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[PMID]: 29406028
[Au] Autor:Yang K; Long XM; Liu YC; Chen FH; Liu XF; Sun ZL; Liu ZY
[Ad] Address:Hunan Engineering Research Center of Veterinary Drug, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.
[Ti] Title:Development and in-house validation of a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine in porcine plasma.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci;1076:54-60, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-376X
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Three monomers of G. elegans indole alkaloids (gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine) were simultaneously detected in porcine plasma for the first time with the development and validation of a sensitive and reliable LC-ESI-MS/MS method. Using a gradient mobile phase at a constant flow rate of 0.2 mL/min via electrospray ionization (positive ion mode) in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan, gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine were eluted, separated and detected at an appropriate retention time. The porcine plasma was prepared using protein precipitation with 1% formic acid-acetonitrile: methanol (2:1, v/v). Using matrix-matched calibration curves and weighted least squares linear regression, a good linearity (r > 0.99) was achieved with a concentration range of 0.1-200 g/L for gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine; estimated LOD and LOQ values were 0.10 g/L and 0.2 g/L, respectively. The mean of the recoveries was in the range of 82.68-100.35% of porcine plasma at four different levels, and the intra-day and inter-day precision (CV) were lower than 15% with a range of 2.46-8.76% and 2.73-10.83%, respectively. The proposed method has proved to be suitable for accurate, quantitative determination of gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine in porcine plasma.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/blood
Chromatography, Liquid/methods
Indole Alkaloids/blood
Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Drug Stability
Limit of Detection
Linear Models
Reproducibility of Results
Swine
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Indole Alkaloids); 0 (koumine); 5Y13A78Z72 (gelsemine); 82354-38-9 (humantenmine)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180207
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  2 / 146 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29388221
[Au] Autor:Wang L; Wen Y; Meng F
[Ad] Address:School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.
[Ti] Title:Simultaneous determination of gelsemine and koumine in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and application to pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Gelsemium elegans Benth extract.
[So] Source:Biomed Chromatogr;, 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1099-0801
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A simple, rapid and sensitive method using UPLC-MS/MS was established and validated for simultaneous determination of gelsemine and koumine in rat plasma after oral administration of Gelsemium elegans Benth extract. Plasma was performed with methanol precipitation and berberine was chosen as the internal standard. Plasma samples were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C column (3.0 50 mm, 1.7 m) with gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Multiple reaction monitoring mode in positive ion mode was utilized for detection. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.2-100 ng/mL for gelsemine and 0.1-50 ng/mL for koumine, with the lower limits of quantification 0.2 and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-precision and accuracy were well within the acceptable ranges. The developed method was successfully applied to an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rat after oral administration of 10 mg/kg Gelsemium elegans Benth extract.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/bmc.4201

