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[PMID]: 29524810
[Au] Autor:Yuan S; Yu HJ; Liu MW; Huang Y; Yang XH; Tang BW; Song Y; Cao ZK; Wu HJ; He QQ; Gasevic D
[Ad] Address:School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, PR China.
[Ti] Title:The association of fruit and vegetable consumption with changes in weight and body mass index in Chinese adults: a cohort study.
[So] Source:Public Health;157:121-126, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1476-5616
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Findings regarding the benefits of fruit and vegetables (FV) on weight control are inconsistent and little is known among Chinese populations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between change in FV consumption, weight, and change in body mass index (BMI) among Chinese adults, participants of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: Two waves of CHNS conducted in 2006 and 2011 were used. Continuous FV consumption increase was considered as the exposure and changes in weight and BMI as outcomes. Change in FV consumption was categorized into quintiles. Analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression models, after controlling for potential confounders such as energy intake, physical activity, and smoking, were used to describe the relationship between change in FV consumption and change in weight and BMI. RESULTS: A total of 4357 participants aged 18-65 years were included in this study. The respective weight and BMI gains in male individuals were 1.81 kg and 0.73 kg/m in the fifth quintile of FV change relative to individuals in the first quintile (3.67 kg for weight gain and 1.48 kg/m for BMI gain). An increase in FV consumption by 100 g was associated with a 211 g weight loss (B = -2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.34, -0.89, P < 0.001) and a decrease in BMI by 0.94 kg/m (B = -0.94; 95% CI, -1.36, -0.46, P < 0.001) in men; and a 140 g weight loss (B = -0.14; 95% CI, -0.97, 0.69, P = 0.74) and a decrease in BMI by 0.29 kg/m BMI (B = -0.29; 95% CI, -0.63, 0.06, P = 0.11) in women. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in FV consumption was associated with statistically significant weight loss and decrease in BMI among Chinese men, and, although suggested, weight loss among women was not significant. Considering the protective effect of FV on human health, increasing FV consumption in the Chinese population is recommended.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 105990 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524803
[Au] Autor:Del Cueto J; Møller BL; Dicenta F; Sánchez-Pérez R
[Ad] Address:Department of Plant Breeding, CEBAS-CSIC, P.O. Box 164, 30100 Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Murcia, Spain; University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science, Plant Biochemistry Laboratory, DK-1871 Copenhagen C, Denmark; VILLUM Research Center for Plant Plasticity, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:ß-Glucosidase activity in almond seeds.
[So] Source:Plant Physiol Biochem;126:163-172, 2017 Dec 16.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2690
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Almond bitterness is the most important trait for breeding programs since bitter-kernelled seedlings are usually discarded. Amygdalin and its precursor prunasin are hydrolyzed by specific enzymes called ß-glucosidases. In order to better understand the genetic control of almond bitterness, some studies have shown differences in the location of prunasin hydrolases (PH, the ß-glucosidase that degrades prunasin) in sweet and bitter genotypes. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize different PHs in sweet- and bitter-kernelled almonds to determine whether differences in their genomic or protein sequences are responsible for the sweet or bitter taste of their seeds. RNA was extracted from the tegument, nucellus and cotyledon of one sweet (Lauranne) and two bitter (D05-187 and S3067) almond genotypes throughout fruit ripening. Sequences of nine positive Phs were then obtained from all of the genotypes by RT-PCR and cloning. These clones, from mid ripening stage, were expressed in a heterologous system in tobacco plants by agroinfiltration. The PH activity was detected using the Feigl-Anger method and quantifying the hydrogen cyanide released with prunasin as substrate. Furthermore, ß-glucosidase activity was detected by Fast Blue BB salt and Umbelliferyl method. Differences at the sequence level (SNPs) and in the activity assays were detected, although no correlation with bitterness was found.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524800
[Au] Autor:Horikoshi HM; Sekozawa Y; Kobayashi M; Saito K; Kusano M; Sugaya S
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Electronic address: humberto_hmh@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Metabolomics analysis of 'Housui' Japanese pear flower buds during endodormancy reveals metabolic suppression by thermal fluctuation.
