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[PMID]: 25365223
[Au] Autor:Perino A; Pols TW; Nomura M; Stein S; Pellicciari R; Schoonjans K
[Ti] Title:TGR5 reduces macrophage migration through mTOR-induced C/EBPß differential translation.
[So] Source:J Clin Invest;124(12):5424-36, 2014 Dec 1.
[Is] ISSN:1558-8238
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The bile acid-responsive G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 is involved in several metabolic processes, and recent studies suggest that TGR5 activation may promote pathways that are protective against diet-induced diabetes. Here, we investigated the role of macrophage-specific TGR5 signaling in protecting adipose tissue from inflammation and associated insulin resistance. Examination of adipose tissue from obese mice lacking macrophage Tgr5 revealed enhanced inflammation, increased chemokine expression, and higher macrophage numbers compared with control obese animals. Moreover, macrophage-specific deletion of Tgr5 exacerbated insulin resistance in obese animals. Conversely, pharmacological activation of TGR5 markedly decreased LPS-induced chemokine expression in primary macrophages. This reduction was mediated by AKT-dependent activation of mTOR complex 1, which in turn induced the differential translation of the dominant-negative C/EBPß isoform, liver inhibitory protein (LIP). Overall, these studies reveal a signaling pathway downstream of TGR5 that modulates chemokine expression in response to high-fat diet and suggest that targeting this pathway has the potential to be therapeutically exploited for prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 25263567
[Au] Autor:Ourique AF; Chaves Pdos S; Souto GD; Pohlmann AR; Guterres SS; Beck RC
[Ad] Address:Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nanotecnologia Farmacêutica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil....
[Ti] Title:Redispersible liposomal-N-acetylcysteine powder for pulmonary administration: Development, in vitro characterization and antioxidant activity.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharm Sci;65:174-82, 2014 Dec 18.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0720
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Liposomal dry powders of N-acetylcysteine (SD-NAC-Lip) were developed for pulmonary administration. Liposomes were prepared by reverse phase evaporation and spray dried using lactose (10%, w/w) as drying adjuvant. The powders were characterized according to process yield, drug content, residual water content, particle size distribution, morphology and redispersion behavior. In vitro aerosol performance was evaluated using an eight-stage Andersen Cascade Impactor. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant activity was determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) present in the lungs of healthy Wistar rats after induction of oxidation by iron/EDTA. The spray-drying process had a high yield (71%±2), drug content (mg/g) according to the expected value, moisture content below 9%, geometric mean diameter under 3µm with span value lower than 1. Spherical particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Liposomal dry-powders were able to recover the nanometric size of the original dispersion after their redispersion in aqueous medium, as shown by laser diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the powders presented aerodynamic diameter of about 7µm and respirable fraction above 30%, indicating suitable properties for pulmonary use. The encapsulation of N-acetylcysteine in liposomes was essential to maintain its in vitro antioxidant activity after the drying process. In addition, the powder containing the encapsulated drug had better in vitro antioxidant activity than the liquid and solid formulations containing the non-encapsulated drug, which makes it a good candidate for the treatment of pulmonary diseases associated with oxidative stress.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 25300706
[Au] Autor:Pullicino PM; Qian M; Sacco RL; Freudenberger R; Graham S; Teerlink JR; Mann D; Di Tullio MR; Ponikowski P; Lok DJ; Anker SD; Lip GY; Estol CJ; Levin B; Mohr JP; Thompson JL; Homma S
[Ad] Address:University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.
[Ti] Title:Recurrent Stroke in the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) Trial.
