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[PMID]: 29331758
[Au] Autor:Kim CG; Castro-Aceituno V; Abbai R; Lee HA; Simu SY; Han Y; Hurh J; Kim YJ; Yang DC
[Ad] Address:Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: gare1@hanmail.net.
[Ti] Title:Caspase-3/MAPK pathways as main regulators of the apoptotic effect of the phyto-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticle from dried stem of Eleutherococcus senticosus in human cancer cells.
[So] Source:Biomed Pharmacother;99:128-133, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1950-6007
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) was used for the synthesis of an ecofriendly silver nanoparticle (Sg-AgNP), which has exhibited antibacterial, antioxidant effect and lower cytotoxicity to normal cells in comparison to human cancer cells. Although, the potential anticancer activity of Sg-AgNP has not been determined. In this study, two cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptotic effect of Sg-AgNP along with the determination of the role of the Caspase-3 / p38 MAPK pathways. Results shown that Sg-AgNP reduced the cell viability of colon cancer cells HT29 and lung cancer cells A549. The cytotoxic effect was higher than the effect exhibited by a commercial silver nanoparticle and Cisplatin. Reactive oxygen species were observed to be superior in both cell lines in the presence of Sg-AgNPs than c-AgNPs and Cisplatin. It was observed an activation of MAPK14 gene and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK protein in both cell lines induced by Sg-AgNPs treatment. Furthermore, induction of morphological changes in the nucleus was done by Sg-AgNPs at 10 µg/mL in both cell lines. On the other hands, the activation of CASP3 gene and Caspase-3 protein was observed in HT29 cells but only at protein level in A549 cells. These results, suggest that Sg-AgNPs anticancer potential activity might be linked to the induction of apoptosis though the generation of ROS by activation of the Caspase-3/p38 MAPK pathway.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180224
[Lr] Last revision date:180224
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29240794
[Au] Autor:Tsuchiya R; Taira Y; Orita M; Fukushima Y; Endo Y; Yamashita S; Takamura N
[Ad] Address:Department of Global Health, Medicine and Welfare, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189398, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). "Sansai" (edible wild plants) in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137) were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3%) samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0%) samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7%) registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit). The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y), at 3.5±1.2 µSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 µSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 µSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 µSv/y for adults in 2015). Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides ("Koshiabura") and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, "Zenmai"). Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the "satoyama" (countryside) culture of ingesting "sansai," also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cesium Radioisotopes/analysis
Fukushima Nuclear Accident
Plants, Edible/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Child
Female
Humans
Male
Radiation Dosage
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cesium Radioisotopes)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180116
[Lr] Last revision date:180116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189398

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[PMID]: 29154110
[Au] Autor:Ruhsam M; Hollingsworth PM
[Ad] Address:Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 20A Inverleith Row, Edinburgh, EH3 5LR, UK. Electronic address: m.ruhsam@rbge.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Authentication of Eleutherococcus and Rhodiola herbal supplement products in the United Kingdom.
[So] Source:J Pharm Biomed Anal;149:403-409, 2017 Nov 09.
[Is] ISSN:1873-264X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus, Araliaceae) and roseroot (Rhodiola rosea, Rosaceae) are popular herbal supplements which have been shown to improve resilience to conditions such as stress and exhaustion. Using DNA barcoding methods we tested 25 Siberian ginseng and 14 roseroot products which are widely available to UK customers to test whether the herbal ingredient stated on the label is also in the product. All Siberian ginseng supplements contained E. senticosus, however, 36% also contained an Eleutherococcus species other than E. senticosus. In three out of the 13 roseroot products which produced amplifiable DNA, we could only retrieve sequences matching alfalfa (declared on the product label) and fenugreek (not declared). In the other 10 supplements Rhodiola was detected but only five matched the target species R. rosea. As DNA can get severely degraded during the manufacturing process we did not take the absence of Rhodiola DNA as proof for a compromised product. Contamination could explain the presence of non-target species such as fenugreek but is unlikely to be account for the detection of congeneric Rhodiola species in roseroot preparations. Our results therefore suggest that the substitution or mixing of the target medicinal ingredient in these two popular supplements with other species is common.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171120
[Lr] Last revision date:171120
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 28732808
[Au] Autor:Song J; Lee D; Min B; Bae JS; Chang GT; Kim H
[Ad] Address:Department of Herbal Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, South Korea.
