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[PMID]: 29477358
[Au] Autor:Oakes V; Torralba J; Rujas E; Nieva JL; Domene C; Apellaniz B
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, Britannia House, 7 Trinity Street, King's College London, London SE1 1DB, UK; Department of Chemistry, 1 South Building, Claverton Down Road, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.
[Ti] Title:Exposure of the HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody 10E8 MPER epitope on the membrane surface by gp41 transmembrane domain scaffolds.
[So] Source:Biochim Biophys Acta;1860(6):1259-1271, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:0006-3002
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The 10E8 antibody achieves near-pan neutralization of HIV-1 by targeting the remarkably conserved gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and the connected transmembrane domain (TMD) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). Thus, recreating the structure that generates 10E8-like antibodies is a major goal of the rational design of anti-HIV vaccines. Unfortunately, high-resolution information of this segment in the native Env is lacking, limiting our understanding of the behavior of the crucial 10E8 epitope residues. In this report, two sequences, namely, MPER-TMD1 (gp41 residues 671-700) and MPER-TMD2 (gp41 residues 671-709) were compared both experimentally and computationally, to assess the TMD as a potential membrane integral scaffold for the 10E8 epitope. These sequences were selected to represent a minimal (MPER-TMD1) or full-length (MPER-TMD2) TMD membrane anchor according to mutagenesis results reported by Yue et al. (2009) J. Virol. 83, 11,588. Immunochemical assays revealed that MPER-TMD1, but not MPER-TMD2, effectively exposed the MPER C-terminal stretch, harboring the 10E8 epitope on the surface of phospholipid bilayers containing a cholesterol concentration equivalent to that of the viral envelope. Molecular dynamics simulations, using the recently resolved TMD trimer structure combined with the MPER in a cholesterol-enriched model membrane confirmed these results and provided an atomistic mechanism of epitope exposure which revealed that TMD truncation at position A700 combined with N-terminal addition of lysine residues positively impacts epitope exposure. Overall, these results provide crucial insights into the design of effective MPER-TMD derived immunogens.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 94035 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29248757
[Au] Autor:Prévost J; Richard J; Ding S; Pacheco B; Charlebois R; Hahn BH; Kaufmann DE; Finzi A
[Ad] Address:Centre de Recherche du CHUM, QC, Canada H2X 0A9; Department of Microbiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 0A9.
[Ti] Title:Envelope glycoproteins sampling states 2/3 are susceptible to ADCC by sera from HIV-1-infected individuals.
[So] Source:Virology;515:38-45, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0341
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent analysis of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) dynamics showed that the unliganded Env trimer can potentially sample three conformations: a metastable "closed" conformation (State 1), an "open" CD4-bound conformation (State 3), and an intermediate "partially open" conformation (State 2). HIV-1 evolved several mechanisms to avoid "opening" its Env in order to evade immune responses such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which preferentially targets Envs in the CD4-bound conformation on the surface of infected cells. Here we took advantage of a well-characterized single-residue change in the gp120 trimer association domain to modify Env conformation and evaluate its impact on ADCC responses. We found that cells infected with viruses expressing Env stabilized in States 2/3 become highly susceptible to ADCC responses by sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. Our results indicate that the conformations spontaneously sampled by the Env trimer at the surface of infected cells has a significant impact on ADCC responses.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 94035 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28461133
[Au] Autor:Chen DJ; Yao JD
[Ad] Address:Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address: dchen@uwhealth.org.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of turnaround time and total cost of HIV testing before and after implementation of the 2014 CDC/APHL Laboratory Testing Algorithm for diagnosis of HIV infection.
