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[PMID]: 29229442
[Au] Autor:Nevárez-Garza AM; Castillo-Velázquez U; Soto-Domínguez A; Montes-de-Oca-Luna R; Zamora-Ávila DE; Wong-González A; Rodríguez-Tovar LE
[Ad] Address:Cuerpo Académico de Zoonosis y Enfermedades Emergentes, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, UANL, General Escobedo, N. L., C.P. 66050, Mexico.
[Ti] Title:Quantitative analysis of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10 expression, nitric oxide response, and apoptosis in Encephalitozoon cuniculi-infected rabbits.
[So] Source:Dev Comp Immunol;81:235-243, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0089
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α, interleukin (IL) -4 and IL-10, as well as apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in the brain and kidneys of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed New Zealand White rabbits infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. All of the animals had clinical signs histopathological lesions compatible with encephalitozoonosis and were E. cuniculi-positive by using a carbon immunoassay test. Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection promoted the expression of TNF-α and NO production in the kidneys of infected rabbits, and a synergic effect was observed in animal treated with dexamethasone. The IL-4 expression was similar in the brain and kidneys of infected rabbits, regardless of their immunologic status. The IL-10 mRNA expression in the brain of infected immunosuppressed rabbits was elevated when compared with positive controls. Apoptosis of granuloma mononuclear-like cells was detected in immunocompetent E. cuniculi-infected rabbits, but it was more evident in infected-immunosuppressed animals. Nitric oxide levels were elevated both in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed infected animals, but it was more apparent in the kidneys. These data suggest that modulation of the immune response by E. cuniculi could contribute to the survival of the parasite within phagocytic cells in granulomas via an as yet undetermined mechanism.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180116
[Lr] Last revision date:180116
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 29203270
[Au] Autor:Langanke Dos Santos D; Alvares-Saraiva AM; Xavier JG; Spadacci-Morena DD; Peres GB; Dell'Armelina Rocha PR; Perez EC; Lallo MA
[Ad] Address:Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Paulista University (UNIP), Rua Dr. Bacelar 1212, 4th Floor, 04026-002 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:B-1 cells upregulate CD8 T lymphocytes and increase proinflammatory cytokines serum levels in oral encephalitozoonosis.
[So] Source:Microbes Infect;, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:1769-714X
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Microsporidia are intracellular pathogens that cause severe disease in immunocompromised humans and animals. We recently demonstrated that XID mice are more susceptible to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection by intraperitoneal route, evidencing the role of B-1 cells in resistance against infection. The present study investigated the resistance and susceptibility against E. cuniculi oral infection, including the role of B-1 cells. BALB/c and BALB/c XID (B-1 cells deficient) mice were orally infected with E. cuniculi spores. No clinical symptoms were observed in infected animals; histopathology showed lymphoplasmocytic enteritis with degeneration of the apexes of the villi in all infected groups. Higher parasite burden was observed in infected BALB/c XID mice. In the spleen and peritoneum, all infected mice showed a decrease of lymphocytes, including CD8 T cells, mostly in infected BALB/c XID mice. Adoptive transfer of B-1 cells (XID + B-1) was associated with a lower parasite burden. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) increased mostly in infected XID + B1 mice. Together, the present results showed that BALB/c XID mice infected by the oral route were more susceptible to encephalitozoonosis than BALB/c mice, demonstrating the B-1 cells importance in the control of the immune response against oral E. cuniculi infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171213
[Lr] Last revision date:171213
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 474 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29091912
[Au] Autor:Francisco Neto A; Dell'Armelina Rocha PR; Perez EC; Xavier JG; Peres GB; Spadacci-Morena DD; Alvares-Saraiva AM; Lallo MA
[Ad] Address:Programa de Patologia Ambiental e Experimental, Universidade Paulista (UNIP), São Paulo, Brasil.
[Ti] Title:Diabetes mellitus increases the susceptibility to encephalitozoonosis in mice.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0186954, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Microsporidiosis are diseases caused by opportunistic intracellular fungi in immunosuppressed individuals, as well as in transplanted patients, the elderly and children, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and decreased T cell response, neutrophil function, humoral immunity failure, increasing the susceptibility to infections. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic and/or immunosuppressed mice to encephalitozoonosis by Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Microscopically, granulomatous hepatitis, interstitial pneumonia and pielonephritis were observed in all infected groups. STZ treatment induced an immunossupressor effect in the populations of B (B-1 and B2) and CD4+ T lymphocytes. Moreover, infection decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages of DM mice. Furthermore, infection induced a significant increase of IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine serum levels in DM mice. IFN-γ, the most important cytokine for the resolution of encephalitozoonosis, increased only in infected mice. In addition to the decreased immune response, DM mice were more susceptible to encephalitozoonosis, associated with increased fungal burden, and symptoms. Additionally, cyclophosphamide immunosuppression in DM mice further increased the susceptibility to encephalitozoonosis. Thus, microsporidiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of comorbidities in diabetics.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171110
[Lr] Last revision date:171110
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186954

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[PMID]: 29032596
[Au] Autor:Sak B; Kotková M; Hlásková L; Kvác M
[Ad] Address:Institute of Parasitology, BC CAS, v.v.i., Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic.
