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[PMID]: 27637567
[Au] Autor:Folk RA; Mandel JR; Freudenstein JV
[Ad] Address:Herbarium, Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212, USA and.
[Ti] Title:Ancestral Gene Flow and Parallel Organellar Genome Capture Result in Extreme Phylogenomic Discord in a Lineage of Angiosperms.
[So] Source:Syst Biol;66(3):320-337, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1076-836X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:While hybridization has recently received a resurgence of attention from systematists and evolutionary biologists, there remains a dearth of case studies on ancient, diversified hybrid lineages-clades of organisms that originated through reticulation. Studies on these groups are valuable in that they would speak to the long-term phylogenetic success of lineages following gene flow between species. We present a phylogenomic view of Heuchera, long known for frequent hybridization, incorporating all three independent genomes: targeted nuclear (~400,000 bp), plastid (~160,000 bp), and mitochondrial (~470,000 bp) data. We analyze these data using multiple concatenation and coalescence strategies. The nuclear phylogeny is consistent with previous work and with morphology, confidently suggesting a monophyletic Heuchera. By contrast, analyses of both organellar genomes recover a grossly polyphyletic Heuchera,consisting of three primary clades with relationships extensively rearranged within these as well. A minority of nuclear loci also exhibit phylogenetic discord; yet these topologies remarkably never resemble the pattern of organellar loci and largely present low levels of discord inter alia. Two independent estimates of the coalescent branch length of the ancestor of Heuchera using nuclear data suggest rare or nonexistent incomplete lineage sorting with related clades, inconsistent with the observed gross polyphyly of organellar genomes (confirmed by simulation of gene trees under the coalescent). These observations, in combination with previous work, strongly suggest hybridization as the cause of this phylogenetic discord. [Ancient hybridization; chloroplast capture; incongruence; phylogenomics; reticulation.].
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 170420
[Lr] Last revision date:170420
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1093/sysbio/syw083

  2 / 25 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26312196
[Au] Autor:Folk RA; Mandel JR; Freudenstein JV
[Ad] Address:Herbarium, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43212 USA.
[Ti] Title:A protocol for targeted enrichment of intron-containing sequence markers for recent radiations: A phylogenomic example from Heuchera (Saxifragaceae).
[So] Source:Appl Plant Sci;3(8), 2015 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:2168-0450
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phylogenetic inference is moving to large multilocus data sets, yet there remains uncertainty in the choice of marker and sequencing method at low taxonomic levels. To address this gap, we present a method for enriching long loci spanning intron-exon boundaries in the genus Heuchera. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-eight loci were designed using a splice-site prediction method combining transcriptomic and genomic data. Biotinylated probes were designed for enrichment of these loci. Reference-based assembly was performed using genomic references; additionally, chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were used as references for off-target reads. The data were aligned and subjected to coalescent and concatenated phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate support for major relationships. RESULTS: Complete or nearly complete (>99%) sequences were assembled from essentially all loci from all taxa. Aligned introns showed a fourfold increase in divergence as opposed to exons. Concatenated analysis gave decisive support to all nodes, and support was also high and relationships mostly similar in the coalescent analysis. Organellar phylogenies were also well-supported and conflicted with the nuclear signal. DISCUSSION: Our approach shows promise for resolving a recent radiation. Enrichment for introns is highly successful with little or no sequencing dropout at low taxonomic levels despite higher substitution and indel frequencies, and should be exploited in studies of species complexes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1508
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150828
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE

