Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Ilex and guayusa [Words]
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[PMID]: 29134218
[Au] Autor:Pardau MD; Pereira ASP; Apostolides Z; Serem JC; Bester MJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa. mbester@medic.ac.za.
[Ti] Title:Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Ilex guayusa tea preparations: a comparison to Camellia sinensis teas.
[So] Source:Food Funct;, 2017 Nov 14.
[Is] ISSN:2042-650X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ilex guayusa tea preparations are now commercially available as Runa tea. Little is known regarding the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities of this tea. The I. guayusa teas had a total polyphenolic content between 54.39 and 67.23 mg GAE per g dry mass and peroxyl radical scavenging capacities between 1773.41 and 2019 µmol TE per g dry mass, nearly half of that for the Camellia sinensis teas. The I. guayusa teas afforded 60-80% protection from oxidative stress in the Caco-2 cellular antioxidant assay, comparable to the C. sinensis teas. The anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells of I. guayusa teas was similarly comparable to the C. sinensis teas with nitric oxide production reduced by 10-30%. Major compounds identified by mass spectrometry were the phenolic mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives. I. guayusa teas are a good source of dietary phenolic compounds with cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171114
[Lr] Last revision date:171114
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1039/c7fo01067b

  2 / 8 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28906554
[Au] Autor:Villacís-Chiriboga J; García-Ruiz A; Baenas N; Moreno DA; Meléndez-Martínez AJ; Stinco CM; Jerves-Andrade L; León-Tamariz F; Ortiz-Ulloa J; Ruales J
[Ad] Address:Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Escuela Politécnica National, Quito, Ecuador.
[Ti] Title:Changes in phytochemical composition, bioactivity and in vitro digestibility of guayusa leaves (Ilex guayusa Loes.) in different ripening stages.
[So] Source:J Sci Food Agric;, 2017 Sep 14.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0010
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Guayusa (Ilex guayusa Loes.) leaves, native of the Ecuadorian Amazon, are popularly used for preparing teas. This study aimed to assess the influence of leaf age on the phenolic compounds and carotenoids and the bioactivity and digestibility (in vitro) of aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaf extracts. RESULTS: In total, 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Chlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-O-hexose were the main representatives of the hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols respectively. Seven carotenoids were quantified, lutein being the main compound. Ripening affected phenolic content significantly, but there was no significant difference in carotenoid content. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the DPPH method, was also significantly affected by leaf age. The measurement of in vitro digestibility showed a decrease in phenolic content (59%) as well as antioxidant capacity, measured by the ABTS method, in comparison with initial conditions of the guayusa infusion. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities were assayed with young leaves owing to their higher phenolic contents. Guayusa did not show any antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 or Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Finally, the hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts exhibited high in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (>65%). CONCLUSION: Young guayusa leaves have potential applications as a functional ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171124
[Lr] Last revision date:171124
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/jsfa.8675

  3 / 8 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28188617
[Au] Autor:García-Ruiz A; Baenas N; Benítez-González AM; Stinco CM; Meléndez-Martínez AJ; Moreno DA; Ruales J
[Ad] Address:Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Escuela Politécnica National, Quito, Ecuador.
[Ti] Title:Guayusa (Ilex guayusa L.) new tea: phenolic and carotenoid composition and antioxidant capacity.
[So] Source:J Sci Food Agric;97(12):3929-3936, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0010
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Guayusa (Ilex guayusa Loes) is an evergreen tree native of South America that grows particularly in the upper Amazon region of Ecuador. For its health benefits, it has been cultivated and consumed since ancient times by Amazon indigenous tribes. RESULTS: A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Chlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-O-hexose were the main representatives of the hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols, respectively. Five carotenoids were identified, showing lutein the highest concentration. Guayusa leaves revealed high antioxidant capacity determined by two analytical methods, DPPH and ORAC. The industrial processing applied to the leaves modified the composition of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of guayusa. In general, blanched guayusa retained the concentration of phenolic compounds and some carotenoids and similar antioxidant capacity as untreated green leaves. In contrast, fermentation reduced the content of bioactive compounds and showed the lowest antioxidant capacity. CONCLUSION: Therefore, blanched guayusa has potential for product development as a functional ingredient in the food industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1702
[Cu] Class update date: 170810
[Lr] Last revision date:170810
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1002/jsfa.8255

  4 / 8 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26811391
[Au] Autor:Kapp RW; Mendes O; Roy S; McQuate RS; Kraska R
[Ad] Address:BioTox, Monroe Township, NJ, USA rwkapp@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:General and Genetic Toxicology of Guayusa Concentrate (Ilex guayusa).