[Ti] Title:Safety evaluation of Astragalus extract mixture HT042 and its constituent herbs in Sprague-Dawley rats.
[So] Source:Phytomedicine;32:59-67, 2017 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:1618-095X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a combination of three standardized extracts from Astragalus membranaceus root, Eleutherococcus senticosus stem, and Phlomis umbrosa root, which has proven to stimulate children's height growth. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety of HT042 and its three constituent herbs when administered orally. METHODS: Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies were conducted using male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity study, HT042 and each of the herbs was administered at single doses of up to 5000 mg/kg. In the 13-week sub-chronic toxicity study, HT042 was administered at repeated doses of up to 4000 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: In the acute toxicity study of HT042 and each of the herbs, no deaths occurred and there was no indication of toxicity, on the basis of clinical signs, body weight, and necropsy findings. In the sub-chronic toxicity study of HT042, there were no deaths and no changes in clinical signs or the findings of ophthalmic examinations. Although there were some treatment-related changes in other findings, these alterations were not considered toxicologically significant because they remained within normal ranges or recovered during the recovery period. CONCLUSION: The oral approximate lethal doses of HT042 and each of the herbs were > 5000 mg/kg, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level of HT042 was 4000 mg/kg/day in male and female rats.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170722
[Lr] Last revision date:170722
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28725146
[Au] Autor:Zaluski D; Olech M; Kuzniewski R; Verpoorte R; Nowak R; Smolarz HD
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacognosy, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 9 Marie Curie-Sklodowska Street, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland.
[Ti] Title:LC-ESI-MS/MS profiling of phenolics from spp. inflorescences, structure-activity relationship as antioxidants, inhibitors of hyaluronidase and acetylcholinesterase.
[So] Source:Saudi Pharm J;25(5):734-743, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1319-0164
[Cp] Country of publication:Saudi Arabia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Nature is a source of many plant-based molecules used as pro- or drugs. species are native to Asia and the North Russia, and are traditionally used to treat various diseases. In turn, neither secondary metabolites of the species cultivated in the West Europe nor the bioactivity is known. No differences in the phenols and flavonoids content in the inflorescences were found. The richest in polyphenols was (5.18 mg/g), while in flavonoids it was (1.80 mg/g). Using LC-ESI-MS/MS, protocatechuic and -caffeic acids have been identified as the most abundant compounds in , , (833.4; 855.6; 614.7 and 280.8; 156.0; 167.6 µg/g DE). It was observed that all species were able to chelate Fe with the EC value of 0.2, 0.6, 0.3 mg/mL for , , , respectively. exhibited the strongest antiperoxidation and anti-DPPH activity (EC 3.2 and 0.48 mg/mL). The weak inhibitory potential has been observed in case of AChE inhibition at the level of 16.17 and 12.2% for , . We report for the first time that the extracts inhibited Hyal activity in the range from 16.4 to 60.7%. To our best knowledge, no information was available on this activity of the inflorescences and this provides a background to study inflorescences in more detail. Considering the SAR, an antioxidant activity may be correlated with a high amount of protocatechuic and -caffeic acids and their chemical structure.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170723
[Lr] Last revision date:170723
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.jsps.2016.11.002

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[PMID]: 28687778
[Au] Autor:Kim K; Nguyen VB; Dong J; Wang Y; Park JY; Lee SC; Yang TJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-921, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Evolution of the Araliaceae family inferred from complete chloroplast genomes and 45S nrDNAs of 10 Panax-related species.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;7(1):4917, 2017 Jul 07.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We produced complete sequences and conducted comparative analysis of the maternally inherited chloroplast (cp) genomes and bi-parentally inherited 45S nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (nrDNA) from ten Araliaceae species to elucidate the genetic diversity and evolution in that family. The cp genomes ranged from 155,993 bp to 156,730 bp with 97.1-99.6% similarity. Complete 45S nrDNA units were about 11 kb including a 5.8-kb 45S cistron. Among 79 cp protein-coding genes, 74 showed nucleotide variations among ten species, of which infA, rpl22, rps19 and ndhE genes showed the highest Ks values and atpF, atpE, ycf2 and rps15 genes showed the highest Ka/Ks values. Four genes, petN, psaJ, psbF, and psbN, related to photosynthesis and one gene, rpl23, related to the ribosomal large subunit remain conserved in all 10 Araliaceae species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ten species could be resolved into two monophyletic lineages, the Panax-Aralia and the Eleutherococcus-Dendropanax groups, which diverged approximately 8.81-10.59 million years ago (MYA). The Panax genus divided into two groups, with diploid species including P. notoginseng, P. vietnamensis, and P. japonicus surviving in Southern Asia and a tetraploid group including P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius Northern Asia and North America 2.89-3.20 MYA.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170714