  3 / 25 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26248029
[Au] Autor:Vriens K; Cools TL; Harvey PJ; Craik DJ; Spincemaille P; Cassiman D; Braem A; Vleugels J; Nibbering PH; Drijfhout JW; De Coninck B; Cammue BP; Thevissen K
[Ad] Address:Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Synergistic Activity of the Plant Defensin HsAFP1 and Caspofungin against Candida albicans Biofilms and Planktonic Cultures.
[So] Source:PLoS One;10(8):e0132701, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich peptides with antifungal activity against a broad range of yeast and fungi. In this study we investigated the antibiofilm activity of a plant defensin from coral bells (Heuchera sanguinea), i.e. HsAFP1. To this end, HsAFP1 was heterologously produced using Pichia pastoris as a host. The recombinant peptide rHsAFP1 showed a similar antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum as native HsAFP1 purified from seeds. NMR analysis revealed that rHsAFP1 consists of an α-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel ß-sheet stabilised by four intramolecular disulfide bonds. We found that rHsAFP1 can inhibit growth of the human pathogen Candida albicans as well as prevent C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC50 (i.e. the minimum rHsAFP1 concentration required to inhibit biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment) of 11.00 ± 1.70 µM. As such, this is the first report of a plant defensin exhibiting inhibitory activity against fungal biofilms. We further analysed the potential of rHsAFP1 to increase the activity of the conventional antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B towards C. albicans. Synergistic effects were observed between rHsAFP1 and these compounds against both planktonic C. albicans cells and biofilms. Most notably, concentrations of rHsAFP1 as low as 0.53 µM resulted in a synergistic activity with caspofungin against pre-grown C. albicans biofilms. rHsAFP1 was found non-toxic towards human HepG2 cells up to 40 µM, thereby supporting the lack of a general cytotoxic activity as previously reported for HsAFP1. A structure-function study with 24-mer synthetic peptides spanning the entire HsAFP1 sequence revealed the importance of the γ-core and its adjacent regions for HsAFP1 antibiofilm activity. These findings point towards broad applications of rHsAFP1 and its derivatives in the field of antifungal and antibiofilm drug development.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Biofilms/drug effects
Candida albicans/drug effects
Defensins/pharmacology
Echinocandins/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biofilms/growth & development
Candida albicans/growth & development
Drug Synergism
Humans
Lipopeptides
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Defensins); 0 (Echinocandins); 0 (Lipopeptides); F0XDI6ZL63 (caspofungin)
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150807
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132701

  4 / 25 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25253713
[Au] Autor:Folk RA; Freudenstein JV
[Ad] Address:Herbarium, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, 1315 Kinnear Road, Columbus, Ohio 43212 USA.
[Ti] Title:Phylogenetic relationships and character evolution in Heuchera (Saxifragaceae) on the basis of multiple nuclear loci.
[So] Source:Am J Bot;101(9):1532-50, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1537-2197
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:UNLABELLED: • PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The use of multiple genetic regions from the nuclear genome, including low-copy markers, has long been recognized as essential to robust phylogenetic construction, addressing gene tree incongruence, and allowing increased resolution to test current taxonomy and resolve basic hypotheses about character evolution, biogeography, and other organismal traits of interest to biologists. Heuchera, the largest genus of Saxifragaceae endemic to North America, has presented an unusually difficult case for systematists with limited sampling in previous molecular studies. We used morphological and multilocus molecular phylogenetic data to test the monophyly of Heuchera, better resolve hypotheses of relationships, and test hypotheses of character evolution, biogeography, and diversification rates.• METHODS: Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using sequences from six nuclear loci and 39 morphological characters using concatenation and coalescent analysis. Ancestral state reconstruction, diversification, and correlated evolution of morphological traits were performed using parsimony, BiSSE, and Pagel's method, respectively.• KEY RESULTS: The concatenation and species tree analyses gave confident support to the monophyly of Heuchera and suggested several well-supported subclades. The addition of morphological data significantly improved support numbers. Ancestral character reconstruction suggested frequent homoplasy and reversal of floral characters and a complex biogeographical history.• CONCLUSIONS: Heuchera is a natural genus; however, the current subgeneric classification is artificial and requires revision. Biogeographic reconstructions suggest a Pacific Northwest origin for the genus; morphological shifts in stamen exsertion and hypanthium length are hypothesized to have driven diversification in Heuchera in concert with possible pollinator shifts.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: DNA, Plant/analysis
Evolution, Molecular
Flowers/anatomy & histology
Genetic Loci
Heuchera/genetics
Phenotype
Phylogeny
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biological Evolution
Cell Nucleus
Heuchera/anatomy & histology
North America
Phylogeography
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Trees/anatomy & histology
Trees/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Plant)
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 140925
[Lr] Last revision date:140925
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140926
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3732/ajb.1400290