[So] Source:Cerebrovasc Dis;38(3):176-81, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1421-9786
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: WARCEF randomized 2,305 patients in sinus rhythm with ejection fraction (EF) ≤35% to warfarin (INR 2.0-3.5) or aspirin 325 mg. Warfarin reduced the incident ischemic stroke (IIS) hazard rate by 48% over aspirin in a secondary analysis. The IIS rate in heart failure (HF) is too low to warrant routine anticoagulation but epidemiologic studies show that prior stroke increases the stroke risk in HF. In this study, we explore IIS rates in WARCEF patients with and without baseline stroke to look for risk factors for IIS and determine if a subgroup with an IIS rate high enough to give a clinically relevant stroke risk reduction can be identified. METHODS: We compared potential stroke risk factors between patients with baseline stroke and those without using the exact conditional score test for Poisson variables. We looked for risk factors for IIS, by comparing IIS rates between different risk factors. For EF we tried cut-off points of 10, 15 and 20%. The cut-off point 15% was used as it was the highest EF that was associated with a significant increase in IIS rate. IIS and EF strata were balanced as to warfarin/aspirin assignment by the stratified randomized design. A multiple Poisson regression examined the simultaneous effects of all risk factors on IIS rate. IIS rates per hundred patient years (/100PY) were calculated in patient groups with significant risk factors. Missing values were assigned the modal value. RESULTS: Twenty of 248 (8.1%) patients with baseline stroke and 64 of 2,048 (3.1%) without had IIS. IIS rate in patients with baseline stroke (2.37/100PY) was greater than patients without (0.89/100PY) (rate ratio 2.68, p < 0.001). Fourteen of 219 (6.4%) patients with ejection fraction (EF) <15% and 70 of 2,079 (3.4%) with EF ≥15% had IIS. In the multiple regression analysis stroke at baseline (p < 0.001) and EF <15% vs. ≥15% (p = 0.005) remained significant predictors of IIS. IIS rate was 2.04/100PY in patients with EF <15% and 0.95/100PY in patients with EF ≥15% (p = 0.009). IIS rate in patients with baseline stroke and reduced EF was 5.88/100PY with EF <15% decreasing to 2.62/100PY with EF <30%. CONCLUSIONS: In a WARCEF exploratory analysis, prior stroke and EF <15% were risk factors for IIS. Further research is needed to determine if a clinically relevant stroke risk reduction is obtainable with warfarin in HF patients with prior stroke and reduced EF. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1159/000365502

  4 / 5549 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25301077
[Au] Autor:Guo Y; Apostalakis S; Blann AD; Lip GY
[Ad] Address:Haemostasis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Unit, University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Birmingham, UK.
[Ti] Title:Plasma CX3CL1 Levels and Long Term Outcomes of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: The West Birmingham Atrial Fibrillation Project.
[So] Source:Cerebrovasc Dis;38(3):204-11, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1421-9786
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that chemokines are potentially important mediators of the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease. Major atherothrombotic complications, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, are common among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. This increase in risk of adverse events may be predicted by a score based on the presence of certain clinical features of chronic heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years or greater, diabetes and stroke (the CHADS2 score). Our objective was to assess the prognostic value of plasma chemokines CCL2, CXCL4 and CX3CL1, and their relationship with the CHADS2 score, in AF patients. METHODS: Plasma CCL2, CXCL4 and CX3CL1 were measured in 441 patients (59% male, mean age 75 years, 12% paroxysmal, 99% on warfarin) with AF. Baseline clinical and demographic factors were used to define each subject's CHADS2 score. Patients were followed up for a mean 2.1 years, and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were sought, being the combination of cardiovascular death, acute coronary events, stroke and systemic embolism. RESULTS: Fifty-five of the AF patients suffered a MACCE (6% per year). Those in the lowest CX3CL1 quartile (≤0.24 ng/ml) had fewest MACCE (p = 0.02). In the Cox regression analysis, CX3CL1 levels >0.24 ng/ml (Hazard ratio 2.8, 95% CI 1.02-8.2, p = 0.045) and age (p = 0.042) were independently linked with adverse outcomes. The CX3CL1 levels rose directly with the CHADS2 risk score (p = 0.009). The addition of CX3CL1 did not significantly increased the discriminatory ability of the CHADS2 clinical factor-based risk stratification (c-index 0.60 for CHADS2 alone versus 0.67 for CHADS2 plus CX3CL1 >0.24 ng/ml, p = 0.1). Aspirin use was associated with lower levels of CX3CL1 (p = 0.0002) and diabetes with higher levels (p = 0.031). There was no association between CXCL4 and CCL2 plasma levels and outcomes. CONCLUSION: There is an independent association between low plasma CX3CL1 levels and low risk of major cardiovascular events in AF patients, as well as a linear association between CX3CL1 plasma levels and CHADS2-defined cardiovascular risk. The potential for CX3CL1 in refining risk stratification in AF patients merits consideration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1159/000365841

  5 / 5549 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25237960
[Au] Autor:Viswanathan S; Kadir NA; Lip AC; Rafia MH
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[Ti] Title:Central nervous system Erdheim Chester disease presenting with raised intracranial pressure and cerebellar signs mimicking neurosarcoidosis with secondary cerebral venous thrombosis.
[So] Source:Neurol India;62(4):446-8, 2014 Jul-Aug.
