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[PMID]: 29429850
[Au] Autor:Yanase T; Morii D; Kamio S; Nishimura A; Fukao E; Inose Y; Honma Y; Kitahara N; Yokozawa T; Chang B; Oda T
[Ad] Address:Department of Infectious Disease, Showa General Hospital, 8-1-1 Hanakoganei, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8510, Japan. Electronic address: tomo.nov.20.1990@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:The first report of human meningitis and pyogenic ventriculitis caused by Streptococcus suis: A case report.
[So] Source:J Infect Chemother;, 2018 Feb 08.
[Is] ISSN:1437-7780
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Streptococcus suis, a gram-positive facultative anaerobe commonly found in pigs, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Herein, we describe a case of a 45-year-old male Japanese meat wholesaler with S. suis meningitis and pyogenic ventriculitis. S. suis was isolated from his blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture, and sequence type (ST) and serotype were confirmed to be ST1 and serotype 2, respectively, by multilocus sequence typing and the Quellung reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed right labyrinthitis and pyogenic ventriculitis. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and ampicillin for 24 days; the treatment was deemed successful based on negative blood cultures on day 4. However, the patient experienced hearing loss and a vestibular nerve disorder. S. suis is a rare pathogen in Japan but can cause severe infection and sequelae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a human case of pyogenic ventriculitis caused by S. suis. Our findings suggest that S. suis infection should be considered when hearing impairment is present in a patient with bacterial infection and that MRI can help detect ventriculitis, which can necessitate a prolonged treatment duration.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29337715
[Au] Autor:Guerin JB; Vork DL; Eguiguren L; Marston AP; Driscoll CLW; Carlson ML; Henry NK; Lane JI
[Ad] Address:Department of Diagnostic Radiology.
[Ti] Title:Labyrinthine Sequestrum: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
[So] Source:Otol Neurotol;39(3):340-343, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1537-4505
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To report the presentation, diagnosis, management, and convalescence of labyrinthine sequestrum (LS) and summarize all previously published cases. PATIENT(S): Eleven-year-old female with LS. INTERVENTION(S): Multidisciplinary diagnostic evaluation and treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Imaging and laboratory findings, medical and surgical treatment. RESULTS: We describe a case of LS secondary to medically recalcitrant suppurative otitis media in an 11-year-old female and review all eight previously reported cases. The index patient presented after 6 months of otitis media, profound unilateral hearing loss, with symptoms suggesting meningitis. Temporal bone CT demonstrated marked bony destruction of the left otic capsule. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI showed an enhancing process with evidence of meningitis and subdural empyema. The patient was treated with surgical debridement and culture directed antibiotic therapy. Posttreatment imaging showed resolution of intracranial infection with fibrous bony healing of the otic capsule resembling fibrous dysplasia. CONCLUSION: LS is a rare form of labyrinthitis characterized by centrifugal destruction of the otic capsule. The current index case highlights the importance of combined medical and surgical treatment and describes for the first time in the literature the fibrous ossification of the otic capsule following disease resolution.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180209
[Lr] Last revision date:180209
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/MAO.0000000000001676

  3 / 897 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29095392
[Au] Autor:Davitt M; Delvecchio MT; Aronoff SC
[Ad] Address:From the Department of Pediatrics, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
[Ti] Title:The Differential Diagnosis of Vertigo in Children: A Systematic Review of 2726 Cases.
[So] Source:Pediatr Emerg Care;, 2017 Oct 31.
[Is] ISSN:1535-1815
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Vertigo is a relatively common complaint in children with 5.3% of pediatric patients complaining of this symptom. Although the causes of vertigo have been well established in adults, the diagnoses in children have not been well described. The aims of this systematic review are to discover the current information regarding etiologies of vertigo in children and to determine the most common diagnoses that present with vertigo in pediatric patients. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were searched using the PRISMA guidelines. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were established a priori. All results were analyzed using a Bayesian methodology for point estimation and credible interval calculation. RESULTS: From the database searches, 1419 titles were reviewed. Twenty-two studies met inclusion criteria. From these studies, a total of 2726 children aged 2 months to 19 years were reported. The top 4 diagnoses associated with childhood vertigo include vestibular migraine (23.8%; credible interval, 22.3%-25.5%), benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood (13.7%; credible interval, 12.4%-15%), idiopathic or no identified association (11.7%; credible interval, 10.5%-12.9%), and labyrinthitis/vestibular neuronitis (8.47%, credible interval, 7.46%-9.55%) accounting for approximately 57% of cases. Less common diagnoses included Meniere disease and central nervous system tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Although the most common causes of pediatric vertigo include vestibular migraine and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood, the etiologies are myriad. Rates and credible intervals are provided to permit a probabilistic diagnostic approach to these children.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171103
[Lr] Last revision date:171103
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1097/PEC.0000000000001281

