Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29471248
[Au] Autor:Shamata A; Thompson T
[Ad] Address:School of Science and Engineering, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, TS1 3BA, UK. Electronic address: a.shamata@tees.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Using structured light three-dimensional surface scanning on living individuals: Key considerations and best practice for forensic medicine.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;55:58-64, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Non-contact three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning methods have been applied to forensic medicine to record injuries and to mitigate ordinary photography shortcoming. However, there are no literature concerning practical guidance for 3D surface scanning of live victims. This paper aimed to investigate key 3D scanning issues of the live body to develop a series of scanning principles for future use on injured victims. The Pico Scan 3D surface scanner was used on live test subjects. The work focused on analysing the following concerns: (1) an appropriate 3D scanning technique to scan different body areas, (2) the ideal number of scans, (3) scanning approaches to access various areas of the body and (4) elimination of environmental background noise in the acquired data. Results showed that scanning only a required surface of the body area in the stable manner was more efficient when compared to complete 360°-scanning; therefore, it used as a standard 3D scanning technique. More than three scans were sufficient when trying to obtain an optimal wireframe mode presentation of the result. Three different approaches were suggested to provide access to the various areas of the body. Undertaking scanning using a black background eliminated the background noise. The work demonstrated that the scanner will be promising to reconstruct injuries from different body areas, although the 3D scanning of the live subjects faced some challenges.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 17000 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29453168
[Au] Autor:Zangeneh A; Najafi F; Karimi S; Saeidi S; Izadi N
[Ad] Address:Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Spatial-temporal cluster analysis of mortality from road traffic injuries using geographic information systems in West of Iran during 2009-2014.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;55:15-22, 2018 Feb 08.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are considered as one of the most important health problems endangering people's life. The examination of the geographical distribution of RTIs could help policymakers in better planning to reduce RTIs. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the spatial-temporal clustering of mortality from RTIs in West of Iran. METHODS: Deaths from RTIs, registered in Forensic Medicine Organization of Kermanshah province over a period of six years (2009-2014), were used. Using negative binomial regression, the mortality trend was investigated. In order to investigate the spatial distribution of RTIs, we used ArcGIS. (Version 10.3). RESULTS: The median age of the 3231 people died in RTIs was 37 (IQR = 31) year, 78.4% were male. The 6-year average mortality rate from RTIs was 27.8/100,000 deaths, and the average rate had a declining trend. The dispersion of RTIs showed that most deaths occurred in Kermanshah, Islamabad, Bisotun, and Harsin road axes, respectively. The mean center of all deaths from RTIs occurred in Kermanshah province, the central area of Kermanshah district. The spatial trend of such deaths has moved to the northeast-southwest, and such deaths were geographically centralized. Results of Moran's I with respect to cluster analysis also indicated positive spatial autocorrelations. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the mortality rate from RTIs, despite the decline in recent years, is still high when compared with other countries. The clustering of accidents raises the concern that road infrastructure in certain locations may also be a factor. Regarding the results related to the temporal analysis, it is suggested that the enforcement of traffic rules be stricter at rush hours.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 17000 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29357466
[Au] Autor:Cappellini G; Sylos-Labini F; MacLellan MJ; Sacco A; Morelli D; Lacquaniti F; Ivanenko Y
[Ad] Address:Centre of Space Bio-medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata , Rome , Italy.
[Ti] Title:Backward walking highlights gait asymmetries in children with cerebral palsy.
