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[PMID]: 29521258
[Au] Autor:Candy K; Brun S; Nicolas P; Durand R; Charrel RN; Izri A
[Ad] Address:Parasitology-Mycology Department, Avicenne Hospital, AP-HP, Bobigny, France - Unité des Virus Emergents (Aix-Marseille Univ - IRD 190 - Inserm 1207 - IHU Méditerranée infection), Marseille, France.
[Ti] Title:La noyade et l'anoxie tuent-elles les poux de tête ? Do drowning and anoxia kill head lice?
[So] Source:Parasite;25:8, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1776-1042
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chemical, physical, and mechanical methods are used to control human lice. Attempts have been made to eradicate head lice Pediculus humanus capitis by hot air, soaking in various fluids or asphyxiation using occlusive treatments. In this study, we assessed the maximum time that head lice can survive anoxia (oxygen deprivation) and their ability to survive prolonged water immersion. We also observed the ingress of fluids across louse tracheae and spiracle characteristics contrasting with those described in the literature. We showed that 100% of lice can withstand 8 h of anoxia and 12.2% survived 14 h of anoxia; survival was 48.9% in the untreated control group at 14 h. However, all lice had died following 16 h of anoxia. In contrast, the survival rate of water-immersed lice was significantly higher when compared with non-immersed lice after 6 h (100% vs. 76.6%, p = 0.0037), and 24 h (50.9% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.0003). Although water-immersed lice did not close their spiracles, water did not penetrate into the respiratory system. In contrast, immersion in colored dimeticone/cyclomethicone or colored ethanol resulted in penetration through the spiracles and spreading to the entire respiratory system within 30 min, leading to death in 100% of the lice.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1051/parasite/2018015

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[PMID]: 29346847
[Au] Autor:Jurícková L; Ivanová K; Dobiás M; Andrásik R; Ondra P
[Ad] Address:Department of Social Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
[Ti] Title:Manner of Death of Older People with Regard to Blood Alcohol Concentration.
[So] Source:Cent Eur J Public Health;25(4):266-270, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1210-7778
[Cp] Country of publication:Czech Republic
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Alcohol abuse is related to a wide variety of negative health outcomes including mortality in older people. Alcohol abuse in older people is characterised by certain specific features uncommon in general adult population. The main objective of this study was to analyse the autopsy protocols of deceased older people in relation to blood alcohol concentration (BAC), sex, age, and manner of death. As a positive BAC, >0.20 g/kg was accepted. METHODS: The sample consists of 1,012 deceased older people (i.e. aged 65 years and over) selected out of 2,377 autopsied subjects in the period from 2003­2013. Subjects included into the sample were chosen via the proportional sampling method. Data (BAC, sex, age, and manner of death) was recorded in a single structured protocol. Data was evaluated statistically (Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test, Wilcoxon two-sample test, risk ratio). RESULTS: Among older people, there has been a statistically significant correlation of natural death with sex (men died earlier) and with increased BAC (people with positive BAC died earlier). In case of violent death there is a difference in the types of accidents in older people with positive BAC (>0.2 g/kg) and with negative BAC (≤0.2 g/kg). Drowning is more common in older people with positive BAC. CONCLUSIONS: Health campaigns in Europe and the Czech Republic aimed at reducing alcohol consumption mainly deal with young people. Alcohol abuse has an impact on premature mortality even in older people. As shown by this study, older people with positive BAC die significantly earlier.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.21101/cejph.a4749

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[PMID]: 29297568
[Au] Autor:Xhemali B; Vyshka G; Sinamati A; Shaqiri E
[Ti] Title:Pattern of lethal trauma among swimmers colliding with a personal watercraft.
[So] Source:Int Marit Health;68(4):187-189, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2081-3252
[Cp] Country of publication:Poland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Personal watercrafts (otherwise known as Jet Skis or wave runners) possess powerful propelling engines that enable them to reach high velocities. In overcrowded sea shores, especially due to a diversity of human errors (inexperience, underage operator, alcohol-related errors and lack of training), these vessels might cause severe damage to the operator himself, to swimmers in the whereabouts but to the environment as well. We present three fatal victims that were struck and overrun by personal watercrafts used for recreational purposes. One of them had a deep skull trauma resulting from being hit by the hull of the vessel. The other two cases had an impressive and particular pattern of tissue trauma, with deep parallel cutting wounds due to the contact with the propeller helix. All cases were treated as accidental drowning, because even when rescue operations were immediate, the loss of conscience following the severe blunt trauma inside the water left few chances, if any, to survival.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.5603/IMH.2017.0035