[So] Source:J Clin Virol;91:69-72, 2017 06.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5967
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Updated recommendations for HIV diagnostic laboratory testing published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories incorporate 4th generation HIV immunoassays, which are capable of identifying HIV infection prior to seroconversion. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare turnaround time and cost between 3rd and 4th generation HIV immunoassay-based testing algorithms for initially reactive results. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical microbiology laboratory database at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN was queried for 3rd generation (from November 2012 to May 2014) and 4th generation (from May 2014 to November 2015) HIV immunoassay results. All results from downstream supplemental testing were recorded. Turnaround time (defined as the time of initial sample receipt in the laboratory to the time the final supplemental test in the algorithm was resulted) and cost (based on 2016 Medicare reimbursement rates) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 76,454 and 78,998 initial tests were performed during the study period using the 3rd generation and 4th generation HIV immunoassays, respectively. There were 516 (0.7%) and 581 (0.7%) total initially reactive results, respectively. Of these, 304 (58.9%) and 457 (78.7%) were positive by supplemental testing. There were 10 (0.01%) cases of acute HIV infection identified with the 4th generation algorithm. The most frequent tests performed to confirm an HIV-positive case using the 3rd generation algorithm, which were reactive initial immunoassay and positive HIV-1 Western blot, took a median time of 1.1 days to complete at a cost of $45.00. In contrast, the most frequent tests performed to confirm an HIV-positive case using the 4th generation algorithm, which included a reactive initial immunoassay and positive HIV-1/-2 antibody differentiation immunoassay for HIV-1, took a median time of 0.4 days and cost $63.25. Overall median turnaround time was 2.2 and 1.5 days, and overall median cost was $63.90 and $72.50 for 3rd and 4th generation algorithms, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both 3rd and 4th generation HIV immunoassays had similar total numbers of tests performed and positivity rates during the study period. A greater proportion of reactive 4th generation immunoassays were confirmed to be positive, and the 4th generation algorithm identified several cases of acute HIV infection that would have been missed by the 3rd generation algorithm. The 4th generation algorithm had a more rapid turnaround time but higher cost for confirmed positive HIV infections and overall, compared to the 3rd generation algorithm.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: AIDS Serodiagnosis
Algorithms
HIV Infections/diagnosis
Immunoassay
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: AIDS Serodiagnosis/economics
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Costs and Cost Analysis
HIV Antibodies/blood
HIV Infections/economics
HIV Infections/virology
HIV-1/genetics
HIV-1/immunology
HIV-2/genetics
HIV-2/immunology
Humans
Immunoassay/economics
Immunoassay/methods
Mass Screening/economics
Mass Screening/legislation & jurisprudence
Mass Screening/methods
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
Sensitivity and Specificity
United States
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (HIV Antibodies)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  4 / 94035 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523802
[Au] Autor:Ahmad R; Sahidin I; Taher M; Low C; Noor NM; Sillapachaiyaporn C; Chuchawankul S; Sarachana T; Tencomnao T; Iskandar F; Rajab NF; Baharum SN
[Ad] Address:Institute of Systems Biology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
[Ti] Title:Polygonumins A, a newly isolated compound from the stem of Polygonum minus Huds with potential medicinal activities.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;8(1):4202, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Polygonumins A, a new compound, was isolated from the stem of Polygonum minus. Based on NMR results, the compound's structure is identical to that of vanicoside A, comprising four phenylpropanoid ester units and a sucrose unit. The structure differences were located at C-3″″'. The cytotoxic activity of polygonumins A was evaluated on several cancer cell lines by a cell viability assay using tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The compound showed the highest antiproliferative (p < 0.05) activities against K562 (Human Leukaemia Cell Line), MCF7 (Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line), and HCT116 (Colorectal cancer cells) cells. Cytotoxic studies against V79-4 cells were carried out and showed that polygonumins A was toxic at 50 µg/ml, suggesting that this compound may be used as an anticancer drug without affecting normal cells. Polygonumins A also showed promising activity as an HIV-1 protease inhibitor with 56% relative inhibition. Molecular docking results indicated that the compound possesses high binding affinity towards the HIV protease over the low binding free energy range of -10.5 to -11.3 kcal/mol. P. minus is used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of tumour cells. This is the first report on the use of P. minus as an HIV-1 protease inhibitor.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-22485-5

  5 / 94035 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523304
[Au] Autor:Garcia A
[Ad] Address:Laboratoire E3 Phosphatases, Unité RMN, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr. Roux, 75015 Paris, France. Electronic address: agarcia@pasteur.fr.
[Ti] Title:The Viral Quinta Columna Strategy: A new biological hypothesis to study infections in humans.
[So] Source:Med Hypotheses;113:9-12, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2777
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Small viral proteins with cationic domains can be involved in multiple biological processes including cell penetration or interaction with intracellular targets. Within the last two decades several reports indicated that the C-terminus of HIV-1 Vpr is a cell penetrating sequence, a PP2A-dependent death domain and also displays toxicity against Gram-negative E. coli. Interestingly, HIV-1 Vpr, as well as some cationic proteins encoded by different viruses, share similar physical properties with the unique anti-microbial human cathelicidin LL37 peptide. Consistent with these observations, the Viral Quinta Columna Hypothesis predicts that virally-encoded cationic peptides encoded by multiple viruses may at the same time i) behave as new cathelicidin-like viral positive effectors of innate immunity, mainly through electrostatic interactions with microbial walls, and also display specific toxic cellular effects through interactions with specific intracellular targets such as PP2A proteins. In this context, virally-encoded cationic peptides, potentially detectable in biological fluids, may define a new paradigm for a viral control of homeostasis. Finally, we can also predict that characterization of virally encoded sequences with anti-infective effects may serve as template for the design of new efficient therapeutics polypeptides.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process

  6 / 94035 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523166
[Au] Autor:Nguyen QN; Martinez DR; Himes JE; Whitney Edwards R; Han Q; Kumar A; Mangan R; Nicely NI; Xie G; Vandergrift N; Shen X; Pollara J; Permar SR
[Ad] Address:Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
[Ti] Title:Predominant envelope variable loop 2-specific and gp120-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibody responses in acutely SIV-infected African green monkeys.
