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[PMID]: 25010265
[Au] Autor:Otsuki H; Yoneda M; Igarashi T; Miura T
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Primate Model, Experimental Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan....
[Ti] Title:Generation of a monkey-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 carrying env from a CCR5-tropic subtype C clinical isolate.
[So] Source:Virology;460-461:1-10, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0341
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Several derivatives of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that evade macaque restriction factors and establish infection in pig-tailed macaques (PtMs) have been described. These monkey-tropic HIV-1s utilize CXCR4 as a co-receptor that differs from CCR5 used by most currently circulating HIV-1 strains. We generated a new monkey-tropic HIV-1 carrying env from a CCR5-tropic subtype C HIV-1 clinical isolate. Using intracellular homologous recombination, we generated an uncloned chimeric virus consisting of at least seven types of recombination breakpoints in the region between vpr and env. The virus increased its replication capacity while maintaining CCR5 tropism after in vitro passage in PtM primary lymphocytes. PtM infection with the adapted virus exhibited high peak viremia levels in plasma while the virus was undetectable at 12-16 weeks. This virus serves as starting point for generating a pathogenic monkey-tropic HIV-1 with CCR5-tropic subtype C env, perhaps through serial passage in macaques.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 440364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25001165
[Au] Autor:Zhou L; Song H; Xu W; Xu J; Jiang J; Gong Z; Liu Y; Yan W; Wang L
[Ad] Address:Department of Cardiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200065, China....
[Ti] Title:Immune function of peripheral T cells in patients with venous thromboembolism or coronary artery atherosclerosis.
[So] Source:Rev Port Cardiol;33(6):339-44, 2014 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:2174-2030
[Cp] Country of publication:Portugal
[La] Language:eng; por
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that the major risk factors for arterial thrombotic diseases are closely associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study aimed to investigate the expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8 in T lymphocytes, the CD4/CD8 ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with VTE, coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA) and healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 82 healthy subjects, 51 VTE patients and 114 CAA patients were recruited, and the expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8 in T lymphocytes and the CD4/CD8 ratio were determined. Serum hs-CRP was also measured. RESULTS: Compared to healthy subjects, VTE patients had significantly reduced CD3 expression (p=0.019), comparable CD4 expression (p=0.868), significantly reduced CD8 expression (p<0.001) and increased CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.044). However, VTE patients had comparable expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8 and CD4/CD8 ratio to CAA patients. In addition, among patients with VTE or CAA, the proportion of patients with reduced CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes or increased CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher than in healthy subjects. In addition, hs-CRP in both VTE and CAA groups was significantly higher than in healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The antigen recognition and signal transduction activation of T cells is significantly reduced in patients with VTE or CAA, and the killing effect of T cells on pathogens, including viruses, is also significantly compromised. In addition, inflammatory and immune mechanisms are involved in the occurrence and development of venous and arterial thrombosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 440364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24262408
[Au] Autor:Mathian A; Arnaud L; Amoura Z
[Ad] Address:Service de médecine interne 2, Centre national de référence lupus systémique et syndrome des anti-phospholipides, groupement hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, 47-83, boulevard de l'hôpital, 75651 Paris, France; Inserm, UMR-S 945, boulevard de l'hôpital, 75013 Paris, France; Université Pierre et Marie Curie, université Paris 06, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address: alexis.mathian@psl.aphp.fr.
[Ti] Title:Physiopathologie du lupus systémique : le point en 2014. [Etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus: A 2014 update].
[So] Source:Rev Med Interne;35(8):503-11, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1768-3122
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:fre
[Ab] Abstract:Systemic lupus erythematous is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the inflammation of several tissues and the production of auto-antibodies directed against nuclear antigens. Complex genetic disorders and environmental factors are at the origin of the disease but the precise cause of the auto-immune process is still unknown. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are involved. Apoptosis seems to be the main source of auto-antigens. The interactions between apoptotic cells, dendritic cells and lymphocytes activate the production of pathogenic antibodies and T lymphocytes. Amplification loops sustain the auto-immune process and the chronic inflammation. Several data point out B-lymphocytes and several cytokines involved in their homeostasis as new promising therapeutic targets.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 440364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25024920
[Au] Autor:Kippner LE; Kim J; Gibson G; Kemp ML
[Ad] Address:The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University , Atlanta, GA , USA....
[Ti] Title:Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types.
[So] Source:PeerJ;2:e452, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2167-8359
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription profiling provides evidence of cellular subclasses in neutrophils and leukocytes that may be independent of traditional classifications based on cell surface markers. The choice of primary data analysis method had a substantial effect on the interpretation of the data. Adjustment for technical effects is critical to prevent misinterpretation of single cell transcript data.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140715
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7717/peerj.452

