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[PMID]: 25042924
[Au] Autor:Kong Q; Gao M; Xue Y; Pan X; Lai W; Wu W
[Ad] Address:Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Guangxi Cardiovascular Institute, Nanning 530021, China....
[Ti] Title:[Interleukin-17 contributes to the macrophage secretion of interleukin-27 in a murine model of viral myocarditis].
[So] Source:Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi;42(5):428-32, 2014 May.
[Is] ISSN:0253-3758
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-27 (IL-27) has been reported to reduce the levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and alleviate the severity of experimental autoimmune myocarditis. IL-17, an important tissue-protective cytokine in viral myocarditis (VMC), has been reported to increase synovial expression of IL-27 in rheumatoid arthritis. However, the influence of IL-17 on IL-27 expression in murine model of VMC remains unknown. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and IL-17A-deficient (IL-17A(-/-)) mice on the BALB/c background were intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) for establishing VMC models. Cardiac tissue was obtained on day 7 after CVB3 injection. Myocardial histopathologic changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained myocardial sections.Expression of IL-27 in heart and serum was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Furthermore, splenic lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages were purified 1 week after injection from WT mice.Isolated lymphocytes were cultured in the presence of different concentrations (0 and 25 ng/ml) of recombinant IL-17 (rIL-17) for 24 h. Macrophages were cultured with different concentrations of rIL-17 (0 and 10 ng/ml) for 48 h.IL-27 mRNA expression of cultured cells was assayed by RT-PCR, and their protein level in the culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Compared with WT mice, significantly less cardiac inflammation was evidenced in the heart of IL-17A-/- mice (0.9 ± 0.3 vs.1.9 ± 0.5) , relative cardiac IL-27 p28 mRNA expressions (1.11 ± 0.24 vs.3.1 ± 0.8) and serum IL-27 protein[(72 ± 18) pg/ml vs.(95 ± 25) pg/ml] were also significantly lower in IL-17A-/- mice (all P < 0.05).In the culture lymphocytes, the relative mRNA (1.02 ± 0.13 vs.1.32 ± 0.21) and protein [(49 ± 9) pg/ml vs.(52 ± 11) pg/ml]expressions of IL-27 p28 and were similar post treatment with 0 and 25 ng/ml rIL-17 (all P > 0.05). Compared with 0 ng/ml rIL-17 culture with macrophages, higher relative mRNA (8.5 ± 3.1 vs.2.2 ± 0.7) and protein [(368 ± 95) pg/ml vs.(150 ± 38) pg/ml] expressions of IL-27 p28 were detected in 10 ng/ml rIL-17 group (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data indicates that cytokine IL-17 may contribute to the secretion of IL-27 in VMC mice.Furthermore, macrophages but not lymphocytes may be the important IL-27-producing immune cells and major target cells for IL-17. Thus,IL-27 and IL-17 might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of VMC.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 440564 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24372185
[Au] Autor:Cunard R; Marquez II; Ball ED; Nelson CL; Corringham S; Clopton P; Sanchez AP; Lane T; Ward DM
[Ad] Address:Research Service and Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Veterans Medical Research Foundation, San Diego, California; Department of Medicine, Pathology and Moore's Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California.
[Ti] Title:Prophylactic red blood cell exchange for ABO-mismatched hematopoietic progenitor cell transplants.
[So] Source:Transfusion;54(7):1857-63, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1537-2995
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: To enhance donor availability, almost half of hematopoietic progenitor cell transplants (HPCTs) cross ABO blood type boundaries. ABO-incompatible HPCTs are well tolerated; however, there is an increased risk of delayed hemolysis in patients with minor and bidirectional ABO mismatches. Delayed hemolysis generally occurs 1 to 2 weeks after HPCT and is related to production of alloantibodies directed against recipient ABO red blood cell (RBC) antigens by passenger donor lymphocytes. One previous study has suggested that prophylactic RBC exchange in patients with minor and bidirectional ABO-mismatched HPCT reduces the risks of severe immune hemolysis, but this recommendation is controversial. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Herein we describe our experience using prophylactic RBC exchange in patients with minor and bidirectional ABO-mismatched HPCTs who were deemed to be at high risk for immune hemolysis. We compare the group of patients that received prophylactic RBC exchange with a historical cohort of ABO-mismatched patients who underwent HPCT without prophylactic RBC exchange. RESULTS: Our study suggests that prophylactic RBC exchange in minor and bidirectional ABO-mismatched HPCT does not reduce severe immune hemolysis, nor does it improve 1-year survival, the number of RBC units transfused after transplant, or length of hospitalization after HPCT. CONCLUSION: This study failed to identify a clear role for selected prophylactic RBC exchange in patients who were deemed at risk for severe post-HPCT immune hemolysis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/trf.12529

  3 / 440564 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25045612
[Au] Autor:Woolf DK; Williams NR; Bakshi R; Madani SY; Eaton DJ; Fawcitt S; Pigott K; Short S; Keshtgar M
[Ad] Address:Department of Academic Oncology, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK....
