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[PMID]: 28264526
[Au] Autor:Xu Q; Liu F; Chen P; Jez JM; Krishnan HB
[Ad] Address:College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. xuql03@163.com.
[Ti] Title:ß-N-Oxalyl-l-α,ß-diaminopropionic Acid (ß-ODAP) Content in Lathyrus sativus: The Integration of Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism through ß-Cyanoalanine Synthase.
[So] Source:Int J Mol Sci;18(3), 2017 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1422-0067
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Grass pea ( L.) is an important legume crop grown mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. This underutilized legume can withstand harsh environmental conditions including drought and flooding. During drought-induced famines, this protein-rich legume serves as a food source for poor farmers when other crops fail under harsh environmental conditions; however, its use is limited because of the presence of an endogenous neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid ß- -oxalyl-l-α,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP). Long-term consumption of and ß-ODAP is linked to lathyrism, which is a degenerative motor neuron syndrome. Pharmacological studies indicate that nutritional deficiencies in methionine and cysteine may aggravate the neurotoxicity of ß-ODAP. The biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of ß-ODAP is poorly understood, but is linked to sulfur metabolism. To date, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in grass pea on the sulfur assimilatory enzymes and how these enzymes regulate the biosynthesis of ß-ODAP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role of sulfur metabolism in grass pea and its contribution to ß-ODAP biosynthesis. Unraveling the fundamental steps and regulation of ß-ODAP biosynthesis in grass pea will be vital for the development of improved varieties of this underutilized legume.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Amino Acids, Diamino/chemistry
Amino Acids, Diamino/metabolism
Lathyrus/chemistry
Lathyrus/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biosynthetic Pathways
Cloning, Molecular
Cysteine Synthase/genetics
Cysteine Synthase/metabolism
Gene Expression
Genetic Association Studies
Hydrogen Sulfide/metabolism
Lathyrus/genetics
Lyases/genetics
Lyases/metabolism
Nitrogen/metabolism
Oxidative Stress
Plant Breeding
Structure-Activity Relationship
Sulfur/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Amino Acids, Diamino); 1TG777QI25 (oxalyldiaminopropionic acid); 70FD1KFU70 (Sulfur); EC 2.5.1.47 (Cysteine Synthase); EC 4.- (Lyases); EC 4.4.1.9 (beta-cyanoalanine synthase); N762921K75 (Nitrogen); YY9FVM7NSN (Hydrogen Sulfide)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170308
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  2 / 721 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27871718
[Au] Autor:Giménez-Roldán S; Spencer PS
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: sgimenezroldan@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Azañón's disease. A 19th century epidemic of neurolathyrism in Spain.
[So] Source:Rev Neurol (Paris);172(12):748-755, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0035-3787
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The cultivation and consumption of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) in Spain probably dates back centuries, especially during times of famine when the neurotoxic potential of this legume was expressed in the form of a spastic paraparesis known as neurolathyrism. Little known outside the country, the epidemic of neurolathyrism in the years following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) came to affect more than a thousand people. In late 1872, during the Six Years Revolutionary Term, young Alejandro San Martín Satrústegui (1847-1908), then editor of the popular weekly El Siglo Médico, travelled to Azañón, a remote village in the province of Guadalajara, to clarify a so-far unknown disease. We analysed the original article published in 1873 by San Martin, as well as communications sent by El Siglo Médico readers reporting similar cases in many other Castilian provinces. San Martín's neurological findings in seven personally examined cases were astonishingly accurate; he concluded the subjects' neurological deficits resulted from injury to the lateral columns in the lower portion of the spinal cord. Description of the clinical findings provided both by San Martín, and by the readers of El Siglo Médico, leave no doubt as to the diagnosis of neurolathyrism. However, none suspected the patient's staple food was the determinant cause of the disease. San Martín proposed the eponym Azañón's disease for lack of a better name the same year (1873) in which Cantani in Italy introduced the term lathyrism. The epidemic of neurolathyrism that affected many Castilian towns represents one of the best-documented in Europe during the last third of the 19th century.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Lathyrism/epidemiology
Lathyrism/history
Neurotoxicity Syndromes/history
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Epidemics/history
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Lathyrism/psychology
Lathyrus
Neurotoxicity Syndromes/epidemiology
Neurotoxicity Syndromes/psychology
Spain
Weather
[Pt] Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170411
[Lr] Last revision date:170411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161123
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  3 / 721 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27468527
[Au] Autor:Bick AS; Meiner Z; Gotkine M; Levin N
[Ti] Title:Using Advanced Imaging Methods to Study Neurolathyrism.