  5 / 440364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25020133
[Au] Autor:Raveendran VV; Smith DD; Tan X; Sweeney ME; Reed GA; Flynn CA; Tawfik OW; Milne G; Dileepan KN
[Ad] Address:Division of Allergy, Clinical Immunology & Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America....
[Ti] Title:Chronic ingestion of h1-antihistamines increase progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein e-/- mice.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e102165, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although increased serum histamine levels and H1R expression in the plaque are seen in atherosclerosis, it is not known whether H1R activation is a causative factor in the development of the disease, or is a host defense response to atherogenic signals. In order to elucidate how pharmacological inhibition of histamine receptor 1 (H1R) signaling affects atherogenesis, we administered either cetirizine (1 and 4 mg/kg. b.w) or fexofenadine (10 and 40 mg/kg. b.w) to ApoE-/- mice maintained on a high fat diet for three months. Mice ingesting a low dose of cetirizine or fexofenadine had significantly higher plaque coverage in the aorta and cross-sectional lesion area at the aortic root. Surprisingly, the higher doses of cetirizine or fexofenadine did not enhance atherosclerotic lesion coverage over the controls. The low dose of fexofenadine, but not cetirizine, increased serum LDL cholesterol. Interestingly, the expression of iNOS and eNOS mRNA was increased in aortas of mice on high doses of cetirizine or fexofenadine. This may be a compensatory nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilatory mechanism that accounts for the lack of increase in the progression of atherosclerosis. Although the administration of cetirizine did not alter blood pressure between the groups, there was a positive correlation between blood pressure and lesion/media ratio at the aortic root in mice receiving the low dose of cetirizine. However, this association was not observed in mice treated with the high dose of cetirizine or either doses of fexofenadine. The macrophages or T lymphocytes densities were not altered by low doses of H1-antihistamines, whereas, high doses decreased the number of macrophages but not T lymphocytes. The number of mast cells was decreased only in mice treated with low dose of fexofenadine. These results demonstrate that chronic ingestion of low therapeutic doses of cetirizine or fexofenadine enhance progression of atherosclerosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102165

  6 / 440364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25019288
[Au] Autor:Wrenshall LE; Clabaugh SE; Cool DR; Arumugam P; Grunwald WC; Smith DR; Liu GC; Miller JD
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Boonshoft School of Medicine Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, United States of America....
[Ti] Title:Identification of a cytotoxic form of dimeric interleukin-2 in murine tissues.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e102191, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a multi-faceted cytokine, known for promoting proliferation, survival, and cell death depending on the cell type and state. For example, IL-2 facilitates cell death only in activated T cells when antigen and IL-2 are abundant. The availability of IL-2 clearly impacts this process. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that IL-2 is retained in blood vessels by heparan sulfate, and that biologically active IL-2 is released from vessel tissue by heparanase. We now demonstrate that heparanase digestion also releases a dimeric form of IL-2 that is highly cytotoxic to cells expressing the IL-2 receptor. These cells include "traditional" IL-2 receptor-bearing cells such as lymphocytes, as well as those less well known for IL-2 receptor expression, such as epithelial and smooth muscle cells. The morphologic changes and rapid cell death induced by dimeric IL-2 imply that cell death is mediated by disruption of membrane permeability and subsequent necrosis. These findings suggest that IL-2 has a direct and unexpectedly broad influence on cellular homeostatic mechanisms in both immune and non-immune systems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102191

  7 / 440364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25019226
[Au] Autor:Shao H; Ou Y; Wang T; Shen H; Wu F; Zhang W; Tao C; Yuan Y; Bo H; Wang H; Huang S
[Ad] Address:Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Biotechnology Drug Candidates, Guangzhou, China; School of Biosciences and Biopharmaceutics, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, China....
[Ti] Title:Differences in TCR-Vß Repertoire and Effector Phenotype between Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Increase with Age.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e102327, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) reflect the host's anti-tumor immune response, and can be a valuable predictor of prognosis. However, many properties of TIL are not fully understood. In the present study, TCR-Vß repertoires of cancer patients were primarily analyzed by flow cytometry. Abnormally expressed TCR-Vß subfamilies were generally found in both TIL and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of each patient. Of note, increased patient age was associated with increasingly biased TCR-Vß repertoire in TIL but not in PBL, and the dispersion degree of the differences of TCR-Vß subfamilies between TIL and PBL correlated positively with age (P = 0.007). Utilizing immunoscope analysis, we identified the age-related reduction in TCR-Vß diversity, but polyclonal pattern was predominant in significantly expanded TCR-Vß subfamilies. In addition, we found that older patients possessed a decreased ratio of CD8+CD62L+ non-effector cells in TIL compared to PBL, implying age-related increase of CD8+CD62L- effector cells in TIL. The colocalization analysis of CD8 and CD3, however, suggested the suppressed activity of these effector cells in tumor microenvironment. These findings further elucidate the properties of TIL, showing an increasing difference between TIL and PBL with age, which may provide insight for the development of effective immunotherapies for cancer patients of different ages.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102327