[Ti] Title:Limited effect of adaptive immune response to control encephalitozoonosis.
[So] Source:Parasite Immunol;39(12), 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3024
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study revises our understanding of the effectiveness of cell-mediated adaptive immunity and treatment against microsporidia using molecular detection and quantification of microsporidia in immunocompetent C57Bl/6 and immunodeficient CD4 and CD8 mice for the first time. We demonstrate an intense dissemination of microsporidia into most organs within the first weeks post-infection in all strains of mice, followed by a chronic infection characterized by microsporidia persistence in CD4 and C57Bl/6 mice and a lethal outcome for CD8 mice. Albendazole application reduces microsporidia burden in C57Bl/6 and CD4 mice, whereas CD8 mice experience only a temporary effect of the treatment. Surprisingly, treated CD8 mice survived the entire experimental duration despite enormous microsporidia burden. On the basis of our results, we conclude that microsporidia survive despite the presence of immune mechanisms and treatments that are currently considered to be effective and therefore that CD8 T lymphocytes represent a major, but not sole effector mechanism controlling microsporidiosis. Furthermore, the survival of mice does not correspond to spore burden, which provides new insight into latent microsporidiosis from an epidemiological point of view.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171124
[Lr] Last revision date:171124
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1111/pim.12496

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[PMID]: 28942047
[Au] Autor:Kotková M; Sak B; Hlásková L; Kvác M
[Ad] Address:Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic; Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia in Ceské Budejovice, Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic.
[Ti] Title:The course of infection caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice.
[So] Source:Exp Parasitol;182:16-21, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2449
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Encephalitozoon cuniculi is probably the most common microsporidia which infects a wide range of vertebrates, including human. So far, four genotypes of this parasite have been identified based on the rRNA internal transcribed spacer variations. The course of infection caused by E. cuniculi III had very massive onset in immunocompetent host characterized by the presence of this parasite in all organs and tissues within one week after peroral infection. Encephalitozoonosis caused by E. cuniculi III had very progressive spreading into all organs within first week post inoculation in immunocompromised SCID mice and led to the death of the host. The experimental treatment with albendazole of immunocompetent BALB/c mice infected with E. cuniculi III have shown very weak effect. Our findings clearly showed that the different course of infection and response to treatment depends not only on the immunological status of the host, but also on the genotype of microsporidia. It could be very important especially for individuals under chemotherapy and transplant recipients of organs originating from infected donors.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Albendazole/therapeutic use
Encephalitozoon cuniculi/physiology
Encephalitozoonosis/immunology
Immunocompetence
Immunocompromised Host
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Albendazole/pharmacology
Animals
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Encephalitozoon cuniculi/drug effects
Encephalitozoon cuniculi/genetics
Encephalitozoon cuniculi/immunology
Encephalitozoonosis/drug therapy
Encephalitozoonosis/parasitology
Feces/parasitology
Genotype
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Mice, SCID
Spores, Fungal
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antifungal Agents); F4216019LN (Albendazole)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171031
[Lr] Last revision date:171031
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170925
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28781032
[Au] Autor:Summa NM; Brandão J
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200, rue Sicotte, PO 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec J2S 2M2, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.
[So] Source:Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract;20(3):749-771, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1558-4232
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170807
[Lr] Last revision date:170807
[St] Status:In-Process

  7 / 474 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28779899
[Au] Autor:Sak B; Jandová A; Dolezal K; Kvác M; Kvetonová D; Hlásková L; Rost M; Olsanský M; Nurcahyo W; Foitová I
[Ad] Address:Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic. Electronic address: casio@paru.cas.cz.
[Ti] Title:Effects of selected Indonesian plant extracts on E. cuniculi infection in vivo.