[So] Source:J Neurophysiol;119(3):1153-1165, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1598
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:To investigate how early injuries to developing motor regions of the brain affect different forms of gait, we compared the spatiotemporal locomotor patterns during forward (FW) and backward (BW) walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Bilateral gait kinematics and EMG activity of 11 pairs of leg muscles were recorded in 14 children with CP (9 diplegic, 5 hemiplegic; 3.0-11.1 yr) and 14 typically developing (TD) children (3.3-11.8 yr). During BW, children with CP showed a significant increase of gait asymmetry in foot trajectory characteristics and limb intersegmental coordination. Furthermore, gait asymmetries, which were not evident during FW in diplegic children, became evident during BW. Factorization of the EMG signals revealed a comparable structure of the motor output during FW and BW in all groups of children, but we found differences in the basic temporal activation patterns. Overall, the results are consistent with the idea that both forms of gait share pattern generation control circuits providing similar (though reversed) kinematic patterns. However, BW requires different muscle activation timings associated with muscle modules, highlighting subtle gait asymmetries in diplegic children, and thus provides a more comprehensive assessment of gait pathology in children with CP. The findings suggest that spatiotemporal asymmetry assessments during BW might reflect an impaired state and/or descending control of the spinal locomotor circuitry and can be used for diagnostic purposes and as complementary markers of gait recovery. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Early injuries to developing motor regions of the brain affect both forward progression and other forms of gait. In particular, backward walking highlights prominent gait asymmetries in children with hemiplegia and diplegia from cerebral palsy and can give a more comprehensive assessment of gait pathology. The observed spatiotemporal asymmetry assessments may reflect both impaired supraspinal control and impaired state of the spinal circuitry.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1152/jn.00679.2017

  4 / 17000 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29519163
[Au] Autor:Steinberg N; Stern M; Tenenbaum S; Blankstein A; Zeev A; Siev-Ner I
[Ad] Address:a The Wingate College of physical Education and Sports Sciences at the Wingate Institute , Netanya , Israel.
[Ti] Title:Ultrasonography and clinical examination of knee injuries in pre- and post- menarche dancers.
[So] Source:Res Sports Med;:1-17, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1543-8635
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study aimed at evaluating whether the prevalence of knee injuries and morphological features are different among pre-and-post menarche dancers; Sixty-seven pre-and-post menarche dancers were screened for anthropometric parameters; knee laxity; patella femoral pain syndrome (PFPS), pathologies and anatomical structure of the knees. Both groups showed a high and similar prevalence of PFPS. The post-menarche dancers produced a significantly higher rate of Tanner stages 3-4 (p = .010), greater weight (p < .001) higher BMI (p = .003); and, higher prevalence of MCL pathology, pes planus, and scoliosis compared with pre-menarche dancers (p < .05). The pre-menarche dancers started dance practice earlier (p = .008); and, showed significantly higher prevalence of lateral laxity, patellar laxity, positive Lachman test and positive Drawer test compared with post-menarche dancers (p < .05). Interactions (menarche yes/no by PFPS no/one leg/both legs) were found for BMI (p = .044; η = .187), trochlear cartilage thickness (p = .020; η = 0.121) and tip of patella - trochlear groove distance (p = .024; η = .150). Pre-and-post-menarche female dancers demonstrated similar prevalence of knee injuries, with different body morphology.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/15438627.2018.1447474

  5 / 17000 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29489726
[Au] Autor:Macdonald B; O'Neill J; Pollock N; Van Hooren B
[Ad] Address:British Athletics, National Performance Institute, Loughborough University.
[Ti] Title:The single-leg Roman chair hold is more effective than the Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance in Gaelic footballers with previous hamstring injury.