  8 / 440364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25024678
[Au] Autor:Wang W; Li Z; Duan J; Wang C; Fang Y; Yang XD
[Ad] Address:Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing 100044, China ; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China....
[Ti] Title:In vitro enhancement of dendritic cell-mediated anti-glioma immune response by graphene oxide.
[So] Source:Nanoscale Res Lett;9(1):311, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1931-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Malignant glioma has extremely poor prognosis despite combination treatments with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy may potentially serve as an adjuvant treatment of glioma, but its efficacy generally needs further improvement. Here we explored whether graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could modulate the DC-mediated anti-glioma immune response in vitro, using the T98G human glioma cell line as the study model. Pulsing DCs with a glioma peptide antigen (Ag) generated a limited anti-glioma response compared to un-pulsed DCs. Pulsing DCs with GO alone failed to produce obvious immune modulation effects. However, stimulating DCs with a mixture of GO and Ag (GO-Ag) significantly enhanced the anti-glioma immune reaction (p < 0.05). The secretion of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) by the lymphocytes was also markedly boosted by GO-Ag. Additionally, the anti-glioma immune response induced by GO-Ag appeared to be target-specific. Furthermore, at the concentration used in this study, GO exhibited a negligible effect on the viability of the DCs. These results suggested that GO might have potential utility for boosting a DC-mediated anti-glioma immune response.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140715
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/1556-276X-9-311

  9 / 440364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24931052
[Au] Autor:Chuang TL; Chang CC; Chu-Su Y; Wei SC; Zhao XH; Hsueh PR; Lin CW
[Ad] Address:Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan.
[Ti] Title:Disposable surface plasmon resonance aptasensor with membrane-based sample handling design for quantitative interferon-gamma detection.
[So] Source:Lab Chip;14(16):2968-77, 2014 Jul 14.
[Is] ISSN:1473-0189
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ELISA and ELISPOT methods are utilized for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) to detect the IFN-γ secreted by T lymphocytes. However, the multi-step protocols of the assays are still performed with laboratory instruments and operated by well-trained people. Here, we report a membrane-based microfluidic device integrated with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor to realize an easy-to-use and cost effective multi-step quantitative analysis. To conduct the SPR measurements, we utilized a membrane-based SPR sensing device in which a rayon membrane was located 300 µm under the absorbent pad. The basic equation covering this type of transport is based on Darcy's law. Furthermore, the concentration of streptavidin delivered from a sucrose-treated glass pad placed alongside the rayon membrane was controlled in a narrow range (0.81 µM ± 6%). Finally, the unbound molecules were removed by a washing buffer that was pre-packed in the reservoir of the chip. Using a bi-functional, hairpin-shaped aptamer as the sensing probe, we specifically detected the IFN-γ and amplified the signal by binding the streptavidin. A high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.995) was obtained, in the range from 0.01 to 100 nM. A detection limit of 10 pM was achieved within 30 min. Thus, the SPR assay protocols for IFN-γ detection could be performed using this simple device without an additional pumping system.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1039/c4lc00249k

  10 / 440364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24691402
[Au] Autor:Ghazzawi Y; Rubio-Tapia A; Murray JA; Absah I
[Ad] Address:*Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology †Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
[Ti] Title:Mucosal healing in children with treated celiac disease.
[So] Source:J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr;59(2):229-31, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1536-4801
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Limited data suggest complete mucosal healing in treated children with celiac disease (CD), but recent data from adult endoscopic biopsies have shown substantial numbers with persistent mucosal injury. We aimed to assess the rate of mucosal healing and indications for repeat small bowel (SB) biopsy in children with CD. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of children (ages 1-18 years) with CD who underwent a second SB biopsy. All of the children were seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from January 1997 through June 2013. RESULTS: Forty children were identified (14 boys); average age at diagnosis was 8.5 years. Indications for second SB biopsy were abdominal pain (n = 20), diarrhea (n = 7), constipation (n = 5), non-celiac-related concern (n = 2), follow-up (n = 5), and persistent serology (n = 1). Average time between biopsies was 24 months (range 4-120 months). Histology on the second biopsy showed complete healing (n = 25), intraepithelial lymphocytes (n = 9), and persistent villous atrophy (n = 6). Of these, 3 patients had partial villous atrophy and 3 had with complete villous atrophy. Persistent villous atrophy was observed in 2 of 20 patients with abdominal pain and 1 of 7 with diarrhea. All of the patients with persistent constipation (n = 5) had complete resolution. CONCLUSIONS: Mucosal healing in children with CD may not be complete as previously assumed. Abdominal pain was the most common indication for repeating the SB biopsy. Persistence of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation was poorly associated with persistence of mucosal injury.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000390


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