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[PMID]: 29428604
[Au] Autor:Bellavite P; Bonafini C; Marzotto M
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie, 8, 37134 Verona, Italy. Electronic address: paolo.bellavite@univr.it.
[Ti] Title:Experimental neuropharmacology of Gelsemium sempervirens: Recent advances and debated issues.
[So] Source:J Ayurveda Integr Med;, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:0975-9476
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium) is traditionally used for its anxiolytic-like properties and its action mechanism in laboratory models are under scrutiny. Evidence from rodent models was reported suggesting the existence of a high sensitivity of central nervous system to anxiolytic power of Gelsemium extracts and Homeopathic dilutions. Invitro investigation of extremely low doses of this plant extract showed a modulation of gene expression of human neurocytes. These studies were criticized in a few commentaries, generated a debate in literature and were followed by further experimental studies from various laboratories. Toxic doses of Gelsemium cause neurological signs characterized by marked weakness and convulsions, while ultra-low doses or high Homeopathic dilutions counteract seizures induced by lithium and pilocarpine, decrease anxiety after stress and increases the anti-stress allopregnanolone hormone, through glycine receptors. Low (non-Homeopathic) doses of this plant or its alkaloids decrease neuropathic pain and c-Fos expression in mice brain and oxidative stress. Due to the complexity of the matter, several aspects deserve interpretation and the main controversial topics, with a focus on the issues of high dilution pharmacology, are discussed and clarified.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180211
[Lr] Last revision date:180211
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29157472
[Au] Autor:Van Wassenhoven M; Goyens M; Henry M; Capieaux E; Devos P
[Ad] Address:Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products, Homeopathic Medicines Commission, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: michelvw@homeopathy.be.
[Ti] Title:Nuclear Magnetic Resonance characterization of traditional homeopathically manufactured copper (Cuprum metallicum) and plant (Gelsemium sempervirens) medicines and controls.
[So] Source:Homeopathy;106(4):223-239, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4245
[Cp] Country of publication:Scotland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: NMR proton relaxation is sensitive to the dynamics of the water molecule H O, through the interaction of the spin of the proton ( H) with external magnetic and electromagnetic fields. METHODS: We measured dilution and potentization processes through measurements of H spin-lattice T and spin-spin T relaxation times. In order to interpret the recorded fluctuations in T - or T -values, experimental data were linearized by investigating how the area under a fluctuating time=f(dilution) curve (dilution integral or DI) changes with dilution. Two kinds of fitting procedures were considered: chi-square fitting with a goodness-of-fit probability, and least absolute deviations criterion with Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. RESULTS: We showed that fluctuations are not attributable to random noise and/or experimental errors, evidencing a memory effect quantifiable by the slope of the DI=f(dilution) straight line. For all experiments, correlation coefficients were found to lie above 0.9999, against 0.999 for random noise. The discrimination between experimental slopes and slopes associated with random noise data was very good at a five-sigma level of confidence (i.e. probability 3נ10 ). Discrimination between experimental slopes at a five-sigma level was possible in most cases, with three exceptions: gelsemium aqua pura v gelsemium dilution (four-sigma); copper aqua pura v gelsemium aqua pura (four-sigma) and copper simple dilution v gelsemium simple dilution (three-sigma). All potentized samples show very good discrimination (at least nine-sigma level) against aqua pura, lactose or simple dilution. It was possible to transform the associated relaxation times into a molecular rotational correlation time τ and an average spin-spin distance d. Our experiments thus point to a considerable slowing down of molecular movements (τ>1300ps or T=224-225K) around water molecules up to a distance of 3.7, values. It was also possible to rule out other possible mechanisms of relaxation (diffusive motion, O- H relaxation or coupling with the electronic spin, S=1, of dissolved dioxygen molecules). CONCLUSION: There is clear evidence that homeopathic solutions cannot be considered as pure water as commonly assumed. Instead, we have evidenced a clear memory effect upon dilution/potentization of a substance (water, lactose, copper, gelsemium) reflected by different rotational correlation times and average H⋯H distances. A possible explanation for such a memory effect may lie in the formation of mesoscopic water structures around nanoparticles and/or nanobubbles mediated by zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field as suggested by quantum field theories. The existence of an Avogadro's 'wall' for homeopathically-prepared medicines is not supported by our data. Rather it appears that all dilutions have a specific material configuration determined by the potentized substance, also by the chemical nature of the containers, and dissolved gases and the electromagnetic environment. This sensitivity of homeopathically-prepared medicines to electromagnetic fields may be amplified by the highly non-linear processing routinely applied in the preparation of homeopathic medicines. Future work is needed in such directions. The time is now ripe for a demystification of the preparation of homeopathic remedies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171121
[Lr] Last revision date:171121
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29079733
[Au] Autor:Xiong BJ; Xu Y; Jin GL; Liu M; Yang J; Yu CX
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology and College of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350122, Fujian, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Analgesic effects and pharmacologic mechanisms of the Gelsemium alkaloid koumine on a rat model of postoperative pain.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;7(1):14269, 2017 Oct 27.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Postoperative pain (POP) of various durations is a common complication of surgical procedures. POP is caused by nerve damage and inflammatory responses that are difficult to treat. The neuroinflammation-glia-steroid network is known to be important in POP. It has been reported that the Gelsemium alkaloid koumine possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neurosteroid modulating activities. This study was undertaken to test the analgesic effects of koumine against POP and explore the underlying pharmacologic mechanisms. Our results showed that microglia and astroglia were activated in the spinal dorsal horn post-incision, along with an increase of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α). Both subcutaneous and intrathecal (i.t.) koumine treatment after incision significantly prevented mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, inhibited microglial and astroglial activation, and suppressed expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the analgesic effects of koumine were antagonized by i.t. administration of translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) antagonist PK11195 and GABA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Together, koumine prevented mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia caused by POP. The pharmacologic mechanism of koumine-mediated analgesia might involve inhibition of spinal neuroinflammation and activation of TSPO. These data suggested that koumine might be a potential pharmacotherapy for the management of POP.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-14714-0

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[PMID]: 29035525
[Au] Autor:Liu Y; Li Y; Liu Z; Li L; Qu J; Ma S; Chen R; Dai J; Yu S
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College , Beijing 100050, China.
[Ti] Title:Sesquiterpenes from the Endophyte Glomerella cingulata.
[So] Source:J Nat Prod;80(10):2609-2614, 2017 Oct 27.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6025
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:From the cultured endophytic fungus Glomerella cingulata isolated from a toxic plant, Gelsemium elegans, one new phenanthrene (1), four new sesquiterpenes (2-5), and three known sesquiterpenes (6-8) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Based on the ECD calculations, the absolute configurations of the new compounds were determined. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in BV2 cells by 50.6, 36.1, and 29.4%, respectively, at 1 M (positive control curcumin, IC = 4.0 M).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171027
[Lr] Last revision date:171027
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00054

