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[PMID]: 29488037
[Au] Autor:Li WJ; Xu C; Wang K; Li TY; Wang XN; Yang H; Xing T; Li WX; Chen YH; Gao H; Ding L
[Ad] Address:The Cancer Center of Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100038, China.
[Ti] Title:Severe Intestinal Inflammation in the Small Intestine of Mice Induced by Controllable Deletion of Claudin-7.
[So] Source:Dig Dis Sci;, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2568
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: As a potential tumor suppressor gene, Claudin-7 (Cldn7), which is a component of tight junctions, may play an important role in colorectal cancer occurrence and development. AIMS: To generate a knockout mouse model of inducible conditional Cldn7 in the intestine and analyze the phenotype of the mice after induction with tamoxifen. METHODS: We constructed Cldn7-flox transgenic mice and crossed them with Villin-CreERT2 mice. The Cldn7 inducible conditional knockout mice appeared normal and were well developed at birth. We induced Cldn7 gene deletion by injecting different dosages of tamoxifen into the mice and then conducted a further phenotypic analysis. RESULTS: After induction for 5 days in succession at a dose of 200 µl tamoxifen in sunflower oil at 10 mg/ml per mouse every time, the mice appeared dehydrated, had a lower temperature, and displayed inactivity or death. The results of hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the intestines of the Cldn7 inducible conditional knockout mice had severe intestinal defects that included epithelial cell sloughing, necrosis, inflammation and hyperplasia. Owing to the death of ICKO mice, we adjusted the dose of tamoxifen to a dose of 100 µl in sunflower oil at 10 mg/ml per mouse (aged more than 8 weeks old) every 4 days. And we could induce atypical hyperplasia and adenoma in the intestine. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that the intestinal epithelial structure was destroyed. Electron microscopy experimental analysis indicated that the intercellular gap along the basolateral membrane of Cldn7 inducible conditional knockout mice in the intestine was increased and that contact between the cells and matrix was loosened. CONCLUSIONS: We generated a model of intestinal Cldn7 inducible conditional knockout mice. Intestinal Cldn7 deletion induced by tamoxifen initiated inflammation and hyperplasia in mice.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10620-018-4973-z

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[PMID]: 29471085
[Au] Autor:Zhu H; Lu X; Ling L; Li H; Ou Y; Shi X; Lu Y; Zhang Y; Chen D
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiological and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
[Ti] Title:Houttuynia cordata polysaccharides ameliorate pneumonia severity and intestinal injury in mice with influenza virus infection.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;218:90-99, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hottuynia cordata is an important traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases including bacterial and viral infections. Polysaccharides isolated from Houttuynia cordata (HCP), as its main ingredients, have been demonstrated to ameliorate the LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. The study aimed to determine the protective effects of HCP on multiple organ injury in influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infected mice and its primary mechanisms in anti-inflammation and immune regulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were inoculated with IAV H1N1 and then treated with 20 or 40 mg/kg/d of HCP for survival test and acute lung-gut injury test. RESULTS: The treatment with HCP resulted in an increase in the survival rate of H1N1 infected mice and the protection from lung and intestine injury, accompanied with the reduced virus replication. HCP markedly decreased the concentration of pulmonary proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and the number of intestinal goblet cells, and strengthened the intestinal physical and immune barrier, according to the increase of sIgA and tight junction protein (ZO-1) in intestine. At the same time, the inhibition of inflammation in lung and gut was related to the suppressing of the expression of TLR4 and p-NFκB p65 in lung. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that HCP ameliorated lung and intestine injury induced by IAV attack. The mechanisms were associated with inhibition of inflammation, protection of intestinal barrier and regulation of mucosal immunity, which may be related to the regulation of gut-lung axis. As an alternative medicine, HCP may have clinical potential to treat IAV infection in human beings.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29223444
[Au] Autor:Ungar B; Kopylov U; Yavzori M; Fudim E; Picard O; Lahat A; Coscas D; Waterman M; Haj-Natour O; Orbach-Zingboim N; Mao R; Chen M; Chowers Y; Eliakim R; Ben-Horin S
[Ad] Address:Department of Gastroenterology, Sheba Medical Center Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address: bellageyshis@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Association of Vedolizumab Level, Anti-Drug Antibodies, and α4ß7 Occupancy With Response in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
[So] Source:Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol;, 2017 Dec 07.
