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[PMID]: 28135085
[Au] Autor:Botezat O; van Leusen J; Kravtsov VC; Kögerler P; Baca SG
[Ad] Address:Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova , 2028 Chisinau, Moldova.
[Ti] Title:Ultralarge 3d/4f Coordination Wheels: From Carboxylate/Amino Alcohol-Supported {Fe Ln } to {Fe Ln } Rings.
[So] Source:Inorg Chem;56(4):1814-1822, 2017 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1520-510X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A family of wheel-shaped charge-neutral heterometallic {Fe Ln }- and {Fe M }-type coordination clusters demonstrates the intricate interplay of solvent effects and structure-directing roles of semiflexible bridging ligands. The {Fe Ln }-type compounds [Fe Ln (O CCMe ) (N ) (Htea) ]·2(EtOH), Ln = Dy (1a), Er (1b), Ho (1c); [Fe Tb (O CCMe ) (N ) (Htea) ] (1d); [Fe Ln (O CCMe ) (N ) (Htea) ]·2(CH Cl ), Ln = Dy (2a), Er (2b); [Fe Ln (O CCMe ) (N ) (Htea) ]·2(EtOH)·2(CH Cl ), Ln = Dy (3a), Er (3b) and the {Fe M }-type compounds [Fe M (O CCHMe ) (Htea) (tea) (N ) ]·n(solvent), M = Dy (4, 4a), Gd (5), Tb (6), Ho (7), Sm (8), Eu (9), and Y (10) form in ca. 20-40% yields in direct reaction of trinuclear Fe pivalate or isobutyrate clusters, lanthanide/yttrium nitrates, and bridging triethanolamine (H tea) and azide ligands in different solvents: EtOH for the smaller {Fe Ln } wheels and MeOH/MeCN or MeOH/EtOH for the larger {Fe M } wheels. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that 1-3 consist of planar centrosymmetric hexanuclear clusters built from Fe and Ln ions linked by an array of bridging carboxylate, azide, and aminopolyalcoholato-based ligands into a cyclic structure with a cavity, and with distinct sets of crystal solvents (2 EtOH per formula unit in 1a-c, 2 CH Cl in 2, and 2 EtOH and 2 CH Cl in 3). In 4-10, the largest 3d/4f wheels currently known, nearly linear Fe fragments are joined via mononuclear Ln/Y units by a set of isobutyrates and amino alcohol ligands into virtually planar rings. The magnetic properties of 1-10 reveal slow magnetization relaxation for {Fe Tb } (1d) and slow relaxation for {Fe Ho } (1c), {Fe Dy } (4), and {Fe Tb } (6).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170224
[Lr] Last revision date:170224
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b02100

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[PMID]: 27826830
[Au] Autor:Huang W; Kim Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L8, Canada. huangw23@mcmaster.ca.
[Ti] Title:Electrochemical techniques for evaluating short-chain fatty acid utilization by bioanodes.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;24(3):2620-2626, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The utilization of propionic, n-butyric, and isobutyric acids in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) was examined by monitoring individual short-chain fatty acid concentration and using electrochemical techniques, such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). When n-butyric or isobutyric acid was provided as a single substrate, acetic acid was consistently observed in experiments, indicating that acetic acid was produced as a byproduct and utilized by exoelectrogenic bacteria as an additional substrate in MECs. When isobutyric acid was given as a sole substrate, the applied potential governed the electric current (i.e., rate of substrate utilization). In addition, the coulombic efficiency was substantially high (90%), indicating direct utilization of isobutyric acid by exoelectrogenic bacteria. However, the coulombic efficiency was relatively low (30-60%) when n-butyric acid was provided as a sole substrate. In another experiment, the magnitude of electric current was more dependent on the concentration of acetic acid than that of other short-chain fatty acids. In the EIS analysis, the exchange current was found to be a more reliable indicator of substrate favorability than the charge transfer resistance.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Electrochemical Techniques
Fatty Acids, Volatile
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Acetic Acid
Bacteria
Electricity
Electrolysis
Isobutyrates
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Fatty Acids, Volatile); 0 (Isobutyrates); 8LL210O1U0 (isobutyric acid); Q40Q9N063P (Acetic Acid)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171104
[Lr] Last revision date:171104
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161110
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11356-016-8026-x

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[PMID]: 27821226
[Au] Autor:Wang C; Liu Q; Zhang YL; Pei CX; Zhang SL; Guo G; Huo WJ; Yang WZ; Wang H
[Ad] Address:1College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicines,Shanxi Agricultural University,Taigu 030801,Shanxi Province,P. R. China.