[Lr] Last revision date:170714
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-05218-y

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[PMID]: 28676388
[Au] Autor:Zhang L; Li BB; Li HZ; Meng X; Lin X; Jiang YY; Ahn JS; Cui L
[Ad] Address:College of Pharmacy, Beihua University, 3999 Binjiangdong Road, Jilin City, Jilin Province 132013, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Four new neolignans isolated from Eleutherococcus senticosus and their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity (PTP1B).
[So] Source:Fitoterapia;121:58-63, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6971
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Four new compounds, erythro-7'E-4-hydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8,5'-oxyneoligna-7'-ene-7,9-diol-9'-al (1), (7S,8S)-4-hydroxy-3,1',3'-trimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-9-ol (5), (7S,8S,7'E)-5-hydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-7'-ene-9,9'-diol (6) and (7S,8S,7'E)-5-hydroxy-3,3',9'-trimethoxy-4'-7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-7'-ene-9-ol (7). Along with four known compounds (2-4, 8) were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses. All the compounds were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against PTP1B, VHR and PP1. Among them, compounds 1-4 and 6-8 were found to exhibit selective inhibitory activity on PTP1B with IC values ranging from 17.2±1.6 to 32.7±1.2µM.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Eleutherococcus/chemistry
Lignans/pharmacology
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1/antagonists & inhibitors
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Lignans/isolation & purification
Molecular Structure
Plant Stems/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Lignans); EC 3.1.3.48 (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171010
[Lr] Last revision date:171010
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170706
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28441735
[Au] Autor:Nishina A; Itagaki M; Suzuki Y; Koketsu M; Ninomiya M; Sato D; Suzuki T; Hayakawa S; Kuroda M; Kimura H
[Ad] Address:College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-5-1 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan. nishina.atsuyoshi@nihon-u.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Effects of Flavonoids and Triterpene Analogues from Leaves of Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Makino) Koidz. 'Himeukogi' in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.
[So] Source:Molecules;22(4), 2017 Apr 22.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:(Makino) Koidz. is a local product from the area in and around Yonezawa City in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. It has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time. We isolated and identified four types of flavonoid glycosides [astragalin ( ), isoquercetin ( ), rhamnocitrin 3- -glucoside ( ), and nicotiflorin ( )], a triterpene [methyl hederagenin ( )], and three types of triterpene glycosides [δ-hederin ( ), echinocystic acid 3- -arabinoside ( ), and cauloside B ( )] from the methanol extract of , which regulates lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Among the compounds isolated, and up- and down-regulated lipid accumulation and insulin induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Compound induced up-regulation of lipid accumulation and decreased adipocyte size, while down-regulated lipid accumulations without decreasing cell size. Additionally, increased adipogenic proteins [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and fatty-acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4)]. In contrast, decreased the levels of all adipogenic proteins and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), but increased adiponectin.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology
Eleutherococcus/chemistry
Flavonoids/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Triterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: 3T3-L1 Cells
Adipocytes/drug effects
Adipocytes/metabolism
Adipogenesis/drug effects
Animals
Cell Survival/drug effects
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Lipid Metabolism/drug effects
Mice
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Obesity Agents); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Triterpenes)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170807
[Lr] Last revision date:170807
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170427
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28399215
[Au] Autor:Zhai C; Wang M; Raman V; Rehman JU; Meng Y; Zhao J; Avula B; Wang YH; Khan Z; Khan IA
[Ad] Address:National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, MS 38677 ( zhaicm163@163.com; meiwang@olemiss.edu; vraman@olemiss.edu; jurehman@olemiss.edu; ymeng@olemiss.edu; jianping@olemiss.edu; bavula@olemiss.edu; wangyh@olemiss.edu; ikhan@olemiss.edu ).