[Is] ISSN:1542-7714
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few data available on the real-life pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics features of vedolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against integrin α4ß7. We performed a prospective study of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) treated with vedolizumab to determine serum drug concentrations, formation of antivedolizumab antibodies (AVAs), and integrin α4ß7 saturation. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 106 patients with IBD (67 with Crohn's disease and 39 with ulcerative colitis) treated with vedolizumab from September 2014 through March 2017 at 2 tertiary medical centers in Israel. Clinical data and serum samples were collected before and during induction and maintenance therapy. Clinical remission was defined as Harvey-Bradshaw index scores below 5 or as Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index scores of 3 or less. We measured serum levels of vedolizumab, AVAs, and markers of inflammation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from some patients at designated trough time points and CD3+ CD45RO+ T cells were isolated from 36 samples. Cells were incubated with fluorescent-conjugated vedolizumab and flow cytometry was used to quantify α4ß7 integrin saturation. We also performed flow cytometry analyses of CD3+ CD45RO+ lamina propria T cells isolated from intestinal mucosa of patients without IBD (non-IBD controls, n = 6), patients with IBD not treated with vedolizumab (untreated IBD controls, n = 8), and patients with IBD treated with vedolizumab (n = 15). RESULTS: Clinical remission was achieved by 48 of 106 patients (45%) by week 6 and 50 of 106 patients (48%) by week 14 of treatment. The median level of vedolizumab at week 6 was higher in patients in clinical remission (40.2 µg/mL) than in patients with active disease (29.7 µg/mL; P = .05). The median serum level of vedolizumab was significantly higher in patients with a normal level of C-reactive protein (21.8 µg/mL vedolizumab) vs the level in those with a high level of C-reactive protein (11.9 µg/mL vedolizumab) during maintenance treatment (P = .0006). The other clinical outcomes measured were not associated with median serum level of vedolizumab at any time point examined. AVAs were detected in 17% of patients during induction therapy and 3% of patients during maintenance therapy, but did not correlate with clinical outcomes. Flow-cytometry analysis of peripheral blood memory T cells (n = 36) showed near-complete occupancy of α4ß7 integrin at weeks 2 and 14 and during the maintenance phase, regardless of response status or drug levels. Most intestinal CD3+CD45RO+ memory T cells of healthy and IBD controls expressed α4ß7 (72%; interquartile range, 56%-81%). In contrast, free α4ß7 was detectable on only 5.6% of intestinal memory cells (interquartile range, 4.4%-11.2%) (P < .0001) from vedolizumab-treated patients, regardless of response. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of real-life patients with IBD, we associated vedolizumab drug levels with remission and level of a marker of inflammation. Integrin α4ß7 was blocked in almost all T cells from patients treated with vedolizumab, regardless of serum level of the drug or response to treatment. These findings indicate a need to explore alternative mechanisms that prevent response to vedolizumab.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 115594 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524114
[Au] Autor:Thota PN; Arora Z; Dumot JA; Falk G; Benjamin T; Goldblum J; Jang S; Lopez R; Vargo JJ
[Ad] Address:Center of Excellence for Barrett's Esophagus, Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA. thotap@ccf.org.
[Ti] Title:Cryotherapy and Radiofrequency Ablation for Eradication of Barrett's Esophagus with Dysplasia or Intramucosal Cancer.
[So] Source:Dig Dis Sci;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2568
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic ablation therapy has become the mainstay of treatment of Barrett's associated dysplasia and intramucosal cancer (IMC). The widely available techniques for ablation are radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cryotherapy. Our aim was to compare eradication rates of metaplasia and dysplasia with both these modalities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of prospectively collected database of patients who underwent endoscopic therapy for Barrett's dysplasia or IMC from 2006 to 2011 was performed. Demographic features, comorbidities, and endoscopic data including length of Barrett's segment, hiatal hernia size, interventions during the endoscopy and histological results were reviewed. RESULTS: Among 154 patients included, 73 patients were in the RFA and 81 patients were in the cryotherapy group. There was complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) in 81 (52.6%), complete eradication of dysplasia (CE-D) in 133 (86.4%), and persistent dysplasia or cancer in 19 patients (12.3%). Compared to RFA, cryotherapy patients were found to be older and less likely to have undergone endoscopic mucosal resection. On multivariate analysis, patients who underwent RFA had a threefold higher odds of having CE-IM than those who underwent cryotherapy (odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-6.0, p = 0.004), but CE-D were similar between the two groups (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.66-4.3, p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic therapy is highly effective in eradication of Barrett's associated neoplasia. Patients who underwent cryotherapy were equally likely to achieve CE-D but not CE-IM than patients who underwent RFA. Patient characteristics and preferences may effect choice of treatment selection and outcomes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10620-018-5009-4

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[PMID]: 29501492
[Au] Autor:Suyama Y; Handa O; Naito Y; Takayama S; Mukai R; Ushiroda C; Majima A; Yasuda-Onozawa Y; Higashimura Y; Fukui A; Dohi O; Okayama T; Yoshida N; Katada K; Kamada K; Uchiyama K; Ishikawa T; Takagi T; Konishi H; Itoh Y
[Ad] Address:Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Mucus reduction promotes acetyl salicylic acid-induced small intestinal mucosal injury in rats.
