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[PMID]: 28049349
[Au] Autor:Song Y; Yang CJ; Wang ZB; Zhao N; Feng XS; Meng FH
[Ad] Address:a School of Pharmacy , China Medical University , Shenyang , P.R. China.
[Ti] Title:Chemical constituents of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus extract and its sedative-hypnotic effect.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;31(17):1995-2000, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present study was designed to investigate the chemical constituents and bioactivities of the roots of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (E. sessiliflorus). The compounds were isolated through various chromatography techniques and elucidated by mass spectrometric (MS), 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses. The sedative-hypnotic effect of E. sessiliflorus ethanol extract and its fractions (acetic ether, n-butanol and water fraction) were also investigated. In the chemical constituent study, one new compound, 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl) pentyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylate and fourteen known compounds were isolated and identified. The chromatographic fingerprint of E. sessiliflorus was established by UPLC-PDA-MS/MS analysis. In bioactivity study, it was found that the water fraction of E. sessiliflorus extract could prolong pentobarbital-induced sleeping time more than that of the other fractions of E. sessiliflorus extract in mice, which provided a basis for future study on sedative-hypnotic effect of the chemical constituents in E. sessiliflorus.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Eleutherococcus/chemistry
Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: 1-Butanol/chemistry
Animals
Ethanol
Hypnotics and Sedatives/chemistry
Male
Mice
Pentobarbital/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/analysis
Plant Roots/chemistry
Sleep/drug effects
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hypnotics and Sedatives); 0 (Plant Extracts); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol); 8PJ61P6TS3 (1-Butanol); I4744080IR (Pentobarbital)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171017
[Lr] Last revision date:171017
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2016.1272106

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[PMID]: 28676388
[Au] Autor:Zhang L; Li BB; Li HZ; Meng X; Lin X; Jiang YY; Ahn JS; Cui L
[Ad] Address:College of Pharmacy, Beihua University, 3999 Binjiangdong Road, Jilin City, Jilin Province 132013, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Four new neolignans isolated from Eleutherococcus senticosus and their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity (PTP1B).
[So] Source:Fitoterapia;121:58-63, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6971
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Four new compounds, erythro-7'E-4-hydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8,5'-oxyneoligna-7'-ene-7,9-diol-9'-al (1), (7S,8S)-4-hydroxy-3,1',3'-trimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-9-ol (5), (7S,8S,7'E)-5-hydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-7'-ene-9,9'-diol (6) and (7S,8S,7'E)-5-hydroxy-3,3',9'-trimethoxy-4'-7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-7'-ene-9-ol (7). Along with four known compounds (2-4, 8) were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses. All the compounds were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against PTP1B, VHR and PP1. Among them, compounds 1-4 and 6-8 were found to exhibit selective inhibitory activity on PTP1B with IC values ranging from 17.2±1.6 to 32.7±1.2µM.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Eleutherococcus/chemistry
Lignans/pharmacology
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1/antagonists & inhibitors
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Lignans/isolation & purification
Molecular Structure
Plant Stems/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Lignans); EC 3.1.3.48 (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171010
[Lr] Last revision date:171010
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170705
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28183150
[Au] Autor:Kong Z; Jie H; Zhou C; Yang L; Tan Z; Yang W
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, China.
[Ti] Title:Effects of dietary supplementation of Acanthopanax senticosus on gastrointestinal tract development in calves.
[So] Source:Anim Sci J;88(9):1321-1326, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1740-0929
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Twenty-four newborn Holstein dairy male calves (with initial body weight of 38 ± 3.0 kg) were used in a randomized block design experiment to determine effects of dietary supplementation of Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) on gastrointestinal tract development. Calves were fed milk (10%/body weight) three times at 06.00, 12.00 and 18.00 hours daily with one to four treatments during the experimental periods (4 to 28 days): no supplementation of AS (control group, CG); 1.0 g/L•time of micro-powder AS (MP); 1.0 g/L•time of superfine powder AS (SP); or 1.0 g/L•time of coarse powder AS (CP). On days 7, 14, 21 and 28, 20 mL blood samples were collected at 06.00 hours before the morning feeding. At the end of the trial (28 days), all calves were euthanized, and tissue samples were taken and placed in 4% buffered formaldehyde for analyses. In the rumen of MP treatment, compared with the CG treatment, wall thickness and papillae diameter was both significantly lower (P<0.05), while crypt depth was significantly greater (P<0.05). In the duodenum, villi diameter of AS supplemented treatments was significantly lower than that of CG treatment (P<0.05). Results indicate that calves during sucking period supplemented with AS as MP style could promote gastrointestinal development.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Animal Feed
Cattle/growth & development
Diet/veterinary
Dietary Supplements
Eleutherococcus
Gastrointestinal Tract/growth & development
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Animals, Newborn
Animals, Suckling
Male
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171005
[Lr] Last revision date:171005
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/asj.12764

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[PMID]: 28399215
[Au] Autor:Zhai C; Wang M; Raman V; Rehman JU; Meng Y; Zhao J; Avula B; Wang YH; Khan Z; Khan IA
[Ad] Address:National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, MS 38677 ( zhaicm163@163.com; meiwang@olemiss.edu; vraman@olemiss.edu; jurehman@olemiss.edu; ymeng@olemiss.edu; jianping@olemiss.edu; bavula@olemiss.edu; wangyh@olemiss.edu; ikhan@olemiss.edu ).