[Ti] Title:Biological dosimetry for breast cancer radiotherapy: a comparison of external beam and intraoperative radiotherapy.
[So] Source:Springerplus;3:329, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2193-1801
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is the gold standard adjuvant treatment after breast conserving surgery although a recent phase 3 trial has shown the non-inferiority of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). Radiation exposure of the heart and cardiac vessels causes an increase in morbidity and mortality following EBRT for breast cancer. We have used γ-H2AX foci formation in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a surrogate marker of dose delivered to the heart and great vessels and have assessed the feasibility of using this technique for biological dosimetry. METHODS: 34 patients were recruited, having either EBRT or IORT as part of a randomised controlled trial (TARGIT). Blood samples were taken prior to and after first fraction of radiotherapy, and the γ-H2AX biomarker then quantified. RESULTS: Data were available for 31 patients. Following TARGIT-IORT there was an increase of 0.203 foci per cell (range -1.436 to 1.275) compared with 0.935 foci per cell (range -0.679 to 2.216) in the EBRT group; this difference was highly significant (p = 0.009). As TARGIT-IORT treatment is completed with a single fraction, whilst EBRT requires at least 15 fractions, the actual difference is estimated to be many times more. CONCLUSIONS: These data show a significantly greater change in γ-H2AX foci number per cell following one fraction of EBRT compared to TARGIT-IORT. This is the first study to demonstrate this effect using a biomarker and demonstrates a proof of concept methodology for similar applications.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140721
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-329

  4 / 440564 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24846184
[Au] Autor:Larsen HL; Andersen MH; Wandall HH; Madsen CB; Christensen RE; Petersen TR; Pedersen AE
[Ad] Address:Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:Induction of Bcl-xL-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Mice.
[So] Source:Scand J Immunol;80(2):111-20, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3083
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The induction of active immunity against tumour-associated antigens to prevent relapse of cancer is a promising approach but has so far shown only low efficacy. This low efficacy may in part be due to clonal escape of tumour cell variants by the downregulation of antigen expression or inflammation-induced dedifferentiation. Identification of novel tumour-associated antigens that at the same time are essential for continued tumour cell survival is thus critical for the development of active cancer vaccinations. At the same time, identification of novel endogenous murine tumour antigens will help improve preclinical development of cancer immunotherapy. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL has been suggested to be such an essential tumour antigen, but the lack of well-defined murine epitopes have delayed preclinical studies of Bcl-xL-targeting cancer vaccines. Here, we report the identification of two novel murine tumour-associated epitopes TAYQSFEQV and AFFSFGGAL derived from mouse Bcl-xL. Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination induced CD8(+) T cells capable of producing IFN-γ upon restimulation with these epitopes. Thus, our data may benefit the design of future immunotherapy strategies by providing a preclinical model for cancer vaccination with an endogenous tumour antigen that can be combined with other cancer treatments.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/sji.12192

  5 / 440564 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24753496
[Au] Autor:Spaziani S; Imperlini E; Mancini A; Caterino M; Buono P; Orrù S
[Ad] Address:DSMB, University of Naples "Parthenope,", Naples, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling induced by supraphysiological doses of IGF-1 in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.
