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[PMID]: 25539817
[Au] Autor:Grailer JJ; Fattahi F; Dick RS; Zetoune FS; Ward PA
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109....
[Ti] Title:Cutting Edge: Critical Role for C5aRs in the Development of Septic Lymphopenia in Mice.
[So] Source:J Immunol;194(3):868-72, 2015 Feb 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In the early stages of sepsis, lymphocytes undergo apoptosis, resulting in lymphopenia and immunosuppression. The trigger for septic lymphopenia is unknown. Using the polymicrobial model of murine sepsis, we investigated the role of C5a receptors in septic lymphopenia. In wild-type mice, cecal ligation and puncture resulted in splenocyte apoptosis and significant lymphopenia after 3 d, which was not observed in C5aR1(-/-) or C5aR2(-/-) mice. Our data show that mouse neutrophils exposed to recombinant mouse C5a cause release of histones in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Histone levels in spleen were significantly elevated following cecal ligation and puncture but were reduced by the absence of C5aR1. Histones induced significant lymphocyte apoptosis in vitro. Ab-mediated neutralization of histones prevented the development of lymphopenia in sepsis. Together, these results describe a new pathway of septic lymphopenia involving complement and extracellular histones. Targeting of this pathway may have therapeutic benefit for patients with sepsis or other serious illness.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150117
[Lr] Last revision date:150117
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401193

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[PMID]: 25527786
[Au] Autor:Li Y; Chen HL; Bannick N; Henry M; Holm AN; Metwali A; Urban JF; Rothman PB; Weiner GJ; Blazar BR; Elliott DE; Ince MN
[Ad] Address:Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242;...
[Ti] Title:Intestinal Helminths Regulate Lethal Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Preserve the Graft-versus-Tumor Effect in Mice.
[So] Source:J Immunol;194(3):1011-20, 2015 Feb 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Donor T lymphocyte transfer with hematopoietic stem cells suppresses residual tumor growth (graft-versus-tumor [GVT]) in cancer patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, donor T cell reactivity to host organs causes severe and potentially lethal inflammation called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). High-dose steroids or other immunosuppressive drugs are used to treat GVHD that have limited ability to control the inflammation while incurring long-term toxicity. Novel strategies are needed to modulate GVHD, preserve GVT, and improve the outcome of BMT. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control alloantigen-sensitized inflammation of GVHD, sustain GVT, and prevent mortality