[So] Source:Retrovirology;15(1):24, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1742-4690
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting Env gp41. In contrast, natural primate SIV hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), develop a predominant Env gp120-specific antibody response to SIV infection. However, the fine-epitope specificity and function of SIV Env-specific plasma IgG, and their potential role on autologous virus co-evolution in SIV-infected AGMs and RMs remain unclear. RESULTS: Unlike the dominant linear gp41-specific IgG responses in RMs, SIV-infected AGMs demonstrated a unique linear variable loop 2 (V2)-specific plasma IgG response that arose concurrently with high gp120-directed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, and SIVsab-infected cell binding responses during acute infection. Moreover, SIV variants isolated from SIV-infected AGMs exhibited high amino acid mutation frequencies within the Env V1V2 loop compared to those of RMs. Notably, the linear V2-specific IgG epitope in AGMs overlaps with an analogous region of the HIV V2 loop containing the K169 mutation epitope identified in breakthrough viruses from RV144 vaccinees. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-elicited Env V2-specific IgG responses have been proposed as an immune correlate of reduced risk in HIV-1/SIV acquisition in humans and RMs. Yet the pathways to elicit these potentially-protective V2-specific IgG responses remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV-infected AGMs, which are the natural hosts of SIV, exhibited high plasma linear V2-specific IgG binding responses that arose concurrently with SIV Env gp120-directed ADCC-mediating, and SIV-infected cell plasma IgG binding responses during acute SIV infection, which were not present in acutely SIV-infected RMs. The linear V2-specific antibody response in AGMs targets an overlapping epitope of the proposed site of vaccine-induced immune pressure defined in the moderately protective RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial. Identifying host factors that control the early elicitation of Env V2-specific IgG and ADCC antibody responses in these natural SIV hosts could inform vaccination strategies aimed at rapidly inducing potentially-protective HIV-1 Env-specific responses in humans.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12977-018-0406-5

  7 / 94035 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523068
[Au] Autor:Valuev-Elliston VT; Kochetkov SN
[Ad] Address:Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991, Russia. gansfaust@mail.ru.
[Ti] Title:Novel HIV-1 Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: A Combinatorial Approach.
[So] Source:Biochemistry (Mosc);82(13):1716-1743, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1608-3040
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is one of the most effective means for fighting against HIV-infection. HAART primarily targets HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), and 14 of 28 compounds approved by the FDA as anti-HIV drugs act on this enzyme. HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) hold a special place among HIV RT inhibitors owing to their high specificity and unique mode of action. Nonetheless, these drugs show a tendency to decrease their efficacy due to high HIV-1 variability and formation of resistant virus strains tolerant to clinically applied HIV NNRTIs. A combinatorial approach based on varying substituents within various fragments of the parent molecule that results in development of highly potent compounds is one of the approaches aimed at designing novel HIV NNRTIs. Generation of HIV NNRTIs based on pyrimidine derivatives explicitly exemplifies this approach, which is discussed in this review.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1134/S0006297917130107

  8 / 94035 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522828
[Au] Autor:Verhofstede C; Dauwe K; Fransen K; Van Laethem K; Van den Wijngaert S; Ruelle J; Delforge ML; Vancutsem E; Vaira D; Stoffels K; Ribas SG; Dessilly G; Debaisieux L; Pierard D; Van Ranst M; Hayette MP; Deblonde J; Sasse A; Van Beckhoven D; Mortier V
[Ad] Address:Aids Reference Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: Chris.verhofstede@ugent.be.
[Ti] Title:Phylogenetic analysis of the Belgian HIV-1 epidemic reveals that local transmission is almost exclusively driven by men having sex with men despite presence of large African migrant communities.