[Ti] Title:Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae) Leaf Morpho-Anatomy, Essential Oil Composition, and Its Biological Activity Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
[So] Source:J Med Entomol;54(3):658-669, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2928
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., a well-known medicinal plant from Eastern Asia, are used worldwide for their known beneficial medicinal properties. Recently, the leaves have been used as an alternative to the roots. The present study was aimed at exploring the leaf essential oil as a potential source of compounds for mosquito management. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the leaf essential oil revealed 87 compounds, constituting 95.2% of the oil. α-Bisabolol (26.46%), ß-caryophyllene (7.45%), germacrene D (6.87%), ß-bisabolene (4.95%), and α-humulene (3.50%) were five of the major constituents. The essential oil was subjected to biting deterrence and repellent activity against mosquito Aedes aegypti. The biting deterrence of the oil produced a proportion not biting (PNB) value of 0.62 at 10 µg/cm2 as compared with 0.86 of control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at a standard dose of 25 nmol/cm2. Among individually selected compounds present in the oil (α-bisabolol, ß-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide), only α-bisabolol produced a PNB value of 0.80, equivalent to DEET at 25 nmol/cm2, whereas the others were not repellent. The artificial mixture (AMES-1) of these four selected compounds produced a relatively high PNB value of 0.80. The repellent activity measured by minimum effective dosage (MED) for α-bisabolol and α-humulene produced MED values of 0.094 and 0.104 mg/cm2, respectively, as compared with 0.023 mg/cm2 of DEET. The leaf essential oil, the artificial mixture (AMES-1), and other binary and tertiary combinations of major compounds showed no repellent activity. In addition, morpho-anatomical features of the leaf are provided for correct identification of the species.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aedes/drug effects
Eleutherococcus/chemistry
Insect Repellents/pharmacology
Insecticides/pharmacology
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aedes/growth & development
Animals
Eleutherococcus/anatomy & histology
Eleutherococcus/metabolism
Feeding Behavior/drug effects
Female
Larva/drug effects
Larva/growth & development
Oils, Volatile/analysis
Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology
Plant Leaves/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Insect Repellents); 0 (Insecticides); 0 (Oils, Volatile)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170915
[Lr] Last revision date:170915
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170411
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jme/tjw221

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[PMID]: 28441735
[Au] Autor:Nishina A; Itagaki M; Suzuki Y; Koketsu M; Ninomiya M; Sato D; Suzuki T; Hayakawa S; Kuroda M; Kimura H
[Ad] Address:College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-5-1 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan. nishina.atsuyoshi@nihon-u.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Effects of Flavonoids and Triterpene Analogues from Leaves of Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Makino) Koidz. 'Himeukogi' in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.
[So] Source:Molecules;22(4), 2017 Apr 22.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:(Makino) Koidz. is a local product from the area in and around Yonezawa City in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. It has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time. We isolated and identified four types of flavonoid glycosides [astragalin ( ), isoquercetin ( ), rhamnocitrin 3- -glucoside ( ), and nicotiflorin ( )], a triterpene [methyl hederagenin ( )], and three types of triterpene glycosides [δ-hederin ( ), echinocystic acid 3- -arabinoside ( ), and cauloside B ( )] from the methanol extract of , which regulates lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Among the compounds isolated, and up- and down-regulated lipid accumulation and insulin induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Compound induced up-regulation of lipid accumulation and decreased adipocyte size, while down-regulated lipid accumulations without decreasing cell size. Additionally, increased adipogenic proteins [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and fatty-acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4)]. In contrast, decreased the levels of all adipogenic proteins and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), but increased adiponectin.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology
Eleutherococcus/chemistry
Flavonoids/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Triterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: 3T3-L1 Cells
Adipocytes/drug effects
Adipocytes/metabolism
Adipogenesis/drug effects
Animals
Cell Survival/drug effects
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Lipid Metabolism/drug effects
Mice
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Obesity Agents); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Triterpenes)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170807
[Lr] Last revision date:170807
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170426
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28115794
[Au] Autor:Wang X; Zhou G; Liu C; Wei R; Zhu S; Xu Y; Wu M; Miao Q
[Ad] Address:Department of Gastroenterology, Danyang People's Hospital, Danyang 212300, China.
