T. equiperdum Doflein, 1901 are important parasites of mammals. According to current knowledge, the three names are synonyms of a single trypanosome species, the valid name of which should be T. evansi by the mandatory application of the Principle of Priority of zoological nomenclature. Subspecies known as T. brucei brucei Plimmer & Bradford, 1899, T. b. gambiense Dutton, 1902 and T. b. rhodesiense Stephens & Fantham, 1910 should be referred to respectively as T. evansi evansi (Steel, 1885), T. e. gambiense and T. e. rhodesiense. The polyphyletic groupings so far known as T. evansi and T. equiperdum should be referred respectively to as surra- and dourine-causing strains of T. e. evansi. Likewise, trypanosomes so far known as T. b. brucei should be referred to as nagana-causing strains of T. e. evansi. Though it modifies the scientific names of flagship human and animal parasites, the amended nomenclature proposed herein should be adopted because it reflects phylogenetic and biological advancements, fixes errors, and is simpler than the existing classificatory system.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11230-018-9779-z

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[PMID]: 29288679
[Au] Autor:Bubis J; Martínez JC; Calabokis M; Ferreira J; Sanz-Rodríguez CE; Navas V; Escalona JL; Guo Y; Taylor SS
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Biología Celular, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas 1081-A, Venezuela. Electronic address: jbubis@usb.ve.
[Ti] Title:The gene product of a Trypanosoma equiperdum ortholog of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit is a monomeric protein that is not capable of binding cyclic nucleotides.
[So] Source:Biochimie;146:166-180, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1638-6183
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The full gene sequence encoding for the Trypanosoma equiperdum ortholog of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulatory (R) subunits was cloned. A poly-His tagged construct was generated [TeqR-like(His) ], and the protein was expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity. The size of the purified TeqR-like(His) was determined to be ∼57,000 Da by molecular exclusion chromatography indicating that the parasite protein is a monomer. Limited proteolysis with various proteases showed that the T. equiperdum R-like protein possesses a hinge region very susceptible to proteolysis. The recombinant TeqR-like(His) did not bind either [ H] cAMP or [ H] cGMP up to concentrations of 0.40 and 0.65 µM, respectively, and neither the parasite protein nor its proteolytically generated carboxy-terminal large fragments were capable of binding to a cAMP-Sepharose affinity column. Bioinformatics analyses predicted that the carboxy-terminal region of the trypanosomal R-like protein appears to fold similarly to the analogous region of all known PKA R subunits. However, the protein amino-terminal portion seems to be unrelated and shows homology with proteins that contained Leu-rich repeats, a folding motif that is particularly appropriate for protein-protein interactions. In addition, the three-dimensional structure of the T. equiperdum protein was modeled using the crystal structure of the bovine PKA R α subunit as template. Molecular docking experiments predicted critical changes in the environment of the two putative nucleotide binding clefts of the parasite protein, and the resulting binding energy differences support the lack of cyclic nucleotide binding in the trypanosomal R-like protein.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180213
[Lr] Last revision date:180213
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29166975
[Au] Autor:Gillingwater K
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute,Socinstrasse 57,Basel 4002,Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:In vitro and in vivo efficacy of diamidines against Trypanosoma equiperdum strains.
[So] Source:Parasitology;:1-8, 2017 Nov 23.
[Is] ISSN:1469-8161
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trypanosoma equiperdum is a protozoan parasite responsible for causing Dourine, a debilitating neglected veterinary disease, found worldwide affecting equids. It is the only pathogenic trypanosome species that does not require an invertebrate vector for transmission, thus being passed from animal to animal via coitus. At present, there is no officially recognized form of chemotherapeutic treatment and therefore all confirmed (or suspected) cases of infected animals must be slaughtered immediately. For many global communities and farming populations, which rely heavily on their animals for their livelihood, such stringent regulations can seriously enhance the socio-economic problems attributing to poverty. Two reference drugs, together with 37 novel diamidine compounds were tested in vitro using a 72 h drug sensitivity assay to determine their efficacy against two axenically adapted T. equiperdum strains. Further in vivo investigations in mouse models of infection against 4 'true' T. equiperdum strains were performed using the 17 most active diamidines. Single bolus doses of 10 mg kg-1, given i.p. were administered to NMRI mice infected with one of the 4 T. equiperdum strains. The results obtained from this study show that experimentally T. equiperdum can indeed be effectively treated with chemotherapy using in vivo mouse models of infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171123
[Lr] Last revision date:171123
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0031182017002098