[So] Source:J Strength Cond Res;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1533-4287
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Poor hamstring strength-endurance is a risk factor for hamstring injuries. This study investigated the effectiveness of the single-leg Roman hold and Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance. Twelve Gaelic footballers (mean ± standard deviation age, height and mass were 25.17 ± 3.46 years, 179.25 ± 5.88 cm, 85.75 ± 4.75 kilo) with a history of hamstring injury were randomized into 2 groups that performed 6 weeks of either Nordic hamstring curl, or single-leg Roman chair hold training. The single-leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was measured pre- and post- intervention. The Roman chair group showed a very likely moderate magnitude improvement on SLHB performance for both legs (23.7% for the previously injured leg [90% confidence interval 9.6% to 39.6%] and 16.9% for the non-injured leg [6.2% to 28.8%]). The Nordic curl group showed a likely trivial change in SLHB performance for the non-injured leg (-2.1% [-6.7% to 2.6%]) and an unclear, but possibly trivial change for the previously injured leg (0.3% [-5.6% to 6.6%]). The Roman chair group improved very likely more with a moderate magnitude in both the non-injured (19.5% [8.0% to 32.2%]) and the previously injured leg (23.3% [8.5% to 40.0%]) compared to the Nordic curl group. This study demonstrated that 6-weeks single-leg Roman chair training substantially improved SLHB performance, suggesting that it may be an efficacious strategy to mitigate hamstring (re-) injury risk. Conversely, 6-weeks Nordic curl training did not substantially improve SLHB performance, suggesting this may not be the intervention of choice for modifying this risk factor.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002526

  6 / 17000 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29428539
[Au] Autor:Morão S; Ferreira RS; Camacho N; Vital VP; Pascoal J; Ferreira ME; Capitão LM; Gonçalves FB
[Ad] Address:Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address: sophia.morao@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Vascular Trauma in Children-Review from a Major Paediatric Center.
[So] Source:Ann Vasc Surg;, 2018 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1615-5947
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Traumatic noniatrogenic vascular injuries in children are rare and rarely discussed in literature. Pediatric vascular injuries pose a set of challenges mainly because of continued growth and development in a child or adolescent. The purpose of the study is to characterize management strategies and outcomes in these cases. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective review of patients less than age 18 years (pediatric age) with acute, noniatrogenic traumatic vascular injuries between January 2009 and December 2015. Patient's demographics, injury characteristics, surgical management, complications, and follow-up were analyzed. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2015, 3277 children with traumatic injuries were treated, of which 21 (0.6%) had 23 significant vascular injuries: 17 arterial and 6 venous injuries. The majority were males (n = 16), and the median age was 14 years (range 1 to 16 years). Penetrating injuries were the predominant mechanism (n = 21), mainly by glass (n = 13). At presentation, 4 patients were hemodynamically unstable, 3 of them in hypovolemic shock. All patients were managed operatively. Operations for arterial injuries included 5 primary arterial repairs, 4 repairs using vein grafts and 8 ligations. The following adjunct procedures were necessary: one 4-compartment leg fasciotomy due to associated soft tissue trauma, 8 tendon repairs, and 11 nerve repairs. Operations for venous injuries included 4 ligations and 2 primary repairs. There were no intraoperative or postoperative deaths, major complications, or limb loss. The median length of stay in the hospital was 6 days (range: 2-23 days). The median time of follow-up was 52 months (range: 20-94 months). Ten patients did not have any sequelae, and 11 patients reported impaired mobility and/or decreased sensation, which was transitory in most cases and related to associated neurological or muscle tendon injuries. All reconstructions remained patent over the course of follow-up. No limb asymmetry was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Noniatrogenic pediatric vascular trauma is uncommon. Penetrating mechanism is more common than blunt and extremities are more frequently affected. Overall complications come from associated injuries to tendons and nerves.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 17000 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510787
[Au] Autor:Abraham A; Dunsky A; Hackney ME; Dickstein R
[Ad] Address:Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel; and Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, 1670 Clairmont Road (151R), Decatur, Georgia 30033, USA;, Email: ami
[Ti] Title:Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis of Repeated and Static Elevé in Adolescent Female Dance Students.