  5 / 25 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 23400493
[Au] Autor:Godsoe W; Larson MA; Glennon KL; Segraves KA
[Ad] Address:Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand.
[Ti] Title:Polyploidization in Heuchera cylindrica (Saxifragaceae) did not result in a shift in climatic requirements.
[So] Source:Am J Bot;100(3):496-508, 2013 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1537-2197
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polyploidization is a key factor involved in the diversification of plants. Although polyploids are commonly found, there remains controversy on the mechanisms that lead to their successful establishment. One major problem that has been identified is that newly formed polyploids lack mates of the appropriate ploidy level and may experience severely reduced fertility due to nonproductive intercytotype crosses. Niche differentiation has been proposed as a primary mechanism that can alleviate this reproductive disadvantage and facilitate polyploid establishment. Here we test whether the establishment of tetraploid cytotypes of Heuchera cylindrica (Saxifragaceae) is consistent with climatic niche differentiation. • METHODS: We use a combination of field surveys, flow cytometry and species distribution models to: (1) examine the distribution of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes; and (2) determine whether tetraploid Heuchera cylindrica occupy climates that differ from those of its diploid progenitors. • KEY RESULTS: The geographic distributions of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes are largely allopatric as an extensive survey of 636 plants from 43 locations failed to detect any populations with both cytotypes. Although diploids and tetraploids occur in different geographic areas, polyploid Heuchera cylindrica occur almost exclusively in environments that are predicted to be suitable to diploid populations. • CONCLUSIONS: Climatic niche differentiation does not explain the geographic distribution of tetraploid Heuchera cylindrica. We propose instead that tetraploid lineages were able to establish by taking advantage of glacial retreat and expanding into previously unoccupied sites.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Climate
Heuchera/genetics
Polyploidy
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Area Under Curve
Canada
Geography
Models, Biological
Species Specificity
Tetraploidy
United States
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Entry month:1308
[Cu] Class update date: 130305
[Lr] Last revision date:130305
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:130213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3732/ajb.1200275

  6 / 25 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 21940642
[Au] Autor:Okuyama Y; Tanabe AS; Kato M
[Ad] Address:Tsukuba Botanical Garden, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. yokuyama@kahaku.go.jp
[Ti] Title:Entangling ancient allotetraploidization in Asian Mitella: an integrated approach for multilocus combinations.
[So] Source:Mol Biol Evol;29(1):429-39, 2012 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1537-1719
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The reconstruction of an ancient polyploidization history is often challenging, although it is a crucial step in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the contemporary success and diversity of polyploids. Phylogenetic relationships of duplicated gene pairs of polyploids, with respect to their orthologs in related diploids, have been used to address this problem, but they often result in conflicting topologies among different genes. Asimitellaria is an East Asian endemic tetraploid lineage of perennials (genus Mitella; Saxifragaceae) that has diversified in riparian habitats. Phylogenetic analyses of four nuclear-encoded, single-copy (per haploid) genes GBSSI-A, GBSSI-B, GS-II, and PepCK all supported a single allopolyploid origin of Asimitellaria, but they did not lead to a consensus about which diploid lineage gave rise to each of the Asimitellaria subgenomes. To address this issue, we used an integrated approach, whereby the four gene data sets and an additional nuclear ribosomal external transcribed spacer and internal transcribed spacer (including a 5.8S ribosomal DNA) data set were concatenated in all possible combinations, and the most probable data combination was determined together with the phylogenetic inference. This resulted in relatively robust support for the two closely related North American diploid species as the ancestral lineages of the Asimitellaria subgenomes, suggesting ancient intercontinental migration of the diploid or tetraploid lineages and subsequent tetraploid diversification in the Japanese Archipelago. The present approach enabled sorting out the duplicated genes into their original combinations in their preduplication ancestors under a maximum-likelihood framework, and its extension toward genome sequencing data may help in the reconstruction of ancestral, preduplicated, whole-genome structures.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Evolution, Molecular
Genes, Plant
Heuchera/genetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Arabidopsis/enzymology
Arabidopsis/genetics
Carboxy-Lyases/genetics
Gene Dosage
Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/genetics
Heuchera/enzymology
Phylogeny
Polyploidy
Starch Synthase/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:EC 2.4.1.21 (Starch Synthase); EC 4.1.1.- (Carboxy-Lyases); EC 6.3.1.2 (Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase)
[Em] Entry month:1208
[Cu] Class update date: 120209
[Lr] Last revision date:120209
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:110924
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/molbev/msr236