[Is] ISSN:0028-3886
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis
Erdheim-Chester Disease/diagnosis
Intracranial Hypertension/etiology
Sarcoidosis/diagnosis
Venous Thrombosis/etiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Diagnosis, Differential
Erdheim-Chester Disease/complications
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140920
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.141250

  6 / 5549 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24462776
[Au] Autor:Thompson SJ; Millecamps M; Aliaga A; Seminowicz DA; Low LA; Bedell BJ; Stone LS; Schweinhardt P; Bushnell MC
[Ad] Address:Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3G 0G1, Canada; Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T5, Canada. Electronic address: scott.thompson4@mail.mcgill.ca....
[Ti] Title:Metabolic brain activity suggestive of persistent pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;91:344-52, 2014 May 1.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Persistent pain is a central characteristic of neuropathic pain conditions in humans. Knowing whether rodent models of neuropathic pain produce persistent pain is therefore crucial to their translational applicability. We investigated the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain and the formalin pain model in rats using positron emission tomography (PET) with the metabolic tracer [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to determine if there is ongoing brain activity suggestive of persistent pain. For the formalin model, under brief anesthesia we injected one hindpaw with 5% formalin and the FDG tracer into a tail vein. We then allowed the animals to awaken and observed pain behavior for 30min during the FDG uptake period. The rat was then anesthetized and placed in the scanner for static image acquisition, which took place between minutes 45 and 75 post-tracer injection. A single reference rat brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) was used to align the PET images with the Paxinos and Watson rat brain atlas. Increased glucose metabolism was observed in the somatosensory region associated with the injection site (S1 hindlimb contralateral), S1 jaw/upper lip and cingulate cortex. Decreases were observed in the prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Second, SNI rats were scanned 3weeks post-surgery using the same scanning paradigm, and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased metabolic activity in the contralateral S1 hindlimb. Finally, a second cohort of SNI rats was scanned while anesthetized during the tracer uptake period, and the S1 hindlimb increase was not observed. Increased brain activity in the somatosensory cortex of SNI rats resembled the activity produced with the injection of formalin, suggesting that the SNI model may produce persistent pain. The lack of increased activity in S1 hindlimb with general anesthetic demonstrates that this effect can be blocked, as well as highlights the importance of investigating brain activity in awake and behaving rodents.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Brain Chemistry/physiology
Brain/radionuclide imaging
Chronic Pain/metabolism
Chronic Pain/physiopathology
Neuralgia/metabolism
Neuralgia/physiopathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Behavior, Animal/physiology
Chronic Pain/radionuclide imaging
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/diagnostic use
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Ligation
Male
Neuralgia/radionuclide imaging
Pain Measurement
Peroneal Neuropathies/metabolism
Peroneal Neuropathies/physiopathology
Peroneal Neuropathies/radionuclide imaging
Positron-Emission Tomography
Radiopharmaceuticals/diagnostic use
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Tibial Neuropathy/metabolism
Tibial Neuropathy/physiopathology
Tibial Neuropathy/radionuclide imaging
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., INTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Radiopharmaceuticals); 0Z5B2CJX4D (Fluorodeoxyglucose F18)
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140324
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 25386323
[Au] Autor:Simonsen AB; Deleuran M
[Ad] Address:Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital , Aarhus, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:Orofacial Granulomatosis in Children can be the Initial Manifestation of Systemic Disease: A Presentation of Two Cases.
[So] Source:Dermatol Reports;6(1):5039, 2014 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:2036-7392
[Cp] Country of publication:Italy
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Orofacial granulomatosis is a chronic granulomatous condition characterized by relapsing and remitting lip swelling and oral involvement that may include deep ulcers, tags and cobblestone formation. It occurs as an independent entity but also in conjunction with systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and Crohn's disease. The clinical presentation is not indicative of concomitant systemic disease. To highlight the importance of thorough examination to rule out systemic disease, we present two childhood cases of orofacial granulomatosis, one of which was associated to Crohn's disease.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Cu] Class update date: 141113
[Lr] Last revision date:141113
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141111
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4081/dr.2014.5039

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[PMID]: 25382951
[Au] Autor:Karim B; Gupta D
[Ad] Address:Department of Public Health Dentistry, Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, India.
[Ti] Title:Cheiloscopy and blood groups: Aid in forensic identification.