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[PMID]: 29231024
[Au] Autor:Yao J; Kan WJ
[Ad] Address:Institute of Forensic Science, Nantong Public Security Bureau, Nantong 226007, China.
[Ti] Title:[Diatom Detection Using Enzyme Combined with Strong Acid Digestion Method].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(2):165-167, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To detect diatom in the organs of drowners by enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method, and evaluate its application value. METHODS: A total of 40 cases which have been identified as drowning in local region were collected. Samples of the lung, liver, kidney, and the water of the scene were also gathered from each case. Strong acid digestion method, enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method, and enzymic digestion method were respectively performed to detect the diatom in the samples. The comparative analysis was made on digestion time, digestive power and detection rate of diatom, etc. RESULTS: Enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method was significantly better than enzymic digestion method on digestion time and digestive power; enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method were obviously superior to strong acid digestion method on the detection rate of diatom. CONCLUSIONS: Enzyme combined with strong acid digestion method combines the advantages of strong acid digestion method and enzymic digestion method. It has the characters of operation safety with little pollution to environment, which is worthy of further popularization and practice.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Diatoms/isolation & purification
Drowning
Kidney/metabolism
Liver/metabolism
Lung/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Forensic Pathology/methods
Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.02.012

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[PMID]: 29205965
[Au] Autor:Cai HG; Ying J; Ni ZH; Lan P; Zhang YY; Yu RJ; Pang HB; Ye CL; Wei DM
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.
[Ti] Title:[Diatoms Distribution in Ningbo Three-river Watershed during Summer].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;32(6):413-414, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To explore the species, quantity and distribution of diatoms in Ningbo three-river watershed during summer and to provide scientific basis for forensic examination of drowning cases in the waters of Ningbo. METHODS: Water samples were collected in July and August of 2015. Fourteen water sampling points were selected from the Yao River, the Fenghua River and the Yong River. The morphological features of diatom species and dominant diatoms were distinguished by microscope. RESULTS: A total of 16 species of diatoms were detected in the Yao River, the Fenghua River and the Yong River. Melosira was the dominant species in the Yao River, and the quantity and richness were higher than in other rivers. The richness of Cyclotella in the Yong River was higher than in other rivers. The richness of Pinnularia and Licmophora were higher in the Fenghua River than in the Yao River and the Yong River. CONCLUSIONS: The species and proportion of diatom is different in each river. Database of the species and relative composition for the diatoms in corresponding river is established, which may provide data support for forensic examination of drowning cases in Ningbo three-river watershed.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Diatoms/classification
Rivers
Seasons
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: China
Drowning
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2016.06.004

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[PMID]: 29205000
[Au] Autor:Ni ZX; Xie Q; Yi XF
[Ad] Address:West China of Pre-clinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
[Ti] Title:[Distribution of Diatoms in Main Sections of Urban District Rivers with Drowning-prone in Chengdu].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;32(5):332-337, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To explore the species distribution and constituent ratio of diatoms in main sections of urban district rivers where drowning occurs frequently in Chengdu. METHODS: Total 39 water samples from the sampling points of 5 rivers (Jinjiang, Jinniu, Qingyang, Wuhou and Chenghua districts) in October 2014 were collected. The diatoms smear were made and the species distribution and constituent ratio of diatoms from the water samples were analyzed using biological microscope and acquisition system of digital microscope. RESULTS: Total 21 species of diatoms were detected in main sections of urban district rivers in Chengdu. Significant differences in the dominant diatom species and proportions of the different rivers were observed, and there were different species existed in all sampling points of the upstream, midstream and downstream of the rivers. CONCLUSIONS: The database of species map, species distribution and constituent ratio of diatoms in main sections of urban district rivers in Chengdu are preliminarily established, which has special meaning for the analysis and evaluation of falling location inference using diatoms test in case investigation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Diatoms/classification
Rivers
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: China
Cities
Drowning
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2016.05.004

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[PMID]: 29204997
[Au] Autor:Zhao B; Yao SQ; Hao XH
[Ad] Address:Forensic Science Brigade of Tangshan Public Security Bureau, Tangshan 063000, China.
[Ti] Title:[Expression of AQP-1 and AQP-4 in the Lungs of Drown Rats].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;32(5):321-325, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To observe the changes of expression of aquaporin-1(AQP-1) and AQP-4 in drowned and postmortem immersed rats' lungs. METHODS: Thirty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into drowning group, postmortem immersion group and cervical dislocation group. The morphological changes of rats' lungs were observed using HE staining. The mRNA and protein expressions of AQP-1 and AQP-4 in rats' lungs were detected by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: The results of immunohistochemistry and the Western blotting showed that the protein expression of AQP-1 of the drowning group was higher than the postmortem immersion group and the cervical dislocation group ( <0.05). The result of immunohistochemistry showed that the protein expression of AQP-4 of the drowning group was higher than the postmortem immersion group and the cervical dislocation group ( <0.05) while no difference were detected among the three of them by Western blotting ( >0.05). The mRNA expressions of AQP-1 and AQP-4 in rats' lungs of the drowning group was significantly higher than the postmortem immersion group ( <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The increase of mRNA and protein expressions of AQP-1 and AQP-4 in lungs of rats with cute lung injury of the drowning group would be useful for differentiating vital drowning from postmortem immersion.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aquaporin 1/metabolism
Aquaporin 4/metabolism
Drowning
Lung/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Autopsy
Blotting, Western
Immunohistochemistry
Male
RNA, Messenger
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rats, Wistar
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Aqp1 protein, rat); 0 (Aqp4 protein, rat); 0 (Aquaporin 4); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 146410-94-8 (Aquaporin 1)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2016.05.001