[So] Source:J Dance Med Sci;22(1):33-43, 2018 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1089-313X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Elevé is a fundamental dance movement practiced routinely by dance students and serving as an integral component of screening in dance. It consists of ankle plantar flexion (PF) movement and is considered to be a frequent cause of foot and ankle injuries among dancers, with adolescent female dance students being at greatest risk for such injuries. Therefore, gaining additional knowledge regarding elevé functional range of motion (ROM) and inter-leg weightbearing distribution (WBD) properties among adolescent dance students is warranted for pedagogic, screening, injury prevention, and rehabilitation purposes. The aims of this study were three-fold: 1. to report and compare dance-specific, functional kinematic (ankle PF maximum angle and ankle PF ROM), kinetic (inter-leg WBD), and self-reported level of difficulty (balance, muscular force, and concentration) properties of repeated and static elevé among adolescent female dance students; 2. to look for correlations between elevé properties and participants' demographics (age, height, weight, dance experience, and leg dominance); and 3. to describe the relationships between the two kinematic properties in both elevé tasks. Twenty-three adolescent female dance students (mean age 13.57 ± 0.50 years) were measured while performing two elevé tasks: 10 repetitions ("repeated elevé task") and 10 consecutive seconds hold ("static elevé task"). Data regarding ankle motion and WBD were collected and analyzed using three-dimensional motion capture and two force plates. The data gained from this study expand our current understanding of elevé dance movement and may contribute to clinical relevancy and applicability of screening procedures being conducted in pre-professional dance settings. This may help to identify adolescent dance students with the potential to undertake a career in professional dance as well as to investigate the parameters associated with risk of ankle injuries in this population.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.12678/1089-313X.22.1.33

  8 / 17000 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29324321
[Au] Autor:Abder-Rahman H; Jaber MSO; Al-Sabaileh SS
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University Hospital, Jordan. Electronic address: h.abderrahman@ju.edu.jo.
[Ti] Title:Injuries sustained in falling fatalities in relation to different distances of falls.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;54:69-73, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Falling from a distance is an important issue worldwide, which happens in different ages, genders and circumstances. It is usually not considered a medicolegal case in many countries hence no autopsy is performed. This study focused on analyzing injuries sustained in victims of falling in relation to different distances of fall. METHODS: Retrospective study of 352 autopsy reports of falling victims brought to the forensic pathology department at Jordan University Hospital during the period from January 1990 to March 2016. RESULTS: Among 352 cases, 256 (72.7%) were males and 96 (27.3%) were females. 303 (86.1%) cases showed accidental fall, 31 (8.8%) were suicidal, 2 (0.6%) were homicidal and un-clarified death in 16 (4.5%). Time of death was directly proportionate with the distance of fall. Victims fell from distances less than 3 m were 123 (35%), most of them were children less than 7 years 50 (40.5%) and unemployed adults more than 45 years were 48 (39.1%). They showed multiple abrasions (62.6%), few contusions (64.2%) and absent laceration of the skin (84.5%). Victims fell from distances of 3-9 m were 123 (35%), most of them were male workers 56 (60.2%). They showed multiple abrasions (63.5%), few contusions (71%) and few lacerations of skin (50.5%). Victims fell from distances more than 9 m were 136 (38.6%), most of them were male workers 71 (52.2%) and female servants 23 (17%). They showed few abrasions (80.9%), multiple contusions (64.7%) and few lacerations of skin (48.5%). The number of fractured limbs increases obviously with distances more than 3 m. Skull vault fractures were found in all distances, while skull base fractures showed in distances of 3-9 m and more than 9 m. Head injury was the most common fatal injury in all distances. Chest injuries were prominent mainly in distances more than 3 m. While abdominal injuries were mainly prominent in distances more than 9 m. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the effect of different distances of fall in causing different types of injuries in falling fatalities. Internal injuries were in a direct proportion with distances of fall, while external injuries showed a great importance in interpretation of the way of fall.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Process

  9 / 17000 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29291497
[Au] Autor:Ghanem MAH; Moustafa TA; Megahed HM; Salama N; Ghitani SA
[Ad] Address:Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.