[So] Source:Isr Med Assoc J;18(6):341-5, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1565-1088
[Cp] Country of publication:Israel
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Neurolathyrism is a toxic nutritional disorder caused by consumption of the grass pea, Lathyrus sativus. The disease, which manifests as an acute or insidiously evolving spastic paraparesis, continues to occur throughout Africa and Asia. Research on this disease is limited, and to our knowledge no imaging studies of patients with neurolathyrism have been published. OBJECTIVES: To better localize the site of damage in neurolathyrism using advanced imaging methods. METHODS: Three male patients, immigrants from Ethiopia, were included in the study. All had a history of arrested spastic paraparesis that had evolved before their emigration from Ethiopia, and a past history of exposure to grass pea without any other cause. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) included simple motor tasks to evaluate cortical motor areas. Anatomic scans included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate the corticospinal tracts. RESULTS: In all patients clear activation was found in motor regions, and the patients' activity pattern was qualitatively similar to that in control sublects. In one patient in whom clinical symptoms were asymmetric, an asymmetric activity pattern in Ml was identified. DTI analysis identified intact corticospinal tracts connecting the pons and the primary motor regions, similar to control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced neuroimaging clearly identified well-functioning motor regions and tracts in neurolathyrism patients, suggesting a spinal etiology.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Lathyrism
Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
Motor Cortex
Pyramidal Tracts
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Case-Control Studies
Humans
Israel
Lathyrism/diagnosis
Lathyrism/etiology
Lathyrism/physiopathology
Lathyrus/toxicity
Male
Motor Cortex/pathology
Motor Cortex/physiopathology
Neurologic Examination/methods
Pyramidal Tracts/drug effects
Pyramidal Tracts/pathology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1608
[Cu] Class update date: 160729
[Lr] Last revision date:160729
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160730
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  4 / 721 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27012588
[Au] Autor:Kristanc L; Kreft S
[Ad] Address:Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Primary Healthcare of Gorenjska, ZD Kranj, Gosposvetska ulica 10, 4000 Kranj, Slovenia. Electronic address: luka.kristanc@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part II: Plants with hepato-, neuro-, nephro- and immunotoxic effects.
[So] Source:Food Chem Toxicol;92:38-49, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6351
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A tremendous surge of public interest in natural therapies has been reported in the past several decades in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, edible wild-growing plants whose use had long been associated with poverty and famine have also gained in popularity among people in developed countries. An important fraction of herbal products evade all control measures and are generally perceived as safe. However, this may not always be true. It is important to recognize that some plants are not associated with acute toxicity but rather produce more insidious problems, which develop only with long-term exposure. In this review, we continue a systematic analysis of the subacute and chronic toxicity associated with the use of herbal preparations. The hepato-, neuro-, nephro- and immunotoxicity of plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe are discussed in some detail. The basic concepts regarding the molecular mechanisms implicated in their nonacute toxicity and their pathophysiological, clinical and epidemiological characteristics are included. Among others, we discuss the hepatotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, the nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid, the lathyrism associated with neurotoxin swainsonine, thiamine depletion and thyroid dysfunction of herbal cause, and finally address also the immunosuppressive effects of cannabinoids.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
Caproates/chemistry
Cell Survival/drug effects
Curcumin/pharmacology
Drug Carriers/chemistry
Methacrylates/chemistry
Polymers/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
Curcumin/chemistry
Drug Delivery Systems
Glutathione/metabolism
Hep G2 Cells
Humans
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism
Male
Malondialdehyde/metabolism
Oxidative Stress/drug effects
Rats
Rats, Wistar
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Caproates); 0 (Drug Carriers); 0 (Methacrylates); 0 (PDMAEMA-b-PCL-b-PDMAEMA); 0 (Polymers); 4Y8F71G49Q (Malondialdehyde); EC 1.1.1.27 (L-Lactate Dehydrogenase); GAN16C9B8O (Glutathione); IT942ZTH98 (Curcumin)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170309
[Lr] Last revision date:170309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160326
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  5 / 721 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26211995
[Au] Autor:McNerny EM; Gardinier JD; Kohn DH
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering and Medical School, University of Michigan, MI, USA.