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[PMID]: 29471744
[Au] Autor:Gelaye KA; Tessema F; Tariku B; Abera SF; Gebru AA; Assefa N; Zelalem D; Dedefo M; Kondal M; Kote M; Sisay MM; Mekonnen W; Terefe MW; Biks GA; Eshetu F; Abera M; Fekadu Y; Hailu GB; Tilahun E; Lakew Y
[Ad] Address:a Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance Site , Amhara National Regional State , Gondar , Ethiopia.
[Ti] Title:Injury-related gaining momentum as external causes of deaths in Ethiopian health and demographic surveillance sites: evidence from verbal autopsy study.
[So] Source:Glob Health Action;11(1):1430669, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1654-9880
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, though all kinds of mortality due to external causes are an important component of overall mortality often not counted or documented on an individual basis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of mortality from external causes using verbal autopsy (VA) method at the Ethiopian HDSS Network sites. METHODS: All deaths at Ethiopian HDSS sites were routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. The VA forms comprised deaths up to 28 days, between four weeks and 14 years and 15 years and above. The cause of a death was ascertained based on an interview with next of families or other caregivers using a standardized questionnaire that draws information on signs, symptoms, medical history and circumstances preceding death after 45 days mourning period. Two physician assigned probable causes of death as underlying, immediate and contributing factors independently using information in VA forms based on the WHO ICD-10 and VA code system. Disagreed cases sent to third physician for independent review and diagnosis. The final cause of death considered when two of the three physicians assigned underlying cause of death; otherwise, labeled as undetermined. RESULTS: In the period from 2009 to 2013, a total of 9719 deaths were registered. Of the total deaths, 623 (6.4%) were from external causes. Of these, accidental drowning and submersion, 136 (21.8%), accidental fall, 113 (18.1%) and transport-related accidents, 112 (18.0%) were the topmost three leading external causes of deaths. About 436 (70.0%) of deaths were from the age group above 15 years old. Drowning and submersion and transport-related accidents were high in age group between 5 and 14 years old. CONCLUSION: In this study, external causes of death are significant public health problems and require attention as one of prior health agenda.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1080/16549716.2018.1430669

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[PMID]: 29231009
[Au] Autor:Zhang W; Zheng JL
[Ad] Address:Department of Forensic Medicine, Chinese Criminal Police Academy, Shenyang 110035, China.
[Ti] Title:[Research Progress on Diagnosis of Drowning].
[So] Source:Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi;33(1):42-47, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1004-5619
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:These external and internal signs of drowning are non-specific. Therefore, diagnosis of drowning is always one of the most difficult tasks in forensic pathology. This paper meticulously and comprehensively reviews research progress on the diagnosis of drowning in pathological signs, laboratory examination, immunohistochemistry test and virtopsy technology, and it also prospects the research direction of diagnosis of drowning.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Drowning
Forensic Pathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
Immunohistochemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.01.011

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[PMID]: 29504652
[Au] Autor:Beckman K; Mittendorfer-Rutz E; Waern M; Larsson H; Runeson B; Dahlin M
[Ad] Address:Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:Method of self-harm in adolescents and young adults and risk of subsequent suicide.
[So] Source:J Child Psychol Psychiatry;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1469-7610
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Self-harm is common in youth and an important risk factor for suicide. Certain self-harm methods might indicate a higher risk of suicide. The main aim of this study was to determine whether some methods of self-harm in adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-24 years) are associated with a particularly high risk of suicide. A secondary aim was to ascertain how different self-harm methods might affect the probability of psychiatric follow-up. METHOD: Five Swedish registers were linked in a national population-based cohort study. All nonfatal self-harm events recorded in specialist health care, excluding psychiatry and primary care services, among 10-24 year olds between 2000 and 2009 were included. Methods were classified as poisoning, cutting/piercing, violent method (gassing, hanging, strangulation/suffocation, drowning, jumping and firearms), other and multiple methods. Hazard Ratios (HR) for suicide were calculated in Cox regression models for each method with poisoning as the reference. Odds Ratios (OR) for psychiatric inpatient care were determined in logistic regression models. Analyses were adjusted for important covariates and stratified by age group and treatment setting (inpatient/outpatient). RESULTS: Among adolescents with initial medical hospitalisation, use of a violent method was associated with a near eightfold increase in HR for suicide compared to self-poisoning in the adjusted analysis [HR 7.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-19.0]. Among hospitalised young adult women, adjusted HRs were elevated fourfold for both cutting [4.0 (1.9-8.8)] and violent methods [3.9 (1.5-10.6)]. Method of self-harm did not affect suicide risk in young adult men. Adolescents using violent methods had an increased probability of psychiatric inpatient care following initial treatment for self-harm. CONCLUSIONS: Violent self-harm requiring medical hospitalisation may signal particularly high risk of future suicide in adolescents (both sexes) and in young adult women. For the latter group this is the case for cutting requiring hospitalisation as well.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12883


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