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[PMID]: 28935118
[Au] Autor:Parra N; Jaume M; Boscán K; Hernández A; Mijares A; González M; Alvarado Y; Restrepo J
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Parasites Physiology. Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela.
[Ti] Title:Ex vivo trypanocidal activity of 1-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide against Trypanosoma equiperdum.
[So] Source:Vet Parasitol;245:163-167, 2017 Oct 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2550
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trypanosoma equiperdum is the causative agent of dourine, a venereal disease in horses and donkeys. This parasite has a widely distribution, is found in Africa, Asia, Southern and Eastern Europe, Russia, Mexico and Venezuela. The T. equiperdum is morphologically indistinguishable to other Trypanozoon species, however differs from other mammalian trypanosomes due to the fact that it is primarily a tissue parasite, generating cutaneous plaques, swelling of genitalia and neurological signs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trypanocidal effectiveness of a set of derivatives of thiosemicarbazones on a T. equiperdum ex vivo culture. All compounds appeared to have trypanocidal activity, however one of them shown better solubility and a dose-dependent effect. The median inhibitory concentration (IC ) was 1.2µM. The selected compound exhibits a greater inhibitory activity than diminazene aceturate, a common drug for animal trypanosomosis treatment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171003
[Lr] Last revision date:171003
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28917303
[Au] Autor:Davaasuren B; Amgalanbaatar T; Musinguzi SP; Suganuma K; Otgonsuren D; Mossaad E; Narantsatsral S; Battur B; Battsetseg B; Xuan X; Inoue N
[Ad] Address:National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan; Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Zaisan 17024, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
[Ti] Title:The evaluation of GM6-based ELISA and ICT as diagnostic methods on a Mongolian farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis.
[So] Source:Vet Parasitol;244:123-128, 2017 Sep 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2550
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trypanosoma equiperdum, which is the etiological agent of dourine, spreads through sexual intercourse in equines. Dourine (T. equiperdum) has been reported in Mongolia, where it is considered an economically important disease of horses. T. evansi has also been reported in Mongolian domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of recombinant T. evansi GM6 (rTeGM6-4r)-based diagnostic methods on a farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis. Ninety-seven percent homology was found between the amino acid sequences of T. equiperdum GM6 and the GM6 of another Trypanozoon, which also shared the same cellular localization. This finding suggests the utility of rTeGM6-4r-based serodiagnostic methods for epidemiological studies and the diagnosis of both surra and dourine in Equidae. Fifty blood samples were examined from a herd of horses. The diagnostic value of an rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA and an rTeGM6-4r-based immunochromatographic test (ICT) were measured in comparison to a T. evansi crude antigen-based ELISA, which is a diagnostic method recommended by the OIE. However, this is not a perfect diagnostic method for trypanosomosis. Positive serum samples were detected in 46%, 42% and 28% of the tested horses using an rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA, crude antigen-based ELISA and rTeGM6-4r-based ICT, respectively. The sensitivity of rTeGM6-based ELISA was 81%, the specificity was 79%, and the agreement was moderate. We conclude that rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA and ICT represent alternative options for baseline epidemiological studies and the on-site diagnosis of horse trypanosomoses in the field, respectively.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170917
[Lr] Last revision date:170917
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28674747
[Au] Autor:Molefe NI; Yamasaki S; Macalanda AMC; Suganuma K; Watanabe K; Xuan X; Inoue N
[Ad] Address:National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-11 Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido, 080-8555, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Oral administration of azithromycin ameliorates trypanosomosis in Trypanosoma congolense-infected mice.
[So] Source:Parasitol Res;, 2017 Jul 04.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1955
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Animal trypanosomosis is a devastating parasitic disease that is of economic importance to livestock production. The infection includes animal African trypanosomosis, surra, and dourine. The treatment is based solely on few compounds that were discovered decades ago and which are associated with severe toxicity. Furthermore, it is likely that the parasite has developed resistance towards them. Thus, there is an urgent need for new, accessible, and less toxic drugs. Azithromycin is an antibiotic with documented efficacy against Toxoplasma, Babesia, and Plasmodium. The current study investigated its effects against animal trypanosomes. An in vitro system was used to determine the trypanocidal effects of azithromycin against Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, and Trypanosoma evansi, and cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and NIH 3T3 cells. Furthermore, the trypanocidal effects of azithromycin were investigated in T. congolense-infected mice. In vitro, azithromycin had an IC of 0.19 ± 0.17; 3.69 ± 2.26; 1.81 ± 1.82 µg/mL against T. congolense, T. b. brucei, and T. evansi, respectively. No cytotoxic effects were observed in MDBK and NIH 3T3 cells. The efficacy of orally administered azithromycin was investigated in short-term and long-term treatment protocols. Although the short-term treatment protocol showed no curative effects, the survival rate of the mice was significantly prolonged (p < 0.001) in comparison to the control group. The long-term treatment yielded satisfying curative effects with doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg achieving 80 and 100% survival, respectively. In conclusion, long-term oral azithromycin treatment has trypanocidal effects against T. congolense.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170810
[Lr] Last revision date:170810
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00436-017-5542-7