[Ti] Title:Effects of isobutyrate supplementation in pre- and post-weaned dairy calves diet on growth performance, rumen development, blood metabolites and hormone secretion.
[So] Source:Animal;11(5):794-801, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1751-732X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Isobutyrate supplements could improve rumen development by increasing ruminal fermentation products, especially butyrate, and then promote the growth performance of calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on growth performance, rumen development, blood metabolites and hormone secretion in pre- and post-weaned dairy calves. In total, 56 Chinese Holstein male calves with 30 days of age and 72.9±1.43 kg of BW, blocked by days of age and BW, were assigned to four groups in a randomized block design. The treatments were as follows: control, low-isobutyrate, moderate-isobutyrate and high-isobutyrate with 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09 g isobutyrate/kg BW per calf per day, respectively. Supplemental isobutyrate was hand-mixed into milk of pre-weaned calves and the concentrate portion of post-weaned calves. The study consisted of 10 days of an adaptation period and a 50-day sampling period. Calves were weaned at 60 days of age. Seven calves were chosen from each treatment at random and slaughtered at 45 and 90 days of age. BW, dry matter (DM) intake and stomach weight were measured, samples of ruminal tissues and blood were determined. For pre- and post-weaned calves, DM intake and average daily gain increased linearly (P<0.05), but feed conversion ratio decreased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Total stomach weight and the ratio of rumen weight to total stomach weight tended to increase (P=0.073) for pre-weaned calves and increased linearly (P=0.021) for post-weaned calves, whereas the ratio of abomasum weight to total stomach weight was not affected for pre-weaned calves and decreased linearly (P<0.05) for post-weaned calves with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Both length and width of rumen papillae tended to increase linearly for pre-weaned calves, but increased linearly (P<0.05) for post-weaned calves with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The relative expression of messenger RNA for growth hormone (GH) receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 in rumen mucosa increased linearly (P<0.05) for pre- and post-weaned calves with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Blood concentrations of glucose, acetoacetate, ß-hydroxybutyrate, GH and IGF-1 increased linearly (P<0.05) for pre- and post-weaned calves, whereas blood concentration of insulin decreased linearly with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The present results indicated that isobutyrate promoted growth of calves by improving rumen development and its ketogenesis in a dose-dependent manner.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cattle/physiology
Isobutyrates/metabolism
Rumen/growth & development
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animal Feed/analysis
Animals
Cattle/blood
Cattle/growth & development
Diet/veterinary
Dietary Supplements/analysis
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Growth Hormone/secretion
Insulin/secretion
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/secretion
Isobutyrates/administration & dosage
Male
Random Allocation
Rumen/drug effects
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Insulin); 0 (Isobutyrates); 67763-96-6 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor I); 9002-72-6 (Growth Hormone)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170713
[Lr] Last revision date:170713
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161109
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S1751731116002093

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[PMID]: 27637202
[Au] Autor:Tanaka R; Amijima M; Iwata Y; Koizumi N; Mishiba KI
[Ad] Address:Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Effect of light and auxin transport inhibitors on endoreduplication in hypocotyl and cotyledon.