[So] Source:Proteomics;14(13-14):1623-9, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1615-9861
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mediates some of growth hormone anabolic functions through its receptor, IGF-1R. Following ligand binding, intracellular signaling pathways are activated favouring proliferation, cell survival, tissue growth, development, and differentiation. IGF-1 is included in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List. While the evidence for IGF-1 as performance-enhancing substrate in healthy humans is still weak, clinical studies demonstrated that the endogenous growth hormone/IGF-1 excess is associated with cardiovascular implications. Previously, we demonstrated that human peripheral blood lymphocytes represent a suitable system to identify a gene signature, related to dihydrotestosterone or IGF-1 abuse, independent from the type of sport. In addition, in a proteomic study, we demonstrated that dihydrotestosterone hyperdosage affects cell motility and apoptosis. Here, we investigate the doping action of IGF-1 by means of a differential proteomic approach and specific protein arrays, revealing an active cytoskeletal reorganization mediated by Stat-1; moreover, IGF-1 stimulation produces a sustained activation of different signaling pathways as well as an overproduction of cytokines positively related to immune response and inflammation. In conclusion, these data indicate that, following IGF-1 hyperdosage, circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes could be more prone to transendothelial migration.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/pmic.201300318

  6 / 440564 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24863045
[Au] Autor:Imeri F; Fallegger D; Zivkovic A; Schwalm S; Enzmann G; Blankenbach K; Meyer Zu Heringdorf D; Homann T; Kleuser B; Pfeilschifter J; Engelhardt B; Stark H; Huwiler A
[Ad] Address:Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, Friedbühlstrasse 49, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland....
[Ti] Title:Novel oxazolo-oxazole derivatives of FTY720 reduce endothelial cell permeability, immune cell chemotaxis and symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.
[So] Source:Neuropharmacology;85:314-27, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7064
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The immunomodulatory FTY720 (fingolimod) is presently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is a prodrug that acts by modulating sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor signaling. In this study, we have developed and characterized two novel oxazolo-oxazole derivatives of FTY720, ST-968 and the oxy analog ST-1071, which require no preceding activating phosphorylation, and proved to be active in intact cells and triggered S1P1 and S1P3, but not S1P2, receptor internalization as a result of receptor activation. Functionally, ST-968 and ST-1071 acted similar to FTY720 to abrogate S1P-triggered chemotaxis of mouse splenocytes, mouse T cells and human U937 cells, and reduced TNFa- and LPS-stimulated endothelial cell permeability. The compounds also reduced TNFα-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expression, but restored TNFα-mediated downregulation of PECAM-1 mRNA expression. In an in vivo setting, the application of ST-968 or ST-1071 to mice resulted in a reduction of blood lymphocytes and significantly reduced the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice comparable to FTY720 either by prophylactic or therapeutic treatment. In parallel to the reduced clinical symptoms, infiltration of immune cells in the brain was strongly reduced, and in isolated tissues of brain and spinal cord, the mRNA and protein expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, as well as of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were reduced by all compounds, whereas PECAM-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase TIMP-1 were upregulated. In summary, the data suggest that these novel butterfly derivatives of FTY720 could have considerable implication for future therapies of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 440564 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24931519
[Au] Autor:Wu J; Cui H; Zhu Z; Wang L; Li H; Wang D
[Ad] Address:The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, No. 23 Pingjiang Road, Hexi District, Tianjin, 300211.
[Ti] Title:Effect of HIF1α on Foxp3 expression in CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes.
[So] Source:Microbiol Immunol;58(7):409-15, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1348-0421
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HIF1α on Foxp3 expression in CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes. CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes were sorted from PBMC using a CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cell isolation kit. Lentivirus containing lentiviral vector that overexpressed HIF1α (HIF-lenti) and those containing empty expression vector (control-lenti) were produced. Meanwhile, lentivirus that contained lentiviral vector that suppressed HIF1α expression (siHIF-lenti) and those containing control vector (sicontrol-lenti) were also generated. The sorted CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes were infected with HIF-lenti, control-lenti, siHIF-lenti, and sicontrol-lenti, respectively. Approximately 72 hr after transduction, real-time PCR and Western blot were carried out to analyze the RNA and protein expression level of HIF1α and Foxp3. CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes cultured under 21% O2 , 5% CO2 (normoxia) and 1% O2 , 5% CO2 (hypoxia) were used as control. Our results showed that overexpression of HIF1α increased both mRNA and protein expression of Foxp3 and, meanwhile, suppression of HIF1α expression by RNAi could reverse high Foxp3 expression in CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes caused by hypoxic culture. These results suggested that hypoxia could stimulate Foxp3 expression by increasing HIF1α expression in CD4(+) T lymphocytes which may promote CD4(+) T lymphocytes to convert to Treg.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/1348-0421.12168

  8 / 440564 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24882496
[Au] Autor:Ren J; Lu H; Wen S; Sun W; Yan F; Chen X; Jing J; Liu H; Liu C; Xue F; Xiao P; Xin S; Jin N
[Ad] Address:College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China; Institute of Military Veterinary, Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun 130122, China. Electronic address: rjq207@163.com....