[So] Source:Saudi Dent J;26(4):176-80, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1013-9052
[Cp] Country of publication:Saudi Arabia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Every person has certain features that make them radically distinct from others. One such feature is lip prints. Lip prints remain the same throughout life and are uninfluenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. Different individuals have specific blood groups according to the various antigen-antibody reactions in their bloodstream. AIM: To determine the distribution of different patterns of lip prints among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between respective characteristics of subjects. METHODOLOGY: In this study, lip prints were obtained from 122 subjects (62 males and 60 females), and associated blood-group matching was performed to determine the predominant lip print type and to determine any correlation between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi's classification of type I (complete vertical grooves), type I' (incomplete vertical grooves), type II (forking grooves), type III (intersecting grooves), type IV (reticular grooves), and type V (indeterminate grooves) was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. RESULT: No correlation was found between lip prints and blood groups. CONCLUSION: No significant correlation exists between blood group and lip prints. Lip prints play a vital role in identification because they are unique.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Cu] Class update date: 141113
[Lr] Last revision date:141113
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141110
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.sdentj.2014.05.005

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[PMID]: 24635960
[Au] Autor:Kluger N
[Ad] Address:Departments of Dermatology, Allergology and Venereology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Skin and Allergies Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Meilahdentie 2, PO Box 160, 00029 Hus, Finlande. Electronic address: nicolaskluger@yahoo.fr.
[Ti] Title:Dermatoses ombilicales et péri-ombilicales. [Umbilical and periumbilical dermatoses].
[So] Source:Ann Dermatol Venereol;141(3):224-35; quiz 223, 236, 2014 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0151-9638
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:fre
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Skin Diseases/diagnosis
Skin Diseases/etiology
Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis
Skin Neoplasms/etiology
Umbilicus
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Abdominal Neoplasms/diagnosis
Abdominal Neoplasms/etiology
Abdominal Neoplasms/pathology
Abdominal Neoplasms/secondary
Body Piercing/adverse effects
Choristoma/diagnosis
Cutaneous Fistula/diagnosis
Cutaneous Fistula/etiology
Diagnosis, Differential
Humans
Hyperpigmentation/diagnosis
Hyperpigmentation/etiology
Hypertension, Portal/diagnosis
Hypertension, Portal/etiology
Intestines
Skin Diseases/pathology
Skin Neoplasms/pathology
Skin Neoplasms/secondary
Umbilicus/abnormalities
Umbilicus/blood supply
Umbilicus/pathology
Veins/pathology
Vitelline Duct/abnormalities
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140318
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  10 / 5549 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 23602113
[Au] Autor:Shimohata M; Watanabe Y; Tanaka H
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Shinrakuen Hospital, Niigata, Japan. Electronic address: s45825@yahoo.co.jp.
[Ti] Title:Numbness in the tip of the tongue and lower lip caused by thalamic hemorrhage.
[So] Source:J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis;23(3):557-9, 2014 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1532-8511
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although patients with isolated oral syndrome or facial sensory loss following stroke of thalamic ventroposteromedial (VPM) nucleus have been reported, there have been no reports of numbness in the tip of the tongue and lower lip. Furthermore, symptoms in the tip of the tongue caused by stroke are typically characterized as gustatory sensory disturbances. A 62-year-old hypertensive man experienced an acute onset of severe numbness in the left tip of the tongue and ipsilateral lower lip. Neurological examination revealed no other abnormalities except for the aforementioned numbness. Head computed tomography showed a small hematoma in the medial part of the right thalamus, most likely within the VPM nucleus. The somatosensory impulse of the tongue is conveyed via the lingual nerve, and it reaches the contralateral medial VPM proper via the trigeminal spinal nucleus. Therefore, thalamic stroke mainly involving the medial VPM proper has the potential to elicit numbness in the tip of the tongue. A major portion of the VPM nucleus is vascularized by the inferolateral arteries. The inferolateral arteries vary greatly in the number and position of the arteries and their tributaries, and small-vessel disease in this territory can present with diverse symptoms because of this complexity. These findings indicate that central neurological involvement should not be overlooked in the case of sensory disturbance restricted to the tip of the tongue and lip.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Hypesthesia/etiology
Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications
Lip/innervation
Sensory Thresholds
Thalamic Diseases/complications
Tongue/innervation
Ventral Thalamic Nuclei/physiopathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
Hypesthesia/diagnosis
Hypesthesia/physiopathology
Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis
Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Thalamic Diseases/diagnosis
Thalamic Diseases/physiopathology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Ventral Thalamic Nuclei/radiography
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140317
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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