[Ti] Title:Acanthopanax 3-Methyladenine Ameliorates Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Inhibiting the Autophagic Pathway in Rats.
[So] Source:Mediators Inflamm;2016:8369704, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1466-1861
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:. To observe the therapeutic effects of Acanthopanax and 3-methyladenine against severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). . Sodium taurocholate-induced SAP rats were equally randomized into a SAP group, an Acanthopanax group, and a 3-methyladenine group. Serum amylase levels were determined by ELISA; protein and mRNA expression levels of nucleus nuclear factor kappa B (NF- B) p65, light chain 3II (LC3-II), and Beclin-1 and mRNA expression levels of Class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-III) in pancreas tissue were detected by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively; mortality and pathological change of the pancreas were observed at 3, 12, and 24 h after operation. . There was no significant difference in mortality between SAP group and both treatment groups ( > 0.05). Serum amylase levels, protein, and mRNA expression levels of nucleus NF- B p65, LC3-II, and Beclin-1 protein, mRNA expression levels of PI3K-III, and pathological score of the pancreas in both treatment groups were significantly lower than those in SAP group at 12 and 24 h after operation ( < 0.05 or 0.01). The number of autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes of pancreatic acinar cells in both treatment groups was smaller than that in SAP group at 12 and 24 h. . Acanthopanax and 3-methyladenine had similar therapeutic effects against SAP in rats. The mechanism may be through inhibiting abnormal autophagy activation of pancreatic acinar cells.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Adenine/analogs & derivatives
Eleutherococcus/chemistry
Pancreatitis/drug therapy
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adenine/therapeutic use
Amylases/blood
Animals
Autophagy
Male
Pancreatitis/chemically induced
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism
Random Allocation
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Signal Transduction
Taurocholic Acid
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Extracts); 5142-23-4 (3-methyladenine); 5E090O0G3Z (Taurocholic Acid); EC 2.7.1.- (Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases); EC 3.2.1.- (Amylases); JAC85A2161 (Adenine)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170804
[Lr] Last revision date:170804
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170124
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1155/2016/8369704

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[PMID]: 28065780
[Au] Autor:Zhang SN; Li XZ; Yang XY
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacy, Guiyang University of Chinese Medicine, Guiyang 550025, PR China.
[Ti] Title:Drug-likeness prediction of chemical constituents isolated from Chinese materia medica Ciwujia.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;198:131-138, 2017 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ciwujia (CWJ), one of the most commonly used Chinese materia medicas (CMMs), is derived from the roots, rhizomes, and stems of Acanthopanax senticosus harms (AS). CWJ has been used for the treatment of various central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral system diseases. Drug-likeness prediction can help to analyze the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) processes of the compounds in CWJ, as well as their potential therapeutic and toxic effects, which is of significance in the confirmation of the active material bases of CWJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ADME properties of the compounds were calculated through web based PreADMET program and ACD/I-Lab 2.0. The potential therapeutic and toxicity targets of these compounds were screened by the ChemQuery tool in DrugBank and T3DB. RESULTS: 14/39 compounds had moderate or good oral bioavailability (OB). 29/39 compounds bound weakly to the plasma proteins. 18/39 compounds might pass across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Most of these compounds showed low renal excretion ability. 25/39 compounds had 99 structurally similar drugs and 158 potential therapeutic targets. Additionally, 17/39 compounds had 53 structurally similar toxins and 126 potential toxicity targets. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that these compounds have a certain drug-likeness potentials, which are also likely to be the material bases of CWJ. These results may provide a reference for the safe use of CWJ and the expansion of its application scope.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Eleutherococcus/chemistry
Materia Medica/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Blood-Brain Barrier
Computational Biology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Materia Medica)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170726
[Lr] Last revision date:170726
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170109
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28732808
[Au] Autor:Song J; Lee D; Min B; Bae JS; Chang GT; Kim H
[Ad] Address:Department of Herbal Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, South Korea.