[Ti] Title:Enhanced immune responses in pigs by DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of European type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
[So] Source:J Virol Methods;206:27-37, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0984
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The European (EU) type of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has recently emerged in China. In this study, three recombinant DNA vaccines, pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5 (coexpressing EU type PRRSV GP3 and GP5), pVAX1-EU-ORF3 and pVAX1-EU-ORF5, were constructed and evaluated for their abilities to induce humoral and cellular responses as well as to protect piglets against homologous virus challenge. All piglets were given booster vaccinations at 21 days after the initial inoculation and then challenged 14 days later. Pigs inoculated with pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5 developed significantly higher (P<0.05) PRRSV-specific antibody responses, neutralizing antibodies and levels of IL-4 and IL-10 than those given pVAX1-EU-ORF3, pVAX1-EU-ORF5 or pVAX1. Moreover, pigs immunized with pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5 had markedly increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 in serum and T-lymphocytes (CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells) in peripheral blood. Thus, EU-type PRRSV GP3 and GP5 proteins demonstrated good immunogenicity and reactogenicity and could induce cellular immunity in pigs. Following challenge with the Lelystad virus (LV) strain, piglets inoculated with pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5 showed viremia and virus load distributed in organ tissues that were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in the pVAX1-EU-ORF3 group and control group, and slightly lower than those in the pVAX1-EU-ORF5 group (P>0.05). As GP3 could enhance humoral- and cell-mediated immune responses to GP5, the results of this study suggested that these two proteins delivered by a vaccine can synergistically induce immunity against PRRSV.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 440564 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25045719
[Au] Autor:Kumagai-Takei N; Nishimura Y; Maeda M; Hayashi H; Matsuzaki H; Lee S; Kishimoto T; Fukuoka K; Nakano T; Otsuki T
[Ad] Address:Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki 701-0192, Japan....
[Ti] Title:Functional properties of CD8(+) lymphocytes in patients with pleural plaque and malignant mesothelioma.
[So] Source:J Immunol Res;2014:670140, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2314-7156
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:It is known that asbestos exposure can cause malignant mesothelioma (MM) and that CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in antitumor immunity. We examined the properties of peripheral blood CD8(+) lymphocytes from asbestos-exposed patients with pleural plaque (PL) and MM. The percentage of CD3(+)CD8(+) cells in PBMCs did not differ among the three groups, although the total numbers of PBMCs of the PL and MM groups were lower than those of the healthy volunteers (HV). The percentage of IFN-γ (+) and CD107a(+) cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8(+) lymphocytes did not differ among the three groups. Percentages of perforin(+) cells and CD45RA(-) cells in fresh CD8(+) lymphocytes of PL and MM groups were higher than those of HV. Percentages of granzyme B(+) and perforin(+) cells in PMA/ionomycin-stimulated CD8(+) lymphocytes were higher in PL group compared with HV. The MM group showed a decrease of perforin level in CD8(+) lymphocytes after stimulation compared with patients with PL. These results indicate that MM patients have characteristics of impairment in stimulation-induced cytotoxicity of peripheral blood CD8(+) lymphocytes and that PL and MM patients have a common character of functional alteration in those lymphocytes, namely, an increase in memory cells, possibly related to exposure to asbestos.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1155/2014/670140

  10 / 440564 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24931531
[Au] Autor:Garcia M; Greco LF; Favoreto MG; Marsola RS; Wang D; Shin JH; Block E; Thatcher WW; Santos JE; Staples CR
[Ad] Address:Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32608....
[Ti] Title:Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;97(8):5045-64, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/µL), lowered plasma concentrations of acid-soluble protein (78.8 vs. 91.3mg/L) and blood platelets (736 vs. 822×10(3)/µL), and increased production of IFN-γ by peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 30d of age (48.1 vs. 25.6pg/mL), possibly indicating an earlier development of the immune system. Partial replacement of coconut oil with porcine lard in MR improved calf performance and some aspects of immunity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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