[Ti] Title:Exercise increases pyridinoline cross-linking and counters the mechanical effects of concurrent lathyrogenic treatment.
[So] Source:Bone;81:327-37, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2763
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The collagen cross-link profile of bone, associated with bone strength and fracture toughness, is tightly regulated (affecting cross-link quantity, type, lysine hydroxylation and maturity) and may contribute to the improvements in bone quality during exercise. We hypothesized that 1) exercise promotes mature cross-link formation, 2) increased mature cross-linking is accompanied by shifts in lysine hydroxylation, and 3) these changes in collagen cross-link profile have positive effects on mechanical properties. Growing male C57Bl6 mice were treated with 30 min/day of running exercise, 350 mg/kg/day ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) injected subcutaneously to inhibit enzymatic collagen cross-linking, or both exercise and BAPN, from 5 to 8 weeks of age. Bone collagen cross-linking profile, mechanical properties, morphology, and mineralization were measured from the tibiae. Cross-link measures, including immature, pyridinoline, pyrrole and pentosidine cross-links, ratios reflecting cross-link maturity and hydroxylation, and mineralization were tested for their importance to mechanical properties across 8 week groups through correlation analyses and step-wise linear regressions. BAPN treatment significantly reduced lysylpyridinoline, pyrrole, hydroxylysinorleucine, and total mature collagen cross-linking, resulting in decreased bone elastic modulus and increased yield strain despite a marginal increase in TMD. Exercise caused a shift toward pyridinoline cross-linking, with increased hydroxylysylpyridinoline and decreased pyrrole cross-linking resulting in total mature cross-linking and estimated tissue level mechanical properties matching sedentary control levels. Exercise superimposed on BAPN treatment increased total mature cross-linking from BAPN to control levels, but did so by increasing pyridinoline, not pyrrole, cross-links. Exercise also counteracted the BAPN effects on modulus and strain, without a change in TMD. Pyrrole cross-linking was the strongest correlate of modulus (r=0.470, p<0.01) and yield strain (r=-0.467, p<0.01). Cross-links with similar levels of telopeptide lysine hydroxylation to pyrrole (lysylpyridinoline and hydroxylysinorleucine) also correlated with modulus and strain to a lesser extent. In conclusion, exercise in growing mice promotes pyridinoline collagen cross-linking in bone, the resulting increase in total mature cross-linking is sufficient to counteract the mechanical effects of concurrent cross-link inhibition, and this responsiveness to loading is a potential means by which exercise might improve bone quality in diseased or otherwise compromised bone.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Amino Acids/metabolism
Cross-Linking Reagents/metabolism
Osteogenesis/physiology
Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Amino Acids/pharmacology
Animals
Biomechanical Phenomena/drug effects
Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology
Cross-Linking Reagents/pharmacology
Male
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Osteogenesis/drug effects
Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods
Sedentary Lifestyle
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Amino Acids); 0 (Cross-Linking Reagents); 63800-01-1 (pyridinoline)
[Em] Entry month:1608
[Cu] Class update date: 170503
[Lr] Last revision date:170503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150728
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 721 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26030945
[Au] Autor:Khandare AL; Babu JJ; Ankulu M; Aparna N; Shirfule A; Rao GS
[Ti] Title:Authors' response.