  4 / 897 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29089672
[Au] Autor:Alam-Eldeen MH; Rashad UM; Ali AHA
[Ad] Address:Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.
[Ti] Title:Radiological requirements for surgical planning in cochlear implant candidates.
[So] Source:Indian J Radiol Imaging;27(3):274-281, 2017 Jul-Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0971-3026
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: This study is concerned with clarification of radiological findings that should be addressed and reported in patients listed for cochlear implant (CI) operation. These findings may force a surgeon to consider modifications of the surgical approach by a CI surgeon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed from January 2015 to January 2016. It included 50 patients with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss who fulfilled the criteria for CI. Patients underwent CI surgery in the Department of Otolaryngology. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology. Combined examination of the CT and MRI by the radiologist and the surgeon was advocated. RESULTS: Many anatomical variants were observed regarding the pattern of mastoid pneumatization, position of middle cranial fossa dura, sigmoid sinus position jugular bulb position, and the size and position of the mastoid segment of facial nerve canal. Labyrinthitis ossificans was seen in 3 patients (6%), otospongiosis in 1 patient (2%), and dilated vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac in 9 patients (18%). CONCLUSION: Cochlear implantation is a major treatment modality in patients with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Radiological evaluation is integral in surgery planning.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171103
[Lr] Last revision date:171103
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/ijri.IJRI_55_17

  5 / 897 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29089218
[Au] Autor:Vuong Chaney H; Rohmer D; Charpiot A
[Ad] Address:CHU Hautepierre Strasbourg, service ORL, 67098 Strasbourg, France. Electronic address: hella.vuong@chru-strasbourg.fr.
[Ti] Title:Comment prendre en charge un vertige chez l'adulte ? [How to manage vertigo in adult?]
[So] Source:Presse Med;, 2017 Oct 28.
[Is] ISSN:2213-0276
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:fre
[Ab] Abstract:The interrogation and the clinical examination are critical in the research of vertigo etiology. In the context of vertigo, the vital emergencies are of neurological and vascular origins. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify them quickly and simply. Vertigo is a symptom to relieve and the cause is to be diagnosed. Careful questioning combined with neurological examination, nystagmus study, Halmagyi test and skew deviation search are more reliable than imaging in the first 48hours to detect a stroke. There are 12% false negatives in cerebral MRI and 74% false negative in cerebral CT-scan in the first 48hours of an ischemic stroke. Labyrinth emergencies are infectious labyrinthitis, perilymphatic fistula and aeroembolism of the vestibule.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171101
[Lr] Last revision date:171101
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 897 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29065095
[Au] Autor:Itayem DA; Sladen D; Driscoll CL; Neff BA; Beatty CW; Carlson ML
[Ad] Address:Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
[Ti] Title:Cochlear Implant Associated Labyrinthitis: A Previously Unrecognized Phenomenon With a Distinct Clinical and Electrophysiological Impedance Pattern.
[So] Source:Otol Neurotol;38(10):e445-e450, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1537-4505
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: To report a unique clinical entity "cochlear implant associated labyrinthitis," characterized by a distinct constellation of clinical symptoms and pattern of electrode impedance fluctuations. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: All patients that underwent cochlear implantation between January 2014 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. All subjects with acute onset dizziness, device performance decline, and characteristic erratic pattern of electrode impedances occurring after an asymptotic postoperative interval were identified and reported. RESULTS: Five patients with the above criteria were identified, representing 1.4% of all implant surgeries performed during this time. The median age at time of implantation was 71 years, and the median time interval between implantation and onset of symptoms was 126 days. All patients exhibited acute onset dizziness, subjective performance deterioration, erratic impedance pattern, and two experienced worsening tinnitus. Two of five patients underwent subsequent CT imaging, where good electrode placement was confirmed without cochlear ossification. Two of five patients received oral prednisone therapy. All patients reported a subjective improvement in symptoms and stabilization of electrode impedances. Three patients subsequently received vestibular testing, where significantly reduced peripheral vestibular function was identified. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a unique clinical entity, "cochlear implant associated labyrinthitis," characterized by a distinct constellation of clinical symptoms and corresponding electrode impedance anomalies. The exact cause for this event remains unknown, but may be related to viral illness, delayed foreign body reaction to the electrode, or a reaction to electrical stimulation. Future studies characterizing this unique clinical entity are needed to further elucidate cause and optimal management.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171114
[Lr] Last revision date:171114
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1097/MAO.0000000000001615