[So] Source:Exp Parasitol;181:94-101, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2449
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extracts from several plant leaves widely used in traditional medicine to cure digestive tract disorders and in the self-medication of wild animals such as non-human primates, namely Archidendron fagifolium, Diospyros sumatrana, Shorea sumatrana, and Piper betle leaves, with regard to their antimicrosporidial activity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in immunocompetent BALB/c mice determined using molecular detection of microsporidial DNA (qPCR) in various tissues and body fluids of infected, treated mice. Of the plant extracts tested, Diospyros sumatrana provided the most promising results, reducing spore shedding by 88% compared to untreated controls. Moreover, total burden per 1 g of tissue in the D. sumatrana extract-treated group reached 87% reduction compared to untreated controls, which was comparable to the effect of the standard drug, Albendazole. This data represents the baseline necessary for further research focused on determining the structure, activity and modes of action of the active compounds, mainly of D. sumatrana, enabling subsequent development of antimicrosporidial remedies.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Diospyros/chemistry
Encephalitozoon cuniculi/drug effects
Encephalitozoonosis/drug therapy
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Albendazole/pharmacology
Albendazole/therapeutic use
Animals
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Cercopithecus aethiops
DNA, Fungal/isolation & purification
Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology
Dimethyl Sulfoxide/therapeutic use
Dipterocarpaceae/chemistry
Fabaceae/chemistry
Feces/parasitology
Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology
Immunocompetence
Indonesia
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Piper betle/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Spores, Fungal/drug effects
Vero Cells
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (DNA, Fungal); 0 (Plant Extracts); F4216019LN (Albendazole); YOW8V9698H (Dimethyl Sulfoxide)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170920
[Lr] Last revision date:170920
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170807
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  8 / 474 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28723944
[Au] Autor:Desoubeaux G; Piqueras MDC; Pantin A; Bhattacharya SK; Peschke R; Joachim A; Cray C
[Ad] Address:University of Miami - Miller School of Medicine, Division of Comparative Pathology, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Application of mass spectrometry to elucidate the pathophysiology of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(7):e0177961, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian species which can induce subclinical to serious disease in mammals including rabbits, a definitive natural host. The pathophysiology of infection has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this exploratory study, we utilized two mass spectrometry approaches: first, the analysis of the humoral response by profiling the microsporidian antigens as revealed by Western blot screening, and second, implementing the iTRAQ®-labeling protocol to focus on the changes within the host proteome during infection. Seven E. cuniculi proteins were identified at one-dimensional gel regions where specific seropositive reaction was observed by Western blot, including polar tube protein 3, polar tube protein 2, and for the first time reported: heat shock related 70kDa protein, polysaccharide deacetylase domain-containing protein, zinc finger protein, spore wall and anchoring disk complex protein EnP1, and translation elongation factor 1 alpha. In addition, there was a significant increase of nine host proteins in blood samples from E. cuniculi-diseased rabbits in comparison with non-diseased control subjects undergoing various inflammatory processes. This included serum paraoxonase, alpha-1-antiproteinase F precursor and alpha-1-antiproteinase S-1 which have presumptive catalytic activity likely related to infection control, and cystatin fetuin-B-type, an enzyme regulator that has been poorly studied to date. Notably, 11 proteins were found to be statistically increased in rabbits with neurological versus renal clinical presentation of E. cuniculi infection. Overall, this novel analysis based on mass spectrometry has provided new insights on the inflammatory and humoral responses during E. cuniculi infection in rabbits.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Encephalitozoon cuniculi/isolation & purification
Encephalitozoonosis/veterinary
Fungal Proteins/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Encephalitozoonosis/metabolism
Encephalitozoonosis/microbiology
Mass Spectrometry
Rabbits
Spores, Fungal/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Fungal Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170922
[Lr] Last revision date:170922
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170721
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0177961

  9 / 474 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28426751
[Au] Autor:Han B; Polonais V; Sugi T; Yakubu R; Takvorian PM; Cali A; Maier K; Long M; Levy M; Tanowitz HB; Pan G; Delbac F; Zhou Z; Weiss LM
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, P. R. China.
[Ti] Title:The role of microsporidian polar tube protein 4 (PTP4) in host cell infection.