[So] Source:Plant Physiol Biochem;126:134-141, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2690
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dormancy is a complex phenomenon that allows plants to survive the winter season. Studies of dormancy have recently attracted more attention due to the expansion of temperate fruit production in areas under mild winters and due to climate changes. This study aimed to identify and characterize the metabolic changes induced by chilling temperatures, as well as during thermal fluctuation conditions that simulate mild winter and/or climate change scenarios. To do this, we compared the metabolic profile of Japanese pear flower buds exposed to constant chilling at 6 °C and thermal fluctuations of 6 °C/18 °C (150 h/150 h) during endodormancy. We detected 91 metabolites by gas chromatography paired with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) that could be classified into eight groups: amino acids, amino acid derivatives, organic acids, sugars and polyols, fatty acids and sterols, phenol lipids, phenylpropanoids, and other compounds. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the level of several amino acids decreased during endodormancy. Sugar and polyol levels increased during endodormancy during constant chilling and might be associated with chilling stress tolerance and providing an energy supply for resuming growth. In contrast, thermal fluctuations produced low levels of metabolites related to the pentose phosphate pathway, energy production, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in flower buds, which may be associated with failed endodormancy release. This metabolic profile contributes to our understanding of the biological mechanism of dormancy during chilling accumulation and clarifies the metabolic changes during mild winters and future climate change scenarios.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524792
[Au] Autor:Griffith R; von Hinke S; Smith S
[Ad] Address:Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Manchester, United Kingdom. Electronic address: rgriffith@ifs.org.uk.
[Ti] Title:Getting a healthy start: The effectiveness of targeted benefits for improving dietary choices.
[So] Source:J Health Econ;58:176-187, 2018 Feb 24.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1646
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:There is growing policy interest in encouraging better dietary choices. We study a nationally-implemented policy - the UK Healthy Start scheme - that introduced vouchers for fruit, vegetables and milk. We show that the policy has increased spending on fruit and vegetables and has been more effective than an equivalent-value cash benefit. We also show that the policy improved the nutrient composition of households' shopping baskets, with no offsetting changes in spending on other foodstuffs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 105990 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505818
[Au] Autor:Polat I; Baysal Ö; Mercati F; Gümrükcü E; Sülü G; Kitapci A; Araniti F; Carimi F
[Ad] Address:Bati Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute, Antalya, Turkey.
[Ti] Title:Characterization of Botrytis cinerea isolates collected on pepper in Southern Turkey by using molecular markers, fungicide resistance genes and virulence assay.
[So] Source:Infect Genet Evol;60:151-159, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1567-7257
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Botrytis cinerea is a polyphagous fungal pathogen causing gray mold disease. Moreover, it is one of the most destructive infections of small fruit crops such as pepper (Capsicum annnum L.). C. sativum is a species belonging to the Solanaceae family and Turkey is one of the main producers in the World. In the present work, aiming to obtain information useful for pest management, fifty B. cinerea isolates collected from Turkey and a reference isolate (B05.10) were characterized using molecular markers and fungicide resistance genes. Morphological and molecular (ITS1-ITS4) identification of B. cinerea isolates, the degree of virulence and mating types were determined. Since one or several allelic mutations in the histidine kinase (Bos1) and ß-tubulin genes generally confer the resistance to fungicides, the sequences of these target genes were investigated in the selected isolates, which allowed the identification of two different haplotypes. Mating types were also determined by PCR assays using primer specific for MAT1-1 alpha gene (MAT1-1-1) and MAT1-2 HMG (MAT1-2-1) of B. cinerea. Twenty-two out of 50 isolates (44%) were MAT1-2, while 38% were MAT1-1. Interestingly, out of whole studied samples, 9 isolates (18%) were heterokaryotic or mixed colonies. In addition, cluster and population structure analyses identified five main groups and two genetic pools, respectively, underlining a good level of variability in the analysed panel. The results highlighted the presence of remarkable genetic diversity in B. cinerea isolates collected in a crucial economical area for pepper cultivation in Turkey and the data will be beneficial in view of future gray mold disease management.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 105990 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29476857
[Au] Autor:Naeem A; Abbas T; Ali TM; Hasnain A
