Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Dyscalculia [Words]
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[PMID]: 29487792
[Au] Autor:Moreau D; Wilson AJ; McKay NS; Nihill K; Waldie KE
[Ad] Address:Centre for Brain Research, School of Psychology, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
[Ti] Title:No evidence for systematic white matter correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia.
[So] Source:Neuroimage Clin;18:356-366, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:2213-1582
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Learning disabilities such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and their comorbid manifestation are prevalent, affecting as much as 15% of the population. Structural neuroimaging studies have indicated that these disorders can be related to differences in white matter integrity, although findings remain disparate. In this study, we used a unique design composed of individuals with dyslexia, dyscalculia, both disorders and controls, to systematically explore differences in fractional anisotropy across groups using diffusion tensor imaging. Specifically, we focused on the corona radiata and the arcuate fasciculus, two tracts associated with reading and mathematics in a number of previous studies. Using Bayesian hypothesis testing, we show that the present data favor the null model of no differences between groups for these particular tracts-a finding that seems to go against the current view but might be representative of the disparities within this field of research. Together, these findings suggest that structural differences associated with dyslexia and dyscalculia might not be as reliable as previously thought, with potential ramifications in terms of remediation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2018.02.004

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[PMID]: 29292351
[Au] Autor:Butterworth B
[Ad] Address:Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1N 3AZ, UK b.butterworth@ucl.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:The implications for education of an innate numerosity-processing mechanism.
[So] Source:Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci;373(1740), 2017 02 19.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2970
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:One specific cause of low numeracy is a deficit in a mechanism for representing and processing numerosities that humans inherited and which is putatively shared with many other species. This deficit is evident at each of the four levels of explanation in the 'causal modelling' framework of Morton and Frith (Morton and Frith 1995 In , vol. 1 (eds D Cichetti, D Cohen), pp. 357-390). Very low numeracy can occur in cognitively able individuals with normal access to good education: it is linked to an easily measured deficit in basic numerosity processing; it has a distinctive neural signature; and twin studies suggest specific heritability, though the relevant genes have not yet been identified. Unfortunately, educators and policymakers seem largely unaware of this cause, but appropriate interventions could alleviate the suffering and handicap of those with low numeracy, and would be a major benefit to society.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180206
[Lr] Last revision date:180206
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29331204
[Au] Autor:Dotan D; Friedmann N
[Ad] Address:Language and Brain Lab, School of Education and the Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA DRF/I2BM, Neurospin, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif/Yvette, France. Electronic address: dror.dotan@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:A cognitive model for multidigit number reading: Inferences from individuals with selective impairments.
[So] Source:Cortex;, 2017 Nov 14.
[Is] ISSN:1973-8102
[Cp] Country of publication:Italy
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We propose a detailed cognitive model of multi-digit number reading. The model postulates separate processes for visual analysis of the digit string and for oral production of the verbal number. Within visual analysis, separate sub-processes encode the digit identities and the digit order, and additional sub-processes encode the number's decimal structure: its length, the positions of 0, and the way it is parsed into triplets (e.g., 314987 → 314,987). Verbal production consists of a process that generates the verbal structure of the number, and another process that retrieves the phonological forms of each number word. The verbal number structure is first encoded in a tree-like structure, similarly to syntactic trees of sentences, and then linearized to a sequence of number-word specifiers. This model is based on an investigation of the number processing abilities of seven individuals with different selective deficits in number reading. We report participants with impairment in specific sub-processes of the visual analysis of digit strings - in encoding the digit order, in encoding the number length, or in parsing the digit string to triplets. Other participants were impaired in verbal production, making errors in the number structure (shifts of digits to another decimal position, e.g., 3,040 â†’ 30,004). Their selective deficits yielded several dissociations: first, we found a double dissociation between visual analysis deficits and verbal production deficits. Second, several dissociations were found within visual analysis: a double dissociation between errors in digit order and errors in the number length; a dissociation between order/length errors and errors in parsing the digit string into triplets; and a dissociation between the processing of different digits - impaired order encoding of the digits 2-9, without errors in the 0 position. Third, within verbal production, a dissociation was found between digit shifts and substitutions of number words. A selective deficit in any of the processes described by the model would cause difficulties in number reading, which we propose to term "dysnumeria".
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180205
[Lr] Last revision date:180205
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29280361
[Au] Autor:Gutstein AS; Copple T
[Ad] Address:Cardiovascular Medical Associates, P.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
[Ti] Title:Cardiovascular disease and omega-3s: Prescription products and fish oil dietary supplements are not the same.
[So] Source:J Am Assoc Nurse Pract;29(12):791-801, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:2327-6924
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite achievement of optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control with statin therapy, patients with elevated triglycerides (TGs) and residual cardiovascular risk are commonly encountered in clinical practice. METHODS: We present information from completed and ongoing clinical trials examining Rx omega-3s for TG-lowering and omega-3 dietary supplements to highlight important differences affecting patient management for nurse practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: Rx omega-3s demonstrate robust reductions in TGs and may have a role in reducing residual cardiovascular risk. Products containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may raise LDL-C and should not be substituted for Rx eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-only icosapent ethyl, which does not raise LDL-C. Omega-3 dietary supplements (e.g., fish oils containing EPA and DHA) may be used for general health promotion; however, they are not regulated as medications and concerns regarding quality, purity, safety, and variability of content exist. It is important to advise patients that omega-3 dietary supplements are not medications and should not be substituted for Rx omega-3s. Large-scale cardiovascular outcomes studies are underway for Rx omega-3s in statin-treated patients. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Nurse practitioners can take an active role in reducing residual cardiovascular risk and educating patients about important differences between Rx omega-3s and fish oil supplements.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171227
[Lr] Last revision date:171227
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1002/2327-6924.12535