[So] Source:Biochem Biophys Res Commun;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2104
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is a useful drug for the secondary prevention of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, but it has adverse effects on the small intestinal mucosa. The pathogenesis and prophylaxis of ASA-induced small intestinal injury remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the intestinal mucus, as the gastrointestinal tract is covered by mucus, which exhibits protective effects against various gastrointestinal diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ASA was injected into the duodenum of rats, and small intestinal mucosal injury was evaluated using Evans blue dye. To investigate the importance of mucus, Polysorbate 80 (P80), an emulsifier, was used before ASA injection. In addition, rebamipide, a mucus secretion inducer in the small intestine, was used to suppress mucus reduction in the small intestine of P80-administered rats. RESULTS: The addition of P80 reduced the mucus and exacerbated the ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Rebamipide significantly suppressed P80-reduced small intestinal mucus and P80-increased intestinal mucosal lesions in ASA-injected rats, demonstrating that mucus is important for the protection against ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. CONCLUSION: Mucus secretion-increasing therapy might be useful in preventing ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 115594 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29409815
[Au] Autor:Vander Haar EL; So J; Gyamfi-Bannerman C; Han YW
[Ad] Address:Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
[Ti] Title:Fusobacterium nucleatum and adverse pregnancy outcomes: Epidemiological and mechanistic evidence.
[So] Source:Anaerobe;50:55-59, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8274
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobic oral commensal associated with periodontal disease. F. nucleatum has been implicated in a wide spectrum of systemic diseases, including oral, gastro-intestinal, rheumatologic, and vascular pathologies. As pregnancy risk has been linked to periodontal disease, there has also been significant research into the effects of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of the role of F. nucleatum in adverse pregnancy outcomes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 115594 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29320813
[Au] Autor:Muñoz-Carrillo JL; Muñoz-López JL; Muñoz-Escobedo JJ; Maldonado-Tapia C; Gutiérrez-Coronado O; Contreras-Cordero JF; Moreno-García MA
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Cell Biology and Microbiology, Academic Unit of Biological Sciences, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Zacatecas, México.
[Ti] Title:Therapeutic Effects of Resiniferatoxin Related with Immunological Responses for Intestinal Inflammation in Trichinellosis.
[So] Source:Korean J Parasitol;55(6):587-599, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1738-0006
[Cp] Country of publication:Korea (South)
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The immune response against Trichinella spiralis at the intestinal level depends on the CD4+ T cells, which can both suppress or promote the inflammatory response through the synthesis of diverse cytokines. During the intestinal phase, the immune response is mixed (Th1/Th2) with the initial predominance of the Th1 response and the subsequent domination of Th2 response, which favor the development of intestinal pathology. In this context, the glucocorticoids (GC) are the pharmacotherapy for the intestinal inflammatory response in trichinellosis. However, its therapeutic use is limited, since studies have shown that treatment with GC suppresses the host immune system, favoring T. spiralis infection. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response (proinflammatory) and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, recent studies showed that resiniferatoxin (RTX) had anti-inflammatory activity, which decreased the serum levels of IL-12, INF-γ, IL-1ß, TNF-α, NO, and PGE2, as well the number of eosinophils in the blood, associated with decreased intestinal pathology and muscle parasite burden. These researches demonstrate that RTX is capable to inhibit the production of Th1 cytokines, contributing to the defense against T. spiralis infection, which places it as a new potential drug modulator of the immune response.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Diterpenes/pharmacology
Diterpenes/therapeutic use
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/immunology
Intestines/immunology
Trichinellosis/drug therapy
Trichinellosis/immunology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology
Cytokines/metabolism
Eosinophils/immunology
Humans
Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
Leukocyte Count
Th1 Cells/immunology
Th2 Cells/immunology
Trichinella spiralis/immunology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cytokines); 0 (Diterpenes); 0 (Inflammation Mediators); A5O6P1UL4I (resiniferatoxin)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3347/kjp.2017.55.6.587

  8 / 115594 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29518081
[Au] Autor:Lindholz CG; Favero V; Verissimo CM; Candido RRF; de Souza RP; Dos Santos RR; Morassutti AL; Bittencourt HR; Jones MK; St Pierre TG; Graeff-Teixeira C