[So] Source:Infect Genet Evol;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1567-7257
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:To improve insight in the drivers of local HIV-1 transmission in Belgium, phylogenetic, demographic, epidemiological and laboratory data from patients newly diagnosed between 2013 and 2015 were combined and analyzed. Characteristics of clustered patients, paired patients and patients on isolated branches in the phylogenetic tree were compared. The results revealed an overall high level of clustering despite the short time frame of sampling, with 47.6% of all patients having at least one close genetic counterpart and 36.6% belonging to a cluster of 3 or more individuals. Compared to patients on isolated branches, patients in clusters more frequently reported being infected in Belgium (95.1% vs. 47.6%; p < 0.001), were more frequently men having sex with men (MSM) (77.9% vs. 42.8%; p < 0.001), of Belgian origin (68.2% vs. 32.9%; p < 0.001), male gender (92.6% vs. 65.8%; p < 0.001), infected with subtype B or F (87.8% vs. 43.4%; p < 0.001) and diagnosed early after infection (55.4% vs.29.0%; p < 0.001). Strikingly, Sub-Saharan Africans (SSA), overall representing 27.1% of the population were significantly less frequently found in clusters than on individual branches (6.0% vs. 41.8%; p < 0.001). Of the SSA that participated in clustered transmission, 66.7% were MSM and this contrasts sharply with the overall 12.0% of SSA reporting MSM. Transmission clusters with SSA were more frequently non-B clusters than transmission clusters without SSA (44.4% versus 18.2%). MSM-driven clusters with patients of mixed origin may account, at least in part, for the increasing spread of non-B subtypes to the native MSM population, a cross-over that has been particularly successful for subtype F and CRF02_AG. The main conclusions from this study are that clustered transmission in Belgium remains almost exclusively MSM-driven with very limited contribution of SSA. There were no indications for local ongoing clustered transmission of HIV-1 among SSA.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 94035 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522570
[Au] Autor:Vlot MC; Grijsen ML; Prins JM; de Jongh RT; de Jonge R; den Heijer M; Heijboer AC
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Chemistry, Endocrine Laboratory, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Effect of antiretroviral therapy on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men with primary HIV-1 infection.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(3):e0193679, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Previous studies indicate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can affect bone turnover. Furthermore, HIV-infected patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) compared to a healthy reference population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the longitudinal effect of HIV-infection and cART on bone turnover markers (BTMs) and BMD in men with primary HIV-infection (PHI). DESIGN, METHODS: Thirty-five PHI-men were divided into two groups, those that received cART for the first time (n = 26) versus no-cART (n = 9). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS) and BTMs (P1NP, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, ICTP and CTX) were measured at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: At baseline, the median CD4+ T-cell count was 455 cells/mm3 (IQR 320-620) and plasma viral load 5.4 log10 copies/mL (IQR 4.7-6.0) in the cART treated group, compared to 630 (IQR 590-910) and 4.8 (IQR 4.2-5.1) in the untreated group. The median follow-up time was 60.7 weeks (IQR 24.7-96.0). All BTMs, except ICTP, showed a significant increase during cART versus no changes of BTMs in the untreated group. FN and TH BMD showed a significant decrease in both groups. LS BMD did not change in both groups. CONCLUSION: Bone turnover increased in PHI-men treated with cART which was accompanied by a decrease in FN and TH BMD. No increase of bone turnover was seen in untreated PHI-men. Our study suggests that cART results in increased bone turnover and decreased BMD of the hip in PHI-men.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0193679

  10 / 94035 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522311
[Au] Autor:De Silva Feelixge HS; Stone D; Roychoudhury P; Aubert M; Jerome KR
[Ti] Title:CRISPR/Cas9 and Genome Editing for Viral Disease - Is Resistance Futile?
[So] Source:ACS Infect Dis;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2373-8227
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chronic viral infections remain a major public health issue affecting millions of people worldwide. Highly active antiviral treatments have significantly improved prognosis and infection-related morbidity and mortality, but have failed to eliminate persistent viral forms. Therefore, new strategies to either eradicate or control these viral reservoirs are paramount to allow patients to stop antiretroviral therapy and realize a cure. Viral genome disruption based on gene editing by programmable endonucleases is one promising curative gene therapy approach. Recent findings on RNA-guided HIV-1 genome cleavage by Cas9 and other gene-editing enzymes in latently infected cells have shown high levels of site-specific genome disruption and potent inhibition of virus replication. However, HIV-1 can readily develop resistance to genome editing at a single antiviral target site. Current data suggests that cellular repair associated with DNA double stranded breaks (DSB) can accelerate emergence of resistance. On the other hand, a combination antiviral target strategy can exploit the same repair mechanism to functionally cure HIV-1 infection in vitro while avoiding the development of resistance. This perspective summarizes recent findings on the biology of resistance to genome editing, and discusses the significance of viral genetic diversity on application of gene-editing strategies towards cure.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00273


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