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[PMID]: 29273913
[Au] Autor:Layes S; Lalonde R; Bouakkaz Y; Rebai M
[Ad] Address:School of psychology, University of El-Oued, El-Oued, Algeria. smail.layes@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Effectiveness of working memory training among children with dyscalculia: evidence for transfer effects on mathematical achievement-a pilot study.
[So] Source:Cogn Process;, 2017 Dec 22.
[Is] ISSN:1612-4790
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We examined whether the working memory (WM) capacity of developmentally dyscalculic children can be improved by a WM training program and whether outcomes relate to mathematical performance. The experimental design comprised two groups with developmental dyslexia with grade 4 schooling: an experimental group (n = 14; mean age = 129.74 months) and a control group (n = 14; mean age = 126.9 months). All participants were assessed on measures of WM, mathematic attainment, and nonverbal mental ability (Raven test) before and after training. The WM training program focused on manipulating and maintaining arithmetic information. The results show that both WM and mathematical performances improved significantly after intervention, indicating a strong relationship between these two constructs. The control group improved slightly in Raven's progressive matrices and a reading number task. These findings are discussed in terms of near and far transfer toward trained and untrained skills and stress the positive impact of WM training on learning mathematics in children with dyscalculia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171223
[Lr] Last revision date:171223
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10339-017-0853-2

  6 / 465 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29128782
[Au] Autor:Siemann J; Petermann F
[Ad] Address:Centre for Clinical Psychology and Rehabilitation (CCPR), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Electronic address: julia.siemann@uni-bremen.de.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of the Triple Code Model of numerical processing-Reviewing past neuroimaging and clinical findings.
[So] Source:Res Dev Disabil;72:106-117, 2017 Nov 08.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3379
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This review reconciles past findings on numerical processing with key assumptions of the most predominant model of arithmetic in the literature, the Triple Code Model (TCM). This is implemented by reporting diverse findings in the literature ranging from behavioral studies on basic arithmetic operations over neuroimaging studies on numerical processing to developmental studies concerned with arithmetic acquisition, with a special focus on developmental dyscalculia (DD). We evaluate whether these studies corroborate the model and discuss possible reasons for contradictory findings. A separate section is dedicated to the transfer of TCM to arithmetic development and to alternative accounts focusing on developmental questions of numerical processing. We conclude with recommendations for future directions of arithmetic research, raising questions that require answers in models of healthy as well as abnormal mathematical development. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: This review assesses the leading model in the field of arithmetic processing (Triple Code Model) by presenting knowledge from interdisciplinary research. It assesses the observed contradictory findings and integrates the resulting opposing viewpoints. The focus is on the development of arithmetic expertise as well as abnormal mathematical development. The original aspect of this article is that it points to a gap in research on these topics and provides possible solutions for future models.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171112
[Lr] Last revision date:171112
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 465 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29118725
[Au] Autor:Myers T; Carey E; Szucs D
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, Centre for Neuroscience in Education, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Cognitive and Neural Correlates of Mathematical Giftedness in Adults and Children: A Review.
[So] Source:Front Psychol;8:1646, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1664-1078
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Most mathematical cognition research has focused on understanding normal adult function and child development as well as mildly and moderately impaired mathematical skill, often labeled developmental dyscalculia and/or mathematical learning disability. In contrast, much less research is available on cognitive and neural correlates of gifted/excellent mathematical knowledge in adults and children. In order to facilitate further inquiry into this area, here we review 40 available studies, which examine the cognitive and neural basis of gifted mathematics. Studies associated a large number of cognitive factors with gifted mathematics, with spatial processing and working memory being the most frequently identified contributors. However, the current literature suffers from low statistical power, which most probably contributes to variability across findings. Other major shortcomings include failing to establish domain and stimulus specificity of findings, suggesting causation without sufficient evidence and the frequent use of invalid backward inference in neuro-imaging studies. Future studies must increase statistical power and neuro-imaging studies must rely on supporting behavioral data when interpreting findings. Studies should investigate the factors shown to correlate with math giftedness in a more specific manner and determine exactly how individual factors may contribute to gifted math ability.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171112
[Lr] Last revision date:171112
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01646