[So] Source:Plant Cell Rep;35(12):2539-2547, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1432-203X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:KEY MESSAGE: Enhancement of endoreduplication in dark-grown hypocotyl is a common feature in dicotyledonous polysomatic plants, and TIBA-mediated inhibition of the endoreduplication is partially due to abnormal actin organization. Many higher plant species use endoreduplication during cell differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying this process have remained elusive. In this study, we examined endoreduplication in hypocotyls and cotyledons in response to light in some dicotyledonous plant species. Enhancement of endoreduplication was found in the dark-grown hypocotyls of all the polysomatic species analyzed across five different families, indicating that this process is a common feature in dicotyledonous plants having polysomatic tissues. Conversely, endoreduplication was enhanced in the light-grown cotyledons in four of the five species analyzed. We also analyzed the effect of a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) on endoreduplication in hypocotyl and cotyledon tissues of radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus Bailey). TIBA was found to inhibit and promote endoreduplication in hypocotyls and cotyledons, respectively, suggesting that the endoreduplication mechanism differs in these organs. To gain insight into the effect of TIBA, radish and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seedlings were treated with a vesicle-trafficking inhibitor, brefeldin A, and an actin polymerization inhibitor, cytochalasin D. Both of the inhibitors partially inhibited endoreduplication of the dark-grown hypocotyl tissues, suggesting that the prominent inhibition of endoreduplication by TIBA might be attributed to its multifaceted role.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cotyledon/genetics
Endoreduplication/drug effects
Endoreduplication/radiation effects
Hypocotyl/genetics
Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism
Light
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biological Transport/drug effects
Biological Transport/radiation effects
Brefeldin A/pharmacology
Cotyledon/drug effects
Cotyledon/radiation effects
Cytochalasin D/pharmacology
Fluorenes/pharmacology
Hypocotyl/drug effects
Hypocotyl/growth & development
Hypocotyl/radiation effects
Isobutyrates/pharmacology
Phthalimides
Ploidies
Raphanus/drug effects
Raphanus/metabolism
Raphanus/radiation effects
Spinacia oleracea/drug effects
Spinacia oleracea/metabolism
Spinacia oleracea/radiation effects
Triiodobenzoic Acids/pharmacology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Fluorenes); 0 (Indoleacetic Acids); 0 (Isobutyrates); 0 (Phthalimides); 0 (Triiodobenzoic Acids); 20350-15-6 (Brefeldin A); 22144-77-0 (Cytochalasin D); 306R88V86P (alpha-naphthylphthalamic acid); H575A4059Q (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 171004
[Lr] Last revision date:171004
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160918
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27626392
[Au] Autor:Bustos-Brito C; Vázquez-Heredia VJ; Calzada F; Yépez-Mulia L; Calderón JS; Hernández-Ortega S; Esquivel B; García-Hernández N; Quijano L
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510, Mexico. bustosbritocelia@comunidad.unam.mx.
[Ti] Title:Antidiarrheal Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina glabrata. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 10-Benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol Isobutyrate.
[So] Source:Molecules;21(9), 2016 Sep 12.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chemical investigation of the leaves from Ageratina glabrata yielded four new thymol derivatives, namely: 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydro-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (4), 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydrothymol (5), 10-benzoyloxythymol (6) and 10-benzoyloxy-6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryl-oxythymol (7). In addition, (8S)-10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (1), together with other two already known thymol derivatives identified as 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-methoxythymol isobutyrate (2) and 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxythymol isobutyrate (3) were also obtained. In this paper, we report the structures and complete assignments of the ¹H and (13)C-NMR data of compounds 1-7, and the absolute configuration for compound 1, unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and evaluation of the Flack parameter. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that compound 1 and its derivative 1a were the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compounds. Both compounds showed selectivity and good antiamoebic activity comparable to emetine and metronidazole, respectively, two antiprotozoal drugs used as positive controls. In relation to anti-propulsive effect, compound 1 and 1a showed inhibitory activity, with activities comparable to quercetin and compound 9, two natural antipropulsive compounds used as positive controls. These data suggest that compound 1 may play an important role in antidiarrheal properties of Ageratina glabrata.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ageratina/chemistry
Antidiarrheals
Isobutyrates
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Thymol
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Antidiarrheals/chemistry
Antidiarrheals/isolation & purification
Humans
Isobutyrates/chemistry
Isobutyrates/isolation & purification
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Thymol/analogs & derivatives
Thymol/chemistry
Thymol/isolation & purification
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antidiarrheals); 0 (Isobutyrates); 3J50XA376E (Thymol)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170417
[Lr] Last revision date:170417
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160915
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27431485
[Au] Autor:Narihiro T; Nobu MK; Tamaki H; Kamagata Y; Sekiguchi Y; Liu WT
[Ad] Address:Bioproduction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST).
[Ti] Title:Comparative Genomics of Syntrophic Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Degrading Bacteria.
[So] Source:Microbes Environ;31(3):288-92, 2016 Sep 29.