[So] Source:PLoS Pathog;13(4):e1006341, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7374
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Microsporidia have been identified as pathogens that have important effects on our health, food security and economy. A key to the success of these obligate intracellular pathogens is their unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which delivers the nucleus containing sporoplasm into host cells during invasion. Due to the size of the polar tube, the rapidity of polar tube discharge and sporoplasm passage, and the absence of genetic techniques for the manipulation of microsporidia, study of this organelle has been difficult and there is relatively little known regarding polar tube formation and the function of the proteins making up this structure. Herein, we have characterized polar tube protein 4 (PTP4) from the microsporidium Encephalitozoon hellem and found that a monoclonal antibody to PTP4 labels the tip of the polar tube suggesting that PTP4 might be involved in a direct interaction with host cell proteins during invasion. Further analyses employing indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assays confirmed that PTP4 binds to mammalian cells. The addition of either recombinant PTP4 protein or anti-PTP4 antibody reduced microsporidian infection of its host cells in vitro. Proteomic analysis of PTP4 bound to host cell membranes purified by immunoprecipitation identified transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) as a potential host cell interacting partner for PTP4. Additional experiments revealed that knocking out TfR1, adding TfR1 recombinant protein into cell culture, or adding anti-TfR1 antibody into cell culture significantly reduced microsporidian infection rates. These results indicate that PTP4 is an important protein competent of the polar tube involved in the mechanism of host cell infection utilized by these pathogens.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antibodies, Fungal/immunology
Encephalitozoon/genetics
Encephalitozoonosis/microbiology
Fungal Proteins/metabolism
Proteomics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cell Membrane/metabolism
Cricetinae
Cricetulus
Encephalitozoon/immunology
Encephalitozoon/pathogenicity
Encephalitozoon/ultrastructure
Encephalitozoonosis/pathology
Fungal Proteins/genetics
Organelles/metabolism
Organelles/ultrastructure
Rabbits
Receptors, Transferrin/genetics
Receptors, Transferrin/metabolism
Recombinant Proteins
Spores, Fungal/ultrastructure
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antibodies, Fungal); 0 (Fungal Proteins); 0 (PTP protein, Encephalitozoon hellem); 0 (Receptors, Transferrin); 0 (Recombinant Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170926
[Lr] Last revision date:170926
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170421
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006341

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[PMID]: 28205456
[Au] Autor:Rodríguez-Tovar LE; Villarreal-Marroquín A; Nevárez-Garza AM; Castillo-Velázquez U; Rodríguez-Ramírez HG; Navarro-Soto MC; Zárate-Ramos JJ; Hernández-Vidal G; Trejo-Chávez A
[Ad] Address:Cuerpo Académico de Zoonosis y Enfermedades Emergentes (Rodríguez, Villarreal, Nevárez, Castillo, Rodríguez, Navarro, Trejo), Department of Immunology, FMVZ-UANL, Campus de Ciencias Agropecuarias, General Escobedo, Nuevo León, Mexico.
[Ti] Title:Histochemical study of Encephalitozoon cuniculi spores in the kidneys of naturally infected New Zealand rabbits.
[So] Source:J Vet Diagn Invest;29(3):269-277, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1943-4936
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an important microsporidian pathogen that is considered an emergent, zoonotic, and opportunistic. It infects both domestic and laboratory rabbits, generating severe chronic interstitial and granulomatous nephritis with fibrosis and granulomatous encephalitis. Encephalitozoonosis is diagnosed in paraffin-embedded sections by examining the spores in the host tissues. The spores are difficult to observe when the samples are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), particularly when there is an inflammatory reaction and tissue damage. The spores are easily mistaken for other microorganisms, such as fungi (yeasts), protozoa, and bacteria. In our study, we used kidney samples from E. cuniculi-positive rabbits and employed 14 recommended histologic stains for detecting microsporidia spores: alcian blue, calcofluor white, Giemsa, Gram, Grocott, H&E, Luna, Luxol fast blue, Masson trichrome, modified trichrome stain (MTS), periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS), Van Gieson, Warthin-Starry (WS), and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN).We concluded that MTS and Gram stain, detected by light microscopy, and calcofluor white stain, detected by ultraviolet light microscopy, are the best stains for detecting spores of E. cuniculi in paraffin-embedded tissues from infected rabbits. These stains were superior to WS, ZN, Giemsa, and PAS for identifying spores without background "noise" or monochromatic interference. Also, they allow individual spores to be discerned in paraffin-embedded tissues. MTS allows observation of the polar tube, polaroplast, and posterior vacuole, the most distinctive parts of the spore.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Encephalitozoon cuniculi/isolation & purification
Encephalitozoonosis/veterinary
Rodent Diseases/diagnosis
Spores, Fungal/isolation & purification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Animals, Domestic
Encephalitozoonosis/diagnosis
Encephalitozoonosis/parasitology
Kidney/parasitology
Rabbits
Rodent Diseases/parasitology
Staining and Labeling/veterinary
[Pt] Publication type:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170713
[Lr] Last revision date:170713
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1040638716668559


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