[Ti] Title:A descriptive study of accidental skeletal injuries and non-accidental skeletal injuries of child maltreatment.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;54:14-22, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Lack of awareness and recognition of child maltreatment is the major reason behind underreporting. All victims often interact with the health care system for routine or emergency care. In several research works, non-accidental fractures are the second most common injury in maltreated children and it is represented up to one-third of cases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the incidence of different types of accidental and non-accidental skeletal injuries among children, estimate the severity of injuries according to the modified injury severity score and to determine the degree of fractures either closed or opened (Gustiloe-Anderson open fracture classification). Moreover, identifying fractures resulting from child abuse and neglect. This aimed for early recognition of non-accidental nature of fractures in child maltreatment that can prevent further morbidity and mortality. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A descriptive study was carried out on all children (109) with skeletal injuries who were admitted to both Main Alexandria and El-Hadara Orthopedic and Traumatology University Hospitals during six months. History, physical examination and investigations were done for the patients. A detailed questionnaire was taken to diagnose child abuse and neglect. Gustiloe-Anderson open fracture classification was used to estimate the degree of open fractures. RESULTS: Out of 109 children, twelve cases (11%) were categorized as child maltreatment. One case was physical abuse, eight cases (7.3%) were child neglect and three cases (2.8%) were labour exploitation. Road traffic accidents (RTA) was the commonest cause of skeletal injuries followed by falling from height. Regarding falls, they included 4 cases of stair falls in neglected children and another four cases of falling from height (balcony/window). The remaining 36 cases of falls were accidental. The skeletal injuries were in the form of fractures in 99 cases, dislocation in two cases, both fracture and/or dislocation in three cases, and bone deformity from brachial plexus injury in five cases. Fractures of the lower limb (42.2%) and both bones of the forearm (35%) represented the highest incidence of skeletal injuries in children. 54.5% of fractures due to neglect were lower limb fractures due to falling from height. Ninety-nine cases were diagnosed as long bone fractures and classified as the following; eighty patients as closed fractures, six patients as open grade I fractures, three patients as open grade II fractures, three patients as open grade IIIA fractures, four patients as open grade IIIB fractures and three patients as open grade IIIC fractures. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Cases of neglect and child abuse represented 11% of all the studied cases, where neglect was the main cause. RTA and falling from height represented the most common cause of skeletal injury in children. Most fractures due to neglect were lower limb fractures resulting from falling from height. This demonstrates the need for early detection of neglect and child maltreatment aiming for early initiation of parental educational programs about child care and safety. Misinterpretation of skeletal injuries due to neglect or abuse can be avoided by proper training of orthopedic and traumatology staff on signs of child neglect and abuse.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 17000 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29499471
[Au] Autor:Silva PB; Mrachacz-Kersting N; Oliveira AS; Kersting UG
[Ad] Address:Sport Sciences, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7 D-3, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark. Electronic address: pribsilva@hst.aau.dk.
[Ti] Title:Effect of wobble board training on movement strategies to maintain equilibrium on unstable surfaces.
[So] Source:Hum Mov Sci;58:231-238, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7646
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Standing on unstable surfaces requires more complex motor control mechanisms to sustain balance when compared to firm surfaces. Surface instability enhances the demand to maintain equilibrium and is often used to challenge balance, but little is known about how balance training affects movement strategies to control posture while standing on unstable surfaces. This study aimed at assessing the effects of isolated wobble board (WB) training on movement strategies to maintain balance during single-leg standing on a WB. Twenty healthy men were randomly assigned to either a control or a training group. The training group took part in four weeks of WB training and both groups were tested pre and post the intervention. Electromyography from the supporting lower limb muscles, full-body kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded during firm surface (FS) and WB single-leg standing. WB training did not affect FS performance (p = 0.865), but tripled WB standing time (p < 0.002). Moreover, training decreased lower leg muscle activation (29-59%), leg and trunk velocities (30% and 34%, respectively), and supporting limb angular velocity (24-47% across all planes for the ankle, knee and hip joints). Post intervention standing time was significantly correlated with angular velocities at the hip (r = 0.79) and knee (r = -0.83) for controls, while it correlated significantly with contra-lateral leg (r ∼ 0.70) and trunk velocity (r = -0.74) for trained participants. These results support the assumption that WB training enhances the ability to control counter-rotation mechanisms for balance maintenance on unstable surfaces, which may be a crucial protective factor against sports injuries.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:Publisher


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