[Ad] Address:Laboratório de Biologia Parasitária, School of Sciences, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Study of diagnostic accuracy of Helmintex, Kato-Katz, and POC-CCA methods for diagnosing intestinal schistosomiasis in Candeal, a low intensity transmission area in northeastern Brazil.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;12(3):e0006274, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Control initiatives have successfully reduced the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis transmission in several localities around the world. However, individuals that release low numbers of eggs in their feces may not be detected by classical methods that are limited by low sensitivity. Given that accurate estimates of prevalence are key to implementing planning control actions for the elimination of schistosomiasis, new diagnostic tools are needed to effectively monitor infections and confirm transmission interruption. The World Health Organization recommends the Kato-Katz (KK) thick smear as a parasitological test for epidemiological surveys, even though this method has been demonstrated to underestimate prevalence when egg burdens are low. The point-of-care immunodiagnostic for detecting schistosome cathodic circulating antigen (POC-CCA) method has been proposed as a more sensitive substitute for KK in prevalence estimations. An alternative diagnostic, the Helmintex (HTX) method, isolates eggs from fecal samples with the use of paramagnetic particles in a magnetic field. Here, a population-based study involving 461 individuals from Candeal, Sergipe State, Brazil, was conducted to evaluate these three methods comparatively by latent class analysis (LCA). The prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni was determined to be 71% with POC-CCA, 40.% with HTX and 11% with KK. Most of the egg burdens of the individuals tested (70%) were < 1 epg, thereby revealing a dissociation between prevalence and intensity in this locality. Therefore, the present results confirm that the HTX method is a highly sensitive egg detection procedure and support its use as a reference method for diagnosing intestinal schistosomiasis and for comparative evaluation of other tests.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006274

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[PMID]: 29517960
[Au] Autor:Cieplak T; Soffer N; Sulakvelidze A; Nielsen DS
[Ad] Address:a Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science , University of Copenhagen , Frederiksberg C, Denmark , Rolighedsvej 26, Frederiksberg C, 1958, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:A bacteriophage cocktail targeting Escherichia coli reduces E. coli in simulated gut conditions, while preserving a non-targeted representative commensal normal microbiota.
[So] Source:Gut Microbes;:1-19, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1949-0984
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Antibiotics offer an efficient means for managing diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. However, antibiotics are typically broad spectrum and they can indiscriminately kill beneficial microbes in body habitats such as the gut, deleteriously affecting the commensal gut microbiota. In addition, many bacteria have developed or are developing resistance to antibiotics, which complicates treatment and creates significant challenges in clinical medicine. Therefore, there is a real and urgent medical need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches that will kill specific problem-causing bacteria without disturbing a normal, and often beneficial, gut microbiota. One such potential alternative approach is the use of lytic bacteriophages for managing bacterial infections, including those caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. In the present study, we comparatively analysed the efficacy of a bacteriophage cocktail targeting Escherichia coli with that of a broad-spectrum antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) using an in vitro model of the small intestine. The parameters examined included (i) the impact on a specific, pre-chosen targeted E. coli strain, and (ii) the impact on a selected non-targeted bacterial population, which was chosen to represent a defined microbial consortium typical of a healthy small intestine. During these studies, we also examined stability of bacteriophages against various pH and bile concentrations commonly found in the intestinal tract of humans. The bacteriophage cocktail was slightly more stable in the simulated duodenum conditions compared to the simulated ileum (0.12 vs. 0.58 log decrease in phage titers, respectively). It was equally effective as ciprofloxacin in reducing E. coli in the simulated gut conditions (2-3 log reduction), but had much milder (none) impact on the commensal, non-targeted bacteria compared to the antibiotic.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/19490976.2018.1447291

  10 / 115594 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505154
[Au] Autor:Baker MA; Mitchell PD; O'Loughlin AA; Potemkin AK; Anez-Bustillos L; Dao DT; Fell GL; Gura KM; Puder M
[Ad] Address:Vascular Biology Program and Department of Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
[Ti] Title:Characterization of Fatty Acid Profiles in Infants With Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease.
[So] Source:JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr;42(1):71-77, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1941-2444
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize fatty acid profiles (FAPs) in parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) receiving soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (SO) doses of ∼3 and ∼1 g/kg/d. METHODS: Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed. Serum FAPs of patients <1 year old who experienced development of IFALD while receiving standard PN with SO were examined before transitioning to a fish oil-based lipid emulsion for IFALD treatment. Time on SO, dose, gestational age, and weight- and length-for-age z scores were also reviewed. RESULTS: Among the 49 patients analyzed, there were no differences in demographics or anthropometrics between patients who received standard SO (SO-S) (n = 14, range of dosage 2.06-3.31 g/kg/d) and reduced SO (SO-R) (n = 35, range of dosage 0.90-1.34 g/kg/d). Patients received SO for a median of 53 days (interquartile range 39, 73) before FAP measurement. Patients who received SO-R had significantly higher Mead acid and lower α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, linoleic, stearic, total ω-3, and total ω-6 fatty acid levels than patients who received SO-S (P < .01). Triene:tetraene ratios were higher in patients who received SO-R (P = .0009), and no patients experienced biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). CONCLUSION: PN-dependent infants with IFALD receiving SO-R have different FAPs than patients receiving SO-S. No patients in either group had biochemical EFAD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/jpen.1026


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