[So] Source:Int J Toxicol;35(2):222-42, 2016 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1092-874X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Tea from the leaves of guayusa (Ilex guayusa) has a long history of consumption by Ecuadorian natives in regions where the plant is indigenous. The tea contains the methylxanthines caffeine and theobromine as well as chlorogenic acids, flavonoids, and sugars. Various studies were performed to evaluate the general and genetic toxicology of a standardized liquid concentrate of guayusa (GC). Guayusa concentrate was found to be negative in in vitro genotoxicity tests including the Ames test and a chromosome aberration study in human lymphocytes. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) of GC was >5,000 mg/kg for female rats. Guayusa concentrate was administered to male and female rats in a 90-day subchronic study at 1,200, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg/d of GC and a caffeine-positive control at 150 mg/kg/d corresponding to the amount of caffeine in the high-dose GC group. Effects observed in the GC-treated groups were comparable to those in the caffeine control group and included reductions in body weights, food efficiency, triglycerides values, and fat pad weights and increases in blood chemistry values for serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase, and cholesterol and adaptive salivary gland hypertrophy. No signs of incremental toxicity due to any other components of guayusa were observed. The studies indicate no harmful effects of GC in these test systems.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ilex guayusa/chemistry
Mutagenicity Tests
Plant Extracts/toxicity
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Humans
Male
Rats
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1612
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1091581815625594

  5 / 8 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 7736849
[Au] Autor:Schultes RE
[Ad] Address:Botanical Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138.
[Ti] Title:Amazonian ethnobotany and the search for new drugs.
[So] Source:Ciba Found Symp;185:106-12; discussion 112-5, 1994.
[Is] ISSN:0300-5208
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Tropical rain forests offer enormous prospects for the discovery of new drugs for use in Western medicine. The Amazon supports 80,000 species of higher plants and a diverse Indian population. Focusing attention on those plants used as medicines by indigenous peoples is the most efficient way of identifying the plants that contain bioactive compounds. There is an urgent need for more ethnobotanists and ethnopharmacologists to be trained to document as much information as possible before it and the plants are lost through destruction of the rain forest and acculturation of the indigenous peoples. Ethnobotanical studies have identified plants documented by early travellers; these include Paullinia yoco and Ilex guayusa which are used as stimulants and have been shown to be rich in caffeine. Studies of the hallucinogen prepared from Banisterioposis caapi have shown that the native people know which plants to add to the mixture to lengthen and intensify the intoxication produced by the beta-carboline alkaloids in the plant. Three major snuffs are used in the Amazonia; the plants from which they are derived have been identified. One of the snuffs also has antifungal and curare-like activities; chemical analysis on the active principles has not been done. Several plants are considered as prime candidates for scientific study as sources of useful chemicals for medicine or industry. These include some used to prepare teas or other infusions for treatment of various symptoms of senile dementia.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Medicine, Traditional
Plants, Medicinal
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: South America
Tropical Climate
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:9506
[Cu] Class update date: 051116
[Lr] Last revision date:051116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:940101
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 8 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 1682531
[Au] Autor:Lewis WH; Kennelly EJ; Bass GN; Wedner HJ; Elvin-Lewis MP; Fast D
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130.