[So] Source:Indian J Med Res;141(1):128, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0971-5916
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Amino Acids, Diamino/toxicity
Lathyrism/epidemiology
Lathyrus/chemistry
Neurotoxins/toxicity
Seeds/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
[Pt] Publication type:COMMENT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Amino Acids, Diamino); 0 (Neurotoxins)
[Em] Entry month:1506
[Cu] Class update date: 151111
[Lr] Last revision date:151111
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150603
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  7 / 721 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26027639
[Au] Autor:Xiong JL; Xiong YC; Bai X; Kong HY; Tan RY; Zhu H; Siddique KH; Wang JY; Turner NC
[Ad] Address:†State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agroecosystems, Institute of Arid Agroecology, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu Province, China.
[Ti] Title:Genotypic Variation in the Concentration of ß-N-Oxalyl-L-α,ß-diaminopropionic Acid (ß-ODAP) in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Seeds Is Associated with an Accumulation of Leaf and Pod ß-ODAP during Vegetative and Reproductive Stages at Three Levels of Water Stress.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;63(27):6133-41, 2015 Jul 15.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivation is limited because of the presence in seeds and tissues of the nonprotein amino acid ß-N-oxalyl-L-α,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP), a neurotoxin that can cause lathyrism in humans. Seven grass pea genotypes differing in seed ß-ODAP concentration were grown in pots at three levels of water availability to follow changes in the concentration and amount of ß-ODAP in leaves and pods and seeds. The concentration and amount of ß-ODAP decreased in leaves in early reproductive development and in pods as they matured, while water stress increased ß-ODAP concentration in leaves and pods at these stages. The net amount of ß-ODAP in leaves and pods at early podding was positively associated with seed ß-ODAP concentration at maturity. We conclude that variation among genotypes in seed ß-ODAP concentration results from variation in net accumulation of ß-ODAP in leaves and pods during vegetative and early reproductive development.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Amino Acids, Diamino/metabolism
Fruit/growth & development
Lathyrus/metabolism
Neurotoxins/metabolism
Plant Leaves/growth & development
Seeds/metabolism
Water/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Amino Acids, Diamino/analysis
Fruit/chemistry
Fruit/genetics
Fruit/metabolism
Genotype
Lathyrus/chemistry
Lathyrus/genetics
Lathyrus/growth & development
Neurotoxins/analysis
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Plant Leaves/genetics
Plant Leaves/metabolism
Seeds/chemistry
Seeds/genetics
Seeds/growth & development
Water/analysis
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Amino Acids, Diamino); 0 (Neurotoxins); 059QF0KO0R (Water); 1TG777QI25 (oxalyldiaminopropionic acid)
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150602
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01729

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[PMID]: 25979340
[Au] Autor:Herchenhan A; Uhlenbrock F; Eliasson P; Weis M; Eyre D; Kadler KE; Magnusson SP; Kjaer M
[Ad] Address:From the Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen and Center for Healthy Ageing, University of Copenhagen, DK-2400 Copenhagen, Denmark, andreas.herchenhan@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Lysyl Oxidase Activity Is Required for Ordered Collagen Fibrillogenesis by Tendon Cells.
[So] Source:J Biol Chem;290(26):16440-50, 2015 Jun 26.