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address: ayeza.naeem@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Effect of guar gum coatings containing essential oils on shelf life and nutritional quality of green-unripe mangoes during low temperature storage.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;113:403-410, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study investigated the effect of treatment of guar gum coating coupled with essential oils. Harvested unripe green mangoes (UGM) were preserved using edible coatings containing essential oils of Nigella sativa, Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Laurus nobilis derived using two different solvents (methanol and ethanol) and stored at refrigeration temperature (10°C, 80-85% relative humidity). Physiological and biochemical parameters that assess the quality of fruits were determined. Microbiological analysis was also performed at the start and end of shelf life. Generally, it was observed that ethanolic essential oils supplemented coatings conferred a greater retention of fruit quality as compared to both controls. Bacterial counts were significantly reduced in fruits that were coated with ethanolic essential oil edible coatings. Secondly, the coatings supplemented with ethanolic and methanolic essential oils extended shelf life up to 24days whereas treated and untreated control decayed after 10 and 6days respectively (P<0.05). These results suggested the application of these edible coatings for preservation of unripe green mangoes during cold storage.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 105990 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29474900
[Au] Autor:Zhang Y; Miao H; Yan H; Sheng Y; Ji L
[Ad] Address:The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Compound Chinese Medicines and The SATCM Key Laboratory for New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,
[Ti] Title:Hepatoprotective effect of Forsythiae Fructus water extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;218:27-34, 2018 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, named Forsythiae Fructus (Lian-Qiao), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for clearing away heat and toxic material, eliminating the mass and relieving swelling. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to observe the attenuation of the water extract of Forsythiae Fructus (FSE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl )-induced hepatic fibrosis in male C57BL/6 mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection with 2 ml/kg CCl (mixed 1: 3 in olive oil) twice a week for 4 weeks. At the same time, the mice were orally given with FSE (1, 2 g/kg) every day for 4 weeks. Serum biochemical parameters, gene and protein expression related to liver fibrosis were analyzed. The contents of forsythiaside A and forsythin in FSE were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) activity and liver histological evaluation both showed the protection of FSE against CCl -induced liver injury. Further, the anti-fibrotic effects of FSE was evidenced by the results of Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining, liver hydroxyproline content, and serum amounts of hyaluronic acid, laminin, collagen â…£ and type III procollagen (PCIII). FSE also reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in livers from CCl -injured mice. Additionally, FSE decreased the increased hepatic expression of fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin induced by CCl in mice. CONCLUSIONS: FSE attenuates CCl -induced liver fibrosis in mice by inhibiting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, reducing hepatic extracellular matrix (ECM) disposition and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 105990 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29438844
[Au] Autor:Wegman J; van Loon I; Smeets PAM; Cools R; Aarts E
[Ad] Address:Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: joost.wegman@donders.ru.nl.
[Ti] Title:Top-down expectation effects of food labels on motivation.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;173:13-24, 2018 Feb 10.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Labels on food packages inform our beliefs, shaping our expectations of food properties, such as its expected taste and healthiness. These beliefs can influence the processing of caloric rewards beyond objective sensory properties and have the potential to impact decision making. However, no studies, within or beyond the food domain, have assessed how written information, such as food labels, affect implicit motivation to obtain rewards, even though choices in daily life might be strongly driven by implicit motivational biases. We investigated how written information affects implicit motivation to obtain caloric rewards in healthy young adults. We used food labels (high- and low-calorie), associated with an identical fruit-flavored sugar-sweetened beverage, to study motivation for caloric rewards during fMRI. In a joystick task, hungry participants (N = 31) were instructed to make fast approach or avoid movements to earn the cued beverages. Behaviorally, we found a general approach bias, which was stronger for the beverage that was most preferred during a subsequent choice test, i.e., the one labeled as low-calorie. This behavioral effect was accompanied by increased BOLD signal in the sensorimotor cortex during the response phase of the task for the preferred, low-calorie beverage compared with the non-preferred, high-calorie beverage. During the anticipation phase, the non-preferred, high-calorie beverage label elicited stronger fMRI signal in the right ventral anterior insula, a region associated with aversion and taste intensity, than the preferred, low-calorie label. Together, these data suggest that high-calorie labeling can increase avoidance of beverages and reduce neural activity in brain regions associated with motor control. In conclusion, we show effects of food labeling on fMRI responses during anticipation and subsequent motivated action and on behavior, in the absence of objective taste differences, demonstrating the influence of written information on implicit biases. These findings contribute to our understanding of implicit biases in real-life eating behavior.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 105990 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29432850
[Au] Autor:Fonseca LHM; Lohmann LG
[Ad] Address:Laboratorio de Sistemática Vegetal, Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biocências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: luizhmf@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Combining high-throughput sequencing and targeted loci data to infer the phylogeny of the "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae).