[Ti] Title:Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae) Leaf Morpho-Anatomy, Essential Oil Composition, and Its Biological Activity Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
[So] Source:J Med Entomol;54(3):658-669, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2928
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., a well-known medicinal plant from Eastern Asia, are used worldwide for their known beneficial medicinal properties. Recently, the leaves have been used as an alternative to the roots. The present study was aimed at exploring the leaf essential oil as a potential source of compounds for mosquito management. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the leaf essential oil revealed 87 compounds, constituting 95.2% of the oil. α-Bisabolol (26.46%), ß-caryophyllene (7.45%), germacrene D (6.87%), ß-bisabolene (4.95%), and α-humulene (3.50%) were five of the major constituents. The essential oil was subjected to biting deterrence and repellent activity against mosquito Aedes aegypti. The biting deterrence of the oil produced a proportion not biting (PNB) value of 0.62 at 10 µg/cm2 as compared with 0.86 of control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at a standard dose of 25 nmol/cm2. Among individually selected compounds present in the oil (α-bisabolol, ß-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and caryophyllene oxide), only α-bisabolol produced a PNB value of 0.80, equivalent to DEET at 25 nmol/cm2, whereas the others were not repellent. The artificial mixture (AMES-1) of these four selected compounds produced a relatively high PNB value of 0.80. The repellent activity measured by minimum effective dosage (MED) for α-bisabolol and α-humulene produced MED values of 0.094 and 0.104 mg/cm2, respectively, as compared with 0.023 mg/cm2 of DEET. The leaf essential oil, the artificial mixture (AMES-1), and other binary and tertiary combinations of major compounds showed no repellent activity. In addition, morpho-anatomical features of the leaf are provided for correct identification of the species.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aedes/drug effects
Eleutherococcus/chemistry
Insect Repellents/pharmacology
Insecticides/pharmacology
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aedes/growth & development
Animals
Eleutherococcus/anatomy & histology
Eleutherococcus/metabolism
Feeding Behavior/drug effects
Female
Larva/drug effects
Larva/growth & development
Oils, Volatile/analysis
Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology
Plant Leaves/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Insect Repellents); 0 (Insecticides); 0 (Oils, Volatile)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170915
[Lr] Last revision date:170915
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170412
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jme/tjw221

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[PMID]: 28349704
[Au] Autor:Kuzniewski R; Zaluski D; Olech M; Banaszczak P; Nowak R
[Ad] Address:a Department of Pharmacognosy, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum , Nicolaus Copernicus University , Bydgoszcz , Poland.
[Ti] Title:LC-ESI-MS/MS profiling of phenolics in the leaves of Eleutherococcus senticosus cultivated in the West Europe and anti-hyaluronidase and anti-acetylcholinestarase activities.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;:1-5, 2017 Mar 28.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Neither secondary metabolites of the spring leaves nor the autumn leaves of Eleutherococcus senticosus species cultivated in Poland, or the bioactivity are known. The richest in polyphenols was the autumn leaves (171.1 mg/g DE), while in flavonoids the spring leaves (107.9 mg/g DE). Using LC-ESI-MS/MS, protocatechuic acid has been identified as the most abundant compound in the spring and autumn leaves (200 and 70 µg/g DE, respectively). Amongst flavonoids, naringenin 7-O-glucoside occurred in the largest amount (20 and 10 mg/g DE in the spring and autumn leaves, respectively). The autumn leaves inhibited Hyal the strongest (74.3%), comparing to the spring leaves (33%). A weak inhibition was found towards AChE (0.64 and 5.8% for the autumn and spring leaves, respectively). To our best knowledge, no information was available on the phytochemical composition and activity of the leaves of E. senticosus cultivated in Poland.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170622
[Lr] Last revision date:170622
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2017.1308369


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