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[PMID]: 29107735
[Au] Autor:Moser I; Vibert D; Caversaccio MD; Mast FW
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Fabrikstrasse 8, 3012 Bern, Switzerland; Center for Cognition, Learning and Memory, University of Bern, Fabrikstrasse 8, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address: ivan.moser@psy.unibe.ch.
[Ti] Title:Impaired math achievement in patients with acute vestibular neuritis.
[So] Source:Neuropsychologia;107:1-8, 2017 Oct 28.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3514
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Broad cognitive difficulties have been reported in patients with peripheral vestibular deficit, especially in the domain of spatial cognition. Processing and manipulating numbers relies on the ability to use the inherent spatial features of numbers. It is thus conceivable that patients with acute peripheral vestibular deficit show impaired numerical cognition. Using the number Stroop task and a short math achievement test, we tested 20 patients with acute vestibular neuritis and 20 healthy, age-matched controls. On the one hand, patients showed normal congruency and distance effects in the number Stroop task, which is indicative of normal number magnitude processing. On the other hand, patients scored lower than healthy controls in the math achievement test. We provide evidence that the lower performance cannot be explained by either differences in prior math knowledge (i.e., education) or slower processing speed. Our results suggest that peripheral vestibular deficit negatively affects numerical cognition in terms of the efficient manipulation of numbers. We discuss the role of executive functions in math performance and argue that previously reported executive deficits in patients with peripheral vestibular deficit provide a plausible explanation for the lower math achievement scores. In light of the handicapping effects of impaired numerical cognition in daily living, it is crucial to further investigate the mechanisms that cause mathematical deficits in acute PVD and eventually develop adequate means for cognitive interventions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171120
[Lr] Last revision date:171120
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 465 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29040925
[Au] Autor:Van Hoof J; Verschaffel L; Ghesquière P; Van Dooren W
[Ad] Address:Centre for Instructional Psychology and Technology, University of Leuven, Belgium, Dekenstraat 2, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: jo.vanhoof@ppw.kuleuven.be.
[Ti] Title:The natural number bias and its role in rational number understanding in children with dyscalculia. Delay or deficit?
[So] Source:Res Dev Disabil;71:181-190, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3379
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Previous research indicated that in several cases learners' errors on rational number tasks can be attributed to learners' tendency to (wrongly) apply natural number properties. There exists a large body of literature both on learners' struggle with understanding the rational number system and on the role of the natural number bias in this struggle. However, little is known about this phenomenon in learners with dyscalculia. AIMS: We investigated the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia and compared it with the rational number understanding of learners without dyscalculia. METHOD: Three groups of learners were included: sixth graders with dyscalculia, a chronological age match group, and an ability match group. RESULTS: The results showed that the rational number understanding of learners with dyscalculia is significantly lower than that of typically developing peers, but not significantly different from younger learners, even after statistically controlling for mathematics achievement. CONCLUSION: Next to a delay in their mathematics achievement, learners with dyscalculia seem to have an extra delay in their rational number understanding, compared with peers. This is especially the case in those rational number tasks where one has to inhibit natural number knowledge to come to the right answer.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171107
[Lr] Last revision date:171107
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 465 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28942712
[Au] Autor:De Visscher A; Noël MP; Pesenti M; Dormal V
[Ad] Address:1 Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Developmental Dyscalculia in Adults: Beyond Numerical Magnitude Impairment.
[So] Source:J Learn Disabil;:22219417732338, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1538-4780
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Numerous studies have tried to identify the core deficit of developmental dyscalculia (DD), mainly by assessing a possible deficit of the mental representation of numerical magnitude. Research in healthy adults has shown that numerosity, duration, and space share a partly common system of magnitude processing and representation. However, in DD, numerosity processing has until now received much more attention than the processing of other non-numerical magnitudes. To assess whether or not the processing of non-numerical magnitudes is impaired in DD, the performance of 15 adults with DD and 15 control participants was compared in four categorization tasks using numerosities, lengths, durations, and faces (as non-magnitude-based control stimuli). Results showed that adults with DD were impaired in processing numerosity and duration, while their performance in length and face categorization did not differ from controls' performance. Our findings support the idea of a nonsymbolic magnitude deficit in DD, affecting numerosity and duration processing but not length processing.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170925
[Lr] Last revision date:170925
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1177/0022219417732338


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