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[PMID]: 28541535
[Au] Autor:Cuypers B; Van den Broeck F; Van Reet N; Meehan CJ; Cauchard J; Wilkes JM; Claes F; Goddeeris B; Birhanu H; Dujardin JC; Laukens K; Büscher P; Deborggraeve S
[Ad] Address:Biomedical Sciences Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Genome-Wide SNP Analysis Reveals Distinct Origins of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma equiperdum.
[So] Source:Genome Biol Evol;9(8):1990-1997, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1759-6653
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trypanosomes cause a variety of diseases in man and domestic animals in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. In the Trypanozoon subgenus, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense cause human African trypanosomiasis, whereas Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma evansi, and Trypanosoma equiperdum are responsible for nagana, surra, and dourine in domestic animals, respectively. The genetic relationships between T. evansi and T. equiperdum and other Trypanozoon species remain unclear because the majority of phylogenetic analyses has been based on only a few genes. In this study, we have conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on genome-wide SNP analysis comprising 56 genomes from the Trypanozoon subgenus. Our data reveal that T. equiperdum has emerged at least once in Eastern Africa and T. evansi at two independent occasions in Western Africa. The genomes within the T. equiperdum and T. evansi monophyletic clusters show extremely little variation, probably due to the clonal spread linked to the independence from tsetse flies for their transmission.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170827
[Lr] Last revision date:170827
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1093/gbe/evx102

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[PMID]: 28439783
[Au] Autor:Gizaw Y; Megersa M; Fayera T
[Ad] Address:College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University, P. O. Box: 1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia.
[Ti] Title:Dourine: a neglected disease of equids.
[So] Source:Trop Anim Health Prod;49(5):887-897, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1573-7438
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dourine is a venereal transmitted trypanosomosis causing a major health problem threatening equines worldwide. The origin and identification of Trypanosoma equiperdum within the subgenus Trypanozoon is still a subject of debate. Unlike other trypanosomal infections, dourine is transmitted almost exclusively by coitus. Diagnosis of dourine has continued to be a challenge, due to limited knowledge about the parasite and host-parasite interaction following infection. The pathological lesions caused by the diseases are poorly described and are observed mainly in the reproductive organs, in the nervous system, and on the skin. Dourine has been neglected by research and current knowledge on the disease, and the parasite is very deficient despite its considerably high burden. This paper looks in to the challenges in identification of T. equiperdum and diagnosis techniques with the aim to update our current knowledge of the disease.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Dourine
Horse Diseases
Neglected Diseases/veterinary
Trypanosoma/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Dourine/diagnosis
Dourine/epidemiology
Dourine/parasitology
Horse Diseases/diagnosis
Horse Diseases/epidemiology
Horse Diseases/parasitology
Horses
Neglected Diseases/diagnosis
Neglected Diseases/epidemiology
Neglected Diseases/parasitology
Trypanosoma/classification
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170426
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11250-017-1280-1

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[PMID]: 28437733
[Au] Autor:Suganuma K; Yamasaki S; Molefe NI; Musinguzi PS; Davaasuren B; Mossaad E; Narantsatsral S; Battur B; Battsetseg B; Inoue N
[Ad] Address:Research Center for Global Agromedicine, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan; National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan. Electronic address: k.suga
[Ti] Title:The establishment of in vitro culture and drug screening systems for a newly isolated strain of Trypanosoma equiperdum.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist;7(2):200-205, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:2211-3207
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dourine is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum via coitus with an infected horse. Although dourine is distributed in Equidae worldwide and is listed as an internationally important animal disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), no effective treatment strategies have been established. In addition, there are no reports on drug discovery, because no drug screening system exists for this parasite. A new T. equiperdum strain was recently isolated from the genital organ of a stallion that showed typical symptoms of dourine. In the present study, we adapted T. equiperdum IVM-t1 from soft agarose media to HMI-9 liquid media to develop a drug screening assay for T. equiperdum. An intracellular ATP-based luciferase assay using CellTiter-Glo reagent and an intracellular dehydrogenase activity-based colorimetric assay using WTS-8 tetrazolium salt (CCK-8 reagent) were used in order to examine the trypanocidal effects of each compound. In addition, the IC values of 4 reference trypanocidal compounds (pentamidine, diminazene, suramin and melarsomine) were evaluated and compared using established assays. The IC values of these reference compounds corresponded well to previous studies involving other strains of T. equiperdum. The luciferase assay would be suitable for the mass screening of chemical libraries against T. equiperdum because it allows for the simple and rapid-evaluation of the trypanocidal activities of test compounds, while a simple, inexpensive colorimetric assay will be applicable in developing countries for the evaluation of the drug sensitivity of epidemic trypanosome strains.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170714
[Lr] Last revision date:170714
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28138343
[Au] Autor:Hébert L; Moumen B; Madeline A; Steinbiss S; Lakhdar L; Van Reet N; Büscher P; Laugier C; Cauchard J; Petry S
[Ad] Address:ANSES, Dozulé Laboratory for Equine Diseases, Bacteriology and Parasitology Unit, 14430 Goustranville, France.
[Ti] Title:First Draft Genome Sequence of the Dourine Causative Agent: Strain OVI.
[So] Source:J Genomics;5:1-3, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1839-9940
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:is the causative agent of dourine, a sexually-transmitted infection of horses. This parasite belongs to the subgenus Trypanozoon that also includes the agent of sleeping sickness ( ) and surra ( ). We herein report the genome sequence of a strain OVI, isolated from a horse in South-Africa in 1976. This is the first genome sequence of the species, and its availability will provide important insights for future studies on genetic classification of the subgenus Trypanozoon.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1702
[Cu] Class update date: 170816
[Lr] Last revision date:170816
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7150/jgen.17904


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