[So] Source:Mol Phylogenet Evol;123:1-15, 2018 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9513
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Combining high-throughput sequencing data with amplicon sequences allows the reconstruction of robust phylogenies based on comprehensive sampling of characters and taxa. Here, we combine Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing data to infer the phylogeny of the "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae), a diverse lineage of Neotropical plants, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We used NGS to obtain complete or nearly-complete plastomes of members of this clade, leading to a final dataset with 54 individuals, representing 44 members of ingroup and 10 outgroups. In addition, we obtained Sanger sequences of two plastid markers (ndhF and rpl32-trnL) for 44 individuals (43 ingroup and 1 outgroup) and the nuclear PepC for 64 individuals (63 ingroup and 1 outgroup). Our final dataset includes 87 individuals of members of the "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade, representing 66 species (ca. 90% of the diversity), plus 11 outgroups. Plastid and nuclear datasets recovered congruent topologies and were combined. The combined analysis recovered a monophyletic "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade and a paraphyletic Adenocalymma that also contained a monophyletic Neojobertia plus Pleonotoma albiflora. Relationships are strongly supported in all analyses, with most lineages within the "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade receiving maximum posterior probabilities. Ancestral character state reconstructions using Bayesian approaches identified six morphological synapomorphies of clades namely, prophyll type, petiole and petiolule articulation, tendril ramification, inflorescence ramification, calyx shape, and fruit wings. Other characters such as habit, calyx cupular trichomes, corolla color, and corolla shape evolved multiple times. These characters are putatively related with the clade diversification and can be further explored in diversification studies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 105990 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29427693
[Au] Autor:Myers G; Wright S; Blane S; Pratt IS; Pettigrew S
[Ad] Address:Cancer Council Western Australia, 420 Bagot Road, Subiaco WA 6180, Australia; School of Psychology, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845, Australia. Electronic address: gael.myers@curtin.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:A process and outcome evaluation of an in-class vegetable promotion program.
[So] Source:Appetite;125:182-189, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Nutrition interventions that target both fruits and vegetables are effective in increasing fruit consumption, but have been limited in their ability to improve vegetable intake. To address the low proportion of children meeting vegetable intake guidelines, approaches specifically targeting vegetables are needed. This paper reports on a mixed-method analysis of a 10-week vegetable promotion pilot project that aimed to increase vegetable intake as part of the existing Crunch&Sip in-class fruit and vegetable break program. DESIGN: The intervention was designed to promote vegetable consumption through the implementation of vegetable-focused resources, including curriculum resources and parent education materials. Teachers completed pre- and end-of-intervention surveys. Process measures related to the use of resources and teachers' perceptions of barriers to implementation. The outcome evaluation included measures of children's vegetable consumption during Crunch&Sip breaks and teachers' attitudes and confidence relating to educating students about the benefits of consuming vegetables. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one Western Australian primary schools already participating in the Crunch&Sip program participated in the pilot intervention and evaluation. Coverage included 35 primary school teachers representing 818 students aged 4-11 years. RESULTS: The proportion of children bringing vegetables for Crunch&Sip more than doubled over the 10-week intervention (21% vs 46%; p < 0.001). Improvements were observed in teachers' perceived knowledge about the nutritional benefits of vegetables (p = 0.001) and confidence to educate students about the benefits of vegetable consumption (p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Preferentially promoting vegetable consumption as part of an existing school-based nutrition program may be an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


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