[Is] ISSN:1347-4405
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The syntrophic degradation of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) such as 2-methylbutyrate and isobutyrate is an essential step in the production of methane from proteins/amino acids in anaerobic ecosystems. While a few syntrophic BCFA-degrading bacteria have been isolated, their metabolic pathways in BCFA and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) degradation as well as energy conservation systems remain unclear. In an attempt to identify these pathways, we herein performed comparative genomics of three syntrophic bacteria: 2-methylbutyrate-degrading "Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. methylbutyratica" strain JCM 14075(T) (=4J5(T)), isobutyrate-degrading Syntrophothermus lipocalidus strain TGB-C1(T), and non-BCFA-metabolizing S. wolfei subsp. wolfei strain Göttingen(T). We demonstrated that 4J5 and TGB-C1 both encode multiple genes/gene clusters involved in ß-oxidation, as observed in the Göttingen genome, which has multiple copies of genes associated with butyrate degradation. The 4J5 genome possesses phylogenetically distinct ß-oxidation genes, which may be involved in 2-methylbutyrate degradation. In addition, these Syntrophomonadaceae strains harbor various hydrogen/formate generation systems (i.e., electron-bifurcating hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, and membrane-bound hydrogenase) and energy-conserving electron transport systems, including electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF)-linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, ETF-linked iron-sulfur binding reductase, ETF dehydrogenase (FixABCX), and flavin oxidoreductase-heterodisulfide reductase (Flox-Hdr). Unexpectedly, the TGB-C1 genome encodes a nitrogenase complex, which may function as an alternative H2 generation mechanism. These results suggest that the BCFA-degrading syntrophic strains 4J5 and TGB-C1 possess specific ß-oxidation-related enzymes for BCFA oxidation as well as appropriate energy conservation systems to perform thermodynamically unfavorable syntrophic metabolism.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Butyrates/metabolism
Clostridiales/genetics
Clostridiales/metabolism
Genome, Bacterial
Isobutyrates/metabolism
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biotransformation
Genomics
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Butyrates); 0 (Isobutyrates); 8LL210O1U0 (isobutyric acid); PX7ZNN5GXK (2-methylbutanoic acid)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170327
[Lr] Last revision date:170327
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160720
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1264/jsme2.ME16057

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[PMID]: 27156890
[Au] Autor:Api AM; Belsito D; Bhatia S; Bruze M; Calow P; Dagli ML; Dekant W; Fryer AD; Kromidas L; La Cava S; Lalko JF; Lapczynski A; Liebler DC; Politano VT; Ritacco G; Salvito D; Schultz TW; Shen J; Sipes IG; Wall B; Wilcox DK
[Ad] Address:Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc., 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677, USA. Electronic address: AApi@rifm.org.
[Ti] Title:RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, benzyl isobutyrate, CAS Registry Number 103-28-6.
[So] Source:Food Chem Toxicol;97S:S90-S100, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6351
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Benzyl Compounds/toxicity
Isobutyrates/toxicity
Perfume/toxicity
Toxicity Tests/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Benzyl Compounds/chemistry
Consumer Product Safety
DNA Damage/drug effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Endpoint Determination
Isobutyrates/chemistry
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Perfume/chemistry
Rats
Risk Assessment
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Benzyl Compounds); 0 (Isobutyrates); 0 (Perfume)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170307
[Lr] Last revision date:170307
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160510
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26884137
[Au] Autor:Savoy JD; Baird JK; Lang JR
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, United States. Electronic address: jds0013@uah.edu.