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[PMID]: 28898085
[Au] Autor:Zhang W; Xu W; Wang GY; Gong XY; Li NP; Wang L; Ye WC
[Ad] Address:Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine & Natural Products, and JNU-HKUST Joint Laboratory for Neuroscience & Innovative Drug Research, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University , Guangzhou 510632, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Gelsekoumidines A and B: Two Pairs of Atropisomeric Bisindole Alkaloids from the Roots of Gelsemium elegans.
[So] Source:Org Lett;19(19):5194-5197, 2017 Oct 06.
[Is] ISSN:1523-7052
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Two pairs of atropisomeric bisindole alkaloids, gelsekoumidines A (1) and B (2), with a new carbon skeleton, were isolated from the roots of Gelsemium elegans. Compounds 1 and 2 represent the first examples of seco-koumine-gelsedine type alkaloids, which feature an unprecedented 20,21-seco-koumine scaffold fused with a gelsedine framework via a double bond. Their structures including absolute stereochemistry were elucidated by spectroscopic data, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation. A plausible biogenetic pathway for the new compounds is also proposed. Compound 2 exhibited a moderate inhibitory effect against nitric oxide (NO) production.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171007
[Lr] Last revision date:171007
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.orglett.7b02463

  8 / 146 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28705508
[Au] Autor:Liu YC; Lin L; Cheng P; Sun ZL; Wu Y; Liu ZY
[Ad] Address:Hunan Engineering Research Center of Veterinary Drug, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128, China.
[Ti] Title:Fingerprint analysis of Gelsemium elegans by HPLC followed by the targeted identification of chemical constituents using HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
[So] Source:Fitoterapia;121:94-105, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6971
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Gelsemium elegans, which is a genus of the family Loganiaease, is commonly used as a traditional medicine for promoting animal growth and treating rheumatoid arthritis pain and neuropathic pain, among others. In this study, we first established a valid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the fingerprint analysis of Gelsemium elegans samples. Then, the comprehensive detection of chemical constituents from the samples was performed using HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The similarity evaluation results showed that location and area differences influenced the quality of the samples. An efficient strategy for the rapid targeted identification of chemical components was matching with a developed Gelsemium database. As a result, the accurate elemental compositions and known structures of compounds are found as hits. This process facilitated the structural identification of compounds combined with the accurate mass measurement of product ions and fragmentation behaviors. Consequently, 41 components including six alkaloids and non-alkaloids were systematically identified from Gelsemium elegans. The results showed that at least seven relatively major components existing in Gelsemium elegans may be useful for its quality control. The present analytical method combined with the developed Gelsemium database was shown to be a useful tool for investigating the chemical components of Gelsemium products.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/isolation & purification
Gelsemium/chemistry
Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alkaloids/chemistry
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Mass Spectrometry
Phytochemicals/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Phytochemicals); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171010
[Lr] Last revision date:171010
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170715
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  9 / 146 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28679292
[Au] Autor:Wang HT; Yang YC; Mao X; Wang Y; Huang R
[Ad] Address:a Department of E.N.T. , Second Hospital of Jilin University , Changchun 130041 , China.
[Ti] Title:Cytotoxic gelsedine-type indole alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans.
[So] Source:J Asian Nat Prod Res;:1-7, 2017 Jul 06.
[Is] ISSN:1477-2213
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The ethanol extract of the leaves and branches of Gelsemium elegans afforded three new gelsedine-type indole alkaloids, 11-methoxy-14,15-dihydroxyhumantenmine (1), 11-methoxy-14,15-dihydroxy-19-oxogelsenicine (2), and 11-methoxy-14-hydroxygelsedilam (3), along with one known alkaloid 11-methoxy-14-hydroxyhumantenmine (4). The structures of isolated compounds were established based on 1D and 2D ( H- H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high-resolution mass spectrometry. The isolated alkaloids were tested in vitro for cytotoxic potential against four laryngeal tumor cell lines including Hep-2, LSC-1, TR-LCC-1, and FD-LSC-1. As a result, compounds 1 and 4 exhibited some cytotoxic activities against all tested tumor cell lines with IC values of 10.9-12.1M and 9.2-10.8M, respectively.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170706
[Lr] Last revision date:170706
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/10286020.2017.1342637

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[PMID]: 28596027
[Au] Autor:Wang L; Wang JF; Mao X; Jiao L; Wang XJ
[Ad] Address:Periodontal Department, Stomatology Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China.
[Ti] Title:Gelsedine-type oxindole alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans and the evaluation of their cytotoxic activity.
[So] Source:Fitoterapia;120:131-135, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6971
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Phytochemical investigation on the 70% EtOH extract of the leaves and branches of Gelsemium elegans resulted into the isolation of five new gelsedine-type oxindole alkaloids, gelseleganins A-E (1-5). The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on 1D and 2D ( H- H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. The isolated alkaloids were tested in vitro for cytotoxic potential against seven tumor cell lines. As a result, alkaloids 3 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against all the tested tumor cell lines with IC values <10M.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/pharmacology
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Gelsemium/chemistry
Indoles/pharmacology
Plant Leaves/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alkaloids/isolation & purification
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification
Cell Line, Tumor
Humans
Indoles/isolation & purification
Molecular Structure
Plant Extracts/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Indoles); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (gelsedine); 0S9338U62H (2-oxindole)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170731
[Lr] Last revision date:170731
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170610
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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