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[PMID]: 29056901
[Au] Autor:Mwangi M; Kil SH; Phak D; Park HY; Lim DJ; Park R; Moon SK
[Ad] Address:Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
[Ti] Title:Interleukin-10 Attenuates Hypochlorous Acid-Mediated Cytotoxicity to HEI-OC1 Cochlear Cells.
[So] Source:Front Cell Neurosci;11:314, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1662-5102
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Inflammatory reaction plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of acquired hearing loss such as ototoxicity and labyrinthitis. In our earlier work, we showed the pivotal role of otic fibrocytes in cochlear inflammation and the critical involvement of proinflammatory cytokines in cisplatin ototoxicity. We also demonstrated that otic fibrocytes inhibit monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2) upregulation in response to interleukin-10 (IL-10) via heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) signaling, resulting in suppression of cochlear inflammation. However, it is still unclear how IL-10 affects inflammation-mediated cochlear injury. Here we aim to determine how hypochlorous acid, a model inflammation mediator affects cochlear cell viability and how IL-10 affects hypochlorous acid-mediated cochlear cell injury. NaOCl, a sodium salt of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was found to induce cytotoxicity of HEI-OC1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Combination of hydrogen peroxide and myeloperoxidase augmented cisplatin cytotoxicity, and this synergism was inhibited by N-Acetyl-L-cysteine and ML-171. The rat spiral ligament cell line (RSL) appeared to upregulate the antioxidant response element (ARE) activities upon exposure to IL-10. RSL cells upregulated the expression of NRF2 (an ARE ligand) and NR0B2 in response to CoPP (a HMOX1 inducer), but not to ZnPP (a HMOX1 inhibitor). Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of NR0B2 was found to suppress CCL2 upregulation. IL-10-positive cells appeared in the mouse stria vascularis 1 day after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Five days after injection, IL-10-positive cells were observed in the spiral ligament, spiral limbus, spiral ganglia, and suprastrial area, but not in the stria vascularis. IL-10R1 appeared to be expressed in the mouse organ of Corti as well as HEI-OC1 cells. HEI-OC1 cells upregulated Bcl-xL expression in response to IL-10, and IL-10 was shown to attenuate NaOCl-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, HEI-OC1 cells upregulated IL-22RA upon exposure to cisplatin, and NaOCl cytotoxicity was inhibited by IL-22. Taken together, our findings suggest that hypochlorous acid is involved in cochlear injury and that IL-10 potentially reduces cochlear injury through not only inhibition of inflammation but also enhancement of cochlear cell viability. Further studies are needed to determine immunological characteristics of intracochlear IL-10-positive cells and elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in the otoprotective activity of IL-10.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171026
[Lr] Last revision date:171026
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fncel.2017.00314

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[PMID]: 28977031
[Au] Autor:Cho J; Cheon H; Park JH; Lee HJ; Kim HJ; Choi HG; Koo JW; Hong SK
[Ad] Address:Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Sudden sensorineural hearing loss associated with inner ear lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186038, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have contributed to the detection of tiny lesions in the internal auditory canal (IAC) that may be responsible for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), there have been relatively few studies on the clinical characteristics of intra-labyrinthine hemorrhage (ILH) and labyrinthitis versus those regarding IAC tumors. Our purpose was to investigate the frequency of those IAC lesions on MRI and their clinical characteristics. Initial MRIs of 200 patients with SSNHL (93 men, 107 women; mean age = 48.61 years, range: 18-84 years), as well as detailed clinical histories, audiological examinations, and thyroid function, lipid battery, and serological tests (for viral agents and autoimmune disease), were performed. All patients were hospitalized at the time of diagnosis of SSNHL and were administered the same treatment protocol. Patients were divided into idiopathic and secondary groups according to their MRI results. After discharge, they underwent follow-up audiometry and clinical examination at predetermined intervals (2 weeks, 1, 2, 4, and 6 months, and 1 and 2 years). Propensity score-matching and receiver operating characteristics curves of the initial parameters were used for estimating clinical characteristics. Of the 200 patients, 25 (12.55%) who had abnormal findings suggesting inner ear lesions on MRI were assigned to the secondary SSNHL group; within this group, 10 patients (10/200, 5%) had a tumor invading the IAC, 7 (7/200, 3.5%) had ILH, 6 (6/200, 3%) had labyrinthitis, and 2 (1%) had a structural deformity of the IAC. The secondary group showed significantly poor recovery of hearing function compared with that in the idiopathic group. Patients with ILH or labyrinthitis showed prognoses that were equally poor as those of patients with tumors in the secondary group. Additionally, patients with such lesions showed significant canal paresis on the lesion side at an early stage and a high prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). In conclusion, the prevalence of non-tumorous lesions on MRI represents common findings and showed a poorer treatment response than that of vestibular Schwannoma in patients with SSNHL. Abnormal canal paresis (cut-off value of 35% on the lesioned side, sensitivity 65.2% and specificity 67%), spontaneous nystagmus directed to the contralesional side, and positional vertigo would be the clinical presentation of SSNHL with IAC lesions, in which the presence of acute prolonged vertigo or positional vertigo compatible with BPPV suggests the possibility of a non-tumorous lesion, such as ILH or a labyrinthitis rather than an IAC tumor.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ear, Inner/pathology
Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/etiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/diagnostic imaging
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171005
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186038