[Ti] Title:Ion exchange at the critical point of solution.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr A;1437:58-66, 2016 Mar 11.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3778
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A mixture of isobutyric acid (IBA)+water has an upper critical point of solution at 26.7°C and an IBA concentration of 4.40M. We have determined the Langmuir isotherms for the hydroxide form of Amberlite IRN-78 resin in contact with mixtures of IBA+water at temperatures, 27.0, 29.0, 31.0 and 38.0°C, respectively. The Langmuir plot at 38.0°C forms a straight line. At the three lower temperatures, however, a peak in the Langmuir plot is observed for IBA concentrations in the vicinity of 4.40M. We regard this peak to be a critical effect not only because it is located close to 4.40M, but also because its height becomes more pronounced as the temperature of the isotherm approaches the critical temperature. For concentrations in the vicinity of the peak, the data indicate that the larger isobutyrate ion is rejected by the resin in favor of the smaller hydroxide ion. This reversal of the expected ion exchange reaction might be used to separate ions according to size. Using the Donnan theory of ion exchange equilibrium, we link the swelling pressure to the osmotic pressure. We show that the peak in the Langmuir plot is associated with a maximum in the "osmotic" energy. This maximum has its origin in the concentration derivative of the osmotic pressure, which goes to zero as the critical point is approached.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ion Exchange Resins/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Hydroxides/chemistry
Ion Exchange
Ions/chemistry
Isobutyrates/chemistry
Kinetics
Osmotic Pressure
Resins, Synthetic/chemistry
Solutions
Temperature
Water/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hydroxides); 0 (Ion Exchange Resins); 0 (Ions); 0 (Isobutyrates); 0 (Resins, Synthetic); 0 (Solutions); 059QF0KO0R (Water); 8LL210O1U0 (isobutyric acid); 9079-25-8 (amberlite)
[Em] Entry month:1608
[Cu] Class update date: 170818
[Lr] Last revision date:170818
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160218
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26709172
[Au] Autor:Hultquist KM; Casper DP
[Ad] Address:Department of Dairy Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007.
[Ti] Title:Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;99(2):1201-1215, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106.1, 65.9, and 58.3 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving other treatments. This study suggests that feeding rumen degradable Val can increase milk yield comparable to recombinant bST.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cattle/physiology
Lactation/drug effects
Rumen/metabolism
Valine/administration & dosage
Valine/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animal Feed/analysis
Animals
Diet/veterinary
Fats/analysis
Female
Growth Hormone/administration & dosage
Growth Hormone/blood
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis
Isobutyrates/analysis
Milk/chemistry
Milk/metabolism
Milk Proteins/analysis
Rumen/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Fats); 0 (Isobutyrates); 0 (Milk Proteins); 47V0IB0717 (growth hormone, bovine); 67763-96-6 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor I); 9002-72-6 (Growth Hormone); HG18B9YRS7 (Valine)
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 171028
[Lr] Last revision date:171028
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151229
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26370386
[Au] Autor:Li X; West AC; Banta S
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York, 10027.
[Ti] Title:Enhancing isobutyric acid production from engineered Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans cells via media optimization.
[So] Source:Biotechnol Bioeng;113(4):790-6, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0290
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has previously been genetically modified to produce isobutyric acid (IBA) from carbon dioxide while obtaining energy from the oxidation of ferrous iron. Here, a combinatorial approach was used to explore the influence of medium composition in both batch and chemostat cultures in order to improve IBA yields (g IBA/mol Fe(2+)) and productivities (g IBA/L/d). Medium pH, ferrous concentration (Fe(2+)), and inclusion of iron chelators all had positive impact on the IBA yield. In batch experiments, gluconate was found to be a superior iron chelator because its use resulted in smaller excursions in pH. In batch cultures, IBA yields decreased linearly with increases in the final effective Fe(3+) concentrations. Chemostat cultures followed similar trends as observed in batch cultures. Specific cellular productivities were found to be a function of the steady state ORP (Oxidation-reduction potential) of the growth medium, which is primarily determined by the Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) ratio. By operating at low ORP, chemostat cultures were able to achieve volumetric productivities as high as 3.8 ± 0.2 mg IBA/L/d which is a 14-fold increase over the previously reported value.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Acidithiobacillus/genetics
Acidithiobacillus/metabolism
Culture Media/chemistry
Isobutyrates/metabolism
Organisms, Genetically Modified
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Carbon Dioxide/metabolism
Chelating Agents/metabolism
Ferrous Compounds/metabolism
Gluconates/metabolism
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Metabolic Engineering
Oxidation-Reduction
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Chelating Agents); 0 (Culture Media); 0 (Ferrous Compounds); 0 (Gluconates); 0 (Isobutyrates); 142M471B3J (Carbon Dioxide); 8LL210O1U0 (isobutyric acid); R4R8J0Q44B (gluconic acid)
[Em] Entry month:1611
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/bit.25837


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