[Ti] Title:Safety evaluation of Astragalus extract mixture HT042 and its constituent herbs in Sprague-Dawley rats.
[So] Source:Phytomedicine;32:59-67, 2017 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:1618-095X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a combination of three standardized extracts from Astragalus membranaceus root, Eleutherococcus senticosus stem, and Phlomis umbrosa root, which has proven to stimulate children's height growth. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety of HT042 and its three constituent herbs when administered orally. METHODS: Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies were conducted using male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity study, HT042 and each of the herbs was administered at single doses of up to 5000 mg/kg. In the 13-week sub-chronic toxicity study, HT042 was administered at repeated doses of up to 4000 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: In the acute toxicity study of HT042 and each of the herbs, no deaths occurred and there was no indication of toxicity, on the basis of clinical signs, body weight, and necropsy findings. In the sub-chronic toxicity study of HT042, there were no deaths and no changes in clinical signs or the findings of ophthalmic examinations. Although there were some treatment-related changes in other findings, these alterations were not considered toxicologically significant because they remained within normal ranges or recovered during the recovery period. CONCLUSION: The oral approximate lethal doses of HT042 and each of the herbs were > 5000 mg/kg, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level of HT042 was 4000 mg/kg/day in male and female rats.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170722
[Lr] Last revision date:170722
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28214940
[Au] Autor:Shi WJ; Ying GG; Huang GY; Liang YQ; Hu LX; Zhao JL; Zhang JN
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, CAS Research Centre of PRD Environmental Pollution and Control, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510640, Guangzhou, China.
[Ti] Title:Transcriptional and Biochemical Alterations in Zebrafish Eleuthero-Embryos (Danio rerio) After Exposure to Synthetic Progestogen Dydrogesterone.
[So] Source:Bull Environ Contam Toxicol;99(1):39-45, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1432-0800
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Little information has so far been known on the effects of synthetic progestogen dydrogesterone (DDG) in organisms like fish. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DDG on the transcriptional and biochemical alterations in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos. Zebrafish eleuthero-embryos were analyzed for the transcriptional alterations by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and biochemical changes by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FITR) after 144 h exposure to DDG. The results of qPCR analysis showed that DDG exposure significantly suppressed the transcriptions of target genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, while it induced the expression of target genes mRNA belonging to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. In addition, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed that the biochemical alterations of protein, nucleic acid and lipid were observed following DDG treatment. The finding from this study suggests that DDG exposure could have potential multiple effects in fish.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Dydrogesterone/toxicity
Embryo, Nonmammalian/drug effects
Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity
Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
Zebrafish/embryology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Eleutherococcus
Endocrine System
Progesterone Congeners
Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism
Zebrafish/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Endocrine Disruptors); 0 (Progesterone Congeners); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 90I02KLE8K (Dydrogesterone)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170718
[Lr] Last revision date:170718
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00128-017-2046-1

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[PMID]: 28687778
[Au] Autor:Kim K; Nguyen VB; Dong J; Wang Y; Park JY; Lee SC; Yang TJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-921, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Evolution of the Araliaceae family inferred from complete chloroplast genomes and 45S nrDNAs of 10 Panax-related species.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;7(1):4917, 2017 Jul 07.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We produced complete sequences and conducted comparative analysis of the maternally inherited chloroplast (cp) genomes and bi-parentally inherited 45S nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (nrDNA) from ten Araliaceae species to elucidate the genetic diversity and evolution in that family. The cp genomes ranged from 155,993 bp to 156,730 bp with 97.1-99.6% similarity. Complete 45S nrDNA units were about 11 kb including a 5.8-kb 45S cistron. Among 79 cp protein-coding genes, 74 showed nucleotide variations among ten species, of which infA, rpl22, rps19 and ndhE genes showed the highest Ks values and atpF, atpE, ycf2 and rps15 genes showed the highest Ka/Ks values. Four genes, petN, psaJ, psbF, and psbN, related to photosynthesis and one gene, rpl23, related to the ribosomal large subunit remain conserved in all 10 Araliaceae species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ten species could be resolved into two monophyletic lineages, the Panax-Aralia and the Eleutherococcus-Dendropanax groups, which diverged approximately 8.81-10.59 million years ago (MYA). The Panax genus divided into two groups, with diploid species including P. notoginseng, P. vietnamensis, and P. japonicus surviving in Southern Asia and a tetraploid group including P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius Northern Asia and North America 2.89-3.20 MYA.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170714
[Lr] Last revision date:170714
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-05218-y


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