  9 / 897 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28859161
[Au] Autor:Almishaal AA; Mathur PD; Hillas E; Chen L; Zhang A; Yang J; Wang Y; Yokoyama WM; Firpo MA; Park AH
[Ad] Address:Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah College of Health, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Natural killer cells attenuate cytomegalovirus-induced hearing loss in mice.
[So] Source:PLoS Pathog;13(8):e1006599, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7374
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common non-hereditary cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) yet the mechanisms of hearing loss remain obscure. Natural Killer (NK) cells play a critical role in regulating murine CMV infection via NK cell recognition of the Ly49H cell surface receptor of the viral-encoded m157 ligand expressed at the infected cell surface. This Ly49H NK receptor/m157 ligand interaction has been found to mediate host resistance to CMV in the spleen, and lung, but is much less effective in the liver, so it is not known if this interaction is important in the context of SNHL. Using a murine model for CMV-induced labyrinthitis, we have demonstrated that the Ly49H/m157 interaction mediates host resistance in the temporal bone. BALB/c mice, which lack functional Ly49H, inoculated with mCMV at post-natal day 3 developed profound hearing loss and significant outer hair cell loss by 28 days of life. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice, competent for the Ly49H/m157 interaction, had minimal hearing loss and attenuated outer hair cell loss with the same mCMV dose. Administration of Ly49H blocking antibody or inoculation with a mCMV viral strain deleted for the m157 gene rendered the previously resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain susceptible to hearing loss to a similar extent as the BALB/c mouse strain indicating a direct role of the Ly49H/m157 interaction in mCMV-dependent hearing loss. Additionally, NK cell recruitment to sites of infection was evident in the temporal bone of inoculated susceptible mouse strains. These results demonstrate participation of NK cells in protection from CMV-induced labyrinthitis and SNHL in mice.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications
Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology
Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/virology
Killer Cells, Natural/immunology
NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A/immunology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cytomegalovirus
Disease Models, Animal
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Lymphocyte Activation/immunology
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Polymerase Chain Reaction
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Klra8 protein, mouse); 0 (NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171003
[Lr] Last revision date:171003
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006599

  10 / 897 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28848089
[Au] Autor:Kamakura T; Lee DJ; Herrmann BS; Nadol JB
[Ad] Address:Otopathology Laboratory, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Histopathology of the Human Inner Ear in the Cogan Syndrome with Cochlear Implantation.
[So] Source:Audiol Neurootol;22(2):116-123, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1421-9700
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Cogan syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by nonsyphilitic interstitial keratitis and audiovestibular symptoms. Profound sensorineural hearing loss has been reported in approximately half of the patients with the Cogan syndrome resulting in candidacy for cochlear implantation in some patients. The current study is the first histopathologic report on the temporal bones of a patient with the Cogan syndrome who during life underwent bilateral cochlear implantation. Preoperative MRI revealed tissue with high density in the basal turns of both cochleae and both vestibular systems consistent with fibrous tissue due to labyrinthitis. Histopathology demonstrated fibrous tissue and new bone formation within the cochlea and vestibular apparatus, worse on the right. Severe degeneration of the vestibular end organs and new bone formation in the labyrinth were seen more on the right than on the left. Although severe bilateral degeneration of the spiral ganglion neurons was seen, especially on the right, the postoperative word discrimination score was between 50 and 60% bilaterally. Impedance measures were generally higher in the right ear, possibly related to more fibrous tissue and new bone found in the scala tympani on the right side.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170919
[Lr] Last revision date:170919
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1159/000477534


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