[Ti] Title:Ritualistic use of the holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jívaro Indians.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;33(1-2):25-30, 1991 May-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0378-8741
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In Amazonian Peru and Ecuador leaf decoctions of the rainforest holly Ilex guayusa with high caffeine concentrations are used as a morning stimulant. After daily ingestion, ritualistic vomiting by male Achuar Indians, better known as Jívaros, reduces excessive caffeine intake, so that blood levels of caffeine and biotransformed dimethylxanthines do not cause undesirable CNS and other effects. Emesis is learned and apparently not due to emetic compounds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Culture
Indians, South American
Plant Extracts
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Caffeine/analysis
Caffeine/pharmacology
Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Ecuador
Emetics/pharmacology
Humans
Male
Peru
Plant Extracts/analysis
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Xanthines/analysis
Xanthines/blood
Xanthines/pharmacology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Central Nervous System Stimulants); 0 (Emetics); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Xanthines); 3G6A5W338E (Caffeine)
[Em] Entry month:9112
[Cu] Class update date: 131121
[Lr] Last revision date:131121
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:910501
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  7 / 8 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 2743711
[Au] Autor:Swanston-Flatt SK; Day C; Flatt PR; Gould BJ; Bailey CJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Biochemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
[Ti] Title:Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.
[So] Source:Diabetes Res;10(2):69-73, 1989 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0265-5985
[Cp] Country of publication:Scotland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern Europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. The plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (Arctium lappa), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), elder (Sambucus nigra), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), guayusa (Ilex guayusa), hop (Humulus lupulus), nettle (Urtica dioica), cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), sage (Salvia officinale), and wild carrot (Daucus carrota) did not affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis examined in normal mice (basal plasma glucose and insulin, glucose tolerance, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and glycated haemoglobin). After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg) burdock and nettle aggravated the diabetic condition, while cashew, dandelion, elder, fenugreek, hop, periwinkle, sage and wild carrot did not significantly affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis studied (basal glucose and insulin, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and pancreatic insulin concentration). Guayusa and mushroom retarded the development of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin diabetes and reduced the hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, and glycated haemoglobin. Mushroom also countered the initial reduction in plasma insulin and the reduction in pancreatic insulin concentration, and improved the hypoglycaemic effect of exogenous insulin. These studies suggest the presence of potentially useful antidiabetic agents in guayusa and mushroom.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/therapy
Diet
Medicine, Traditional
Plants, Medicinal
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Basidiomycota
Blood Glucose/metabolism
Male
Mice
Reference Values
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Blood Glucose)
[Em] Entry month:8908
[Cu] Class update date: 070911
[Lr] Last revision date:070911
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:890201
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  8 / 8 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 3887041
[Au] Autor:de Smet PA
[Ti] Title:A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;13(1):3-49, 1985 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0378-8741
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Part one of the paper discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and general pharmacological aspects of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere. Four categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach: It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable: Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Nicotiana, Virola; It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded or even unlikely: Banisteriopsis, Cannabis, Datura, Ilex guayusa; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable, but it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Justicia pectoralis, Pagamea macrophylla, Tanaecium nocturnum; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded, and it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Acorus calamus, Capsicum, Macquira sclerophylla, Piper interitum. Part two of the paper discusses the nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible ritual snuff constituents. The literature yields convincing clinical evidence that atropine, cocaine, nicotine and scopolamine are effective following nasal application, but experimental confirmation of the efficacy of nasal tryptamine alkaloids is still awaited. In self-experiments, 6.4 mg/kg of caffeine produced substantial plasma levels via the nasal route, but 0.5 mg/kg of harmine did not produce measurable plasma levels, when taken as a nasal powder. Without additional experiments, it is difficult to give a definite explanation for this negative result.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ceremonial Behavior
Indians, North American
Indians, South American
Plants, Toxic
Plants
Psychotropic Drugs
Tobacco, Smokeless
Tobacco
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Atropine/pharmacology
Bufotenin/pharmacology
Caffeine/pharmacology
Cannabis
Capsicum
Chemical Phenomena
Chemistry
Cocaine/pharmacology
Datura stramonium
Harmine/pharmacology
Humans
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine/pharmacology
Nicotine/pharmacology
Plants, Medicinal
Psychotropic Drugs/metabolism
Scopolamine Hydrobromide/pharmacology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Psychotropic Drugs); 0A31347TZK (Bufotenin); 3G6A5W338E (Caffeine); 451IFR0GXB (Scopolamine Hydrobromide); 4FHH5G48T7 (Harmine); 6M3C89ZY6R (Nicotine); 7C0697DR9I (Atropine); I5Y540LHVR (Cocaine); WUB601BHAA (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine)
[Em] Entry month:8506
[Cu] Class update date: 151119
[Lr] Last revision date:151119
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:850301
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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