[Is] ISSN:1083-351X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are a family of copper-dependent oxido-deaminases that can modify the side chain of lysyl residues in collagen and elastin, thereby leading to the spontaneous formation of non-reducible aldehyde-derived interpolypeptide chain cross-links. The consequences of LOX inhibition in producing lathyrism are well documented, but the consequences on collagen fibril formation are less clear. Here we used ß-aminoproprionitrile (BAPN) to inhibit LOX in tendon-like constructs (prepared from human tenocytes), which are an experimental model of cell-mediated collagen fibril formation. The improvement in structure and strength seen with time in control constructs was absent in constructs treated with BAPN. As expected, BAPN inhibited the formation of aldimine-derived cross-links in collagen, and the constructs were mechanically weak. However, an unexpected finding was that BAPN treatment led to structurally abnormal collagen fibrils with irregular profiles and widely dispersed diameters. Of special interest, the abnormal fibril profiles resembled those seen in some Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome phenotypes. Importantly, the total collagen content developed normally, and there was no difference in COL1A1 gene expression. Collagen type V, decorin, fibromodulin, and tenascin-X proteins were unaffected by the cross-link inhibition, suggesting that LOX regulates fibrillogenesis independently of these molecules. Collectively, the data show the importance of LOX for the mechanical development of early collagenous tissues and that LOX is essential for correct collagen fibril shape formation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome/enzymology
Fibrillar Collagens/metabolism
Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase/metabolism
Tendons/enzymology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome/genetics
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome/metabolism
Female
Fibrillar Collagens/genetics
Humans
Male
Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase/genetics
Tendons/metabolism
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Fibrillar Collagens); EC 1.4.3.13 (Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase)
[Em] Entry month:1510
[Cu] Class update date: 170922
[Lr] Last revision date:170922
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150517
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1074/jbc.M115.641670

  9 / 721 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25857507
[Au] Autor:Raina SK
[Ad] Address:Department of Community Medicine, Dr R. P. Government Medical College, Tanda, Kangra 176 001, Himachal Pradesh, India.
[Ti] Title:Establishing association.
[So] Source:Indian J Med Res;141(1):127, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0971-5916
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Amino Acids, Diamino/toxicity
Lathyrism/epidemiology
Lathyrus/chemistry
Neurotoxins/toxicity
Seeds/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
[Pt] Publication type:COMMENT; LETTER
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Amino Acids, Diamino); 0 (Neurotoxins)
[Em] Entry month:1506
[Cu] Class update date: 151026
[Lr] Last revision date:151026
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150411
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  10 / 721 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25651219
[Au] Autor:Goodman BP
[Ti] Title:Metabolic and toxic causes of myelopathy.
[So] Source:Continuum (Minneap Minn);21(1 Spinal Cord Disorders):84-99, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1538-6899
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an update on the various metabolic and toxic causes of myelopathy. The clinical features, laboratory findings, characteristic imaging and electrodiagnostic patterns, and approach to treatment are reviewed in depth. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition, with prevalence rates that increase with age, and is particularly common in the elderly and in certain geographic areas. Nutritional surveys from the United States have suggested prevalence rates of approximately 6% in those 70 years of age or older, and prevalence rates were reported to be 10% in those older than 75 in the United Kingdom. Copper deficiency is a less common cause of myelopathy, but may result in clinical signs and symptoms indistinguishable from those of vitamin B12 deficiency. Recent reports highlight the importance of excessive zinc in the pathogenesis of copper deficiency and the importance of exogenous zinc cessation in the treatment of copper deficiency. A recent study reviewed previously reported cases of zinc myelopathy in zinc-smelter workers in the 1870s. These workers developed symptoms identical to those reported in the modern descriptive series of copper deficiency myeloneuropathy. SUMMARY: Deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, copper, and vitamin E may result in characteristic clinical, electrodiagnostic, and imaging features. Prompt recognition and treatment is critical to limit permanent neurologic impairment. Recognition of the toxic causes of myelopathy, including nitrous oxide exposure, heroin, radiation, various chemotherapeutic agents, liver disease, konzo, lathyrism, and zinc excess, is aided by understanding the typical clinical and imaging features associated with these agents.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Metabolic Diseases/complications
Nitrous Oxide/toxicity
Radiation
Spinal Cord Diseases/etiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/complications
Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:K50XQU1029 (Nitrous Oxide)
[Em] Entry month:1509
[Cu] Class update date: 150205
[Lr] Last revision date:150205
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150205
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1212/01.CON.0000461086.79241.3b


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