  7 / 25 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 22089865
[Au] Autor:Oswald BP; Nuismer SL
[Ad] Address:Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844, USA. bposwald@gmail.com
[Ti] Title:A unified model of autopolyploid establishment and evolution.
[So] Source:Am Nat;178(6):687-700, 2011 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1537-5323
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The prevalence of polyploidy among flowering plants is surprising given the hurdles impeding the establishment and persistence of novel polyploid lineages. In the absence of strong assortative mating, reproductive assurance, or large intrinsic fitness advantages, new polyploid lineages face almost certain extinction through minority cytotype exclusion. Consequently, much work has focused on a search for adaptive advantages associated with polyploidy such as increased competitive ability, enhanced ecological tolerances, and increased resistance to pathogens. Yet, no consistent adaptive advantages of polyploidy have been identified. Here, to investigate the potential for autopolyploid establishment and persistence in the absence of any intrinsic fitness advantages, we develop a simulation model of a diploid population that sporadically gives rise to novel autopolyploids. The autopolyploids have only very small levels of initial assortative mating or niche differentiation, generated entirely by dosage effects of genome duplication, and they have realistic levels of reproductive assurance. Our results show that by allowing assortative mating and competitive interactions to evolve, establishment of novel autopolyploid lineages becomes common. Additional scenarios where adaptive optima change over time reveal that rapid environmental change promotes the replacement of diploid lineages by their autopolyploid descendants. These results help to explain recent empirical findings that suggest that many contemporary polyploid lineages arose during the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, without invoking adaptive advantages of polyploidy.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Biological Evolution
Plants/genetics
Polyploidy
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Diploidy
Environment
Heuchera/genetics
Models, Biological
Onagraceae/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Entry month:1203
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:111118
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1086/662673

  8 / 25 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 21993350
[Au] Autor:Aerts AM; Bammens L; Govaert G; Carmona-Gutierrez D; Madeo F; Cammue BP; Thevissen K
[Ad] Address:Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Heverlee, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:The Antifungal Plant Defensin HsAFP1 from Heuchera sanguinea Induces Apoptosis in Candida albicans.
[So] Source:Front Microbiol;2:47, 2011.
[Is] ISSN:1664-302X
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Plant defensins are active against plant and human pathogenic fungi (such as Candida albicans) and baker's yeast. However, they are non-toxic to human cells, providing a possible source for treatment of fungal infections. In this study, we characterized the mode of action of the antifungal plant defensin HsAFP1 from coral bells by screening the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutant library for mutants with altered HsAFP1 sensitivity and verified the obtained genetic data by biochemical assays in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. We identified 84 genes, which when deleted conferred at least fourfold hypersensitivity or resistance to HsAFP1. A considerable part of these genes were found to be implicated in mitochondrial functionality. In line, sodium azide, which blocks the respiratory electron transport chain, antagonized HsAFP1 antifungal activity, suggesting that a functional respiratory chain is indispensable for HsAFP1 antifungal action. Since mitochondria are the main source of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), we investigated the ROS-inducing nature of HsAFP1. We showed that HsAFP1 treatment of C. albicans resulted in ROS accumulation. As ROS accumulation is one of the phenotypic markers of apoptosis in yeast, we could further demonstrate that HsAFP1 induced apoptosis in C. albicans. These data provide novel mechanistic insights in the mode of action of a plant defensin.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1111
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Da] Date of entry for processing:111014
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2011.00047

  9 / 25 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 21510186
[Au] Autor:Reding ME; Ranger CM
[Ad] Address:USDA-ARS, Application Technology Research Unit, Horticultural Insects Research Group, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691, USA. mike.reding@ars.usda.gov
[Ti] Title:Systemic insecticides reduce feeding, survival, and fecundity of adult black vine weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a variety of ornamental nursery crops.
[So] Source:J Econ Entomol;104(2):405-13, 2011 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0022-0493
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Systemic activity of the neonicotinoids clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam and the anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole was tested against adult black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Astilbe, Euonymus, Heuchera, Rhododendron, Sedum, and Taxus. Insecticide treatments were applied to the soilless substrate of containerized plants. Bioassays were conducted 12 or 13, 26, and 42 d after treatment (DAT) and ran for 7 d; and feeding, mortality, and weight gain or loss by weevils were evaluated. Foliage was removed from test plants and then placed in arenas with adult black vine weevils. The neonicotinoids reduced feeding and weight gain by adult black vine weevils on most plant species with residual activity 42 DAT on some plant species. At 12 DAT, mortality was caused by the three neonicotinoids on Astilbe and by thiamethoxam on Sedum; and at 26 DAT dinotefuran caused mortality on Astilbe. Chlorantraniliprole reduced feeding on Taxus at 12 DAT, with no activity detected in other bioassays. Another set of bioassays was conducted to examine survival and fecundity of adult black vine weevils during prolonged feeding on Heuchera and Taxus systemically treated with dinotefuran or thiamethoxam. Bioassay procedures were similar to those described above, except they ran continuously for 56 d. Prolonged feeding on dinotefuran and thiamethoxam treated Heuchera and Taxus resulted in high mortality of adult black vine weevils and reduced fecundity. These studies show that the systemic activity of neonicotinoids is influenced by plant species and that systemic neonicotinoids have the potential to suppress black vine weevil populations in containerized nursery crops.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Feeding Behavior/drug effects
Insecticides/pharmacology
Plants/parasitology
Weevils/drug effects
Weight Gain/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Fertility/drug effects
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Insecticides)
[Em] Entry month:1106
[Cu] Class update date: 110421
[Lr] Last revision date:110421
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:110423
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  10 / 25 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 21143472
[Au] Autor:Oswald BP; Nuismer SL
[Ad] Address:Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844, USA. bposwald@gmail.com
[Ti] Title:Neopolyploidy and diversification in Heuchera grossulariifolia.
[So] Source:Evolution;65(6):1667-79, 2011 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1558-5646
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Newly formed polyploid lineages must contend with several obstacles to avoid extinction, including minority cytotype exclusion, competition, and inbreeding depression. If polyploidization results in immediate divergence of phenotypic characters these hurdles may be reduced and establishment made more likely. In addition, if polyploidization alters the phenotypic and genotypic associations between traits, that is, the P and G matrices, polyploids may be able to explore novel evolutionary paths, facilitating their divergence and successful establishment. Here, we report results from a study of the perennial plant Heuchera grossulariifolia in which the phenotypic divergence and changes in phenotypic and genotypic covariance matrices caused by neopolyploidization have been estimated. Our results reveal that polyploidization causes immediate divergence for traits relevant to establishment and results in significant changes in the structure of the phenotypic covariance matrix. In contrast, our results do not provide evidence that polyploidization results in immediate and substantial shifts in the genetic covariance matrix.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Biological Evolution
Genetic Variation
Heuchera/genetics
Selection, Genetic
Tetraploidy
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Genotype
Heuchera/growth & development
Idaho
Phenotype
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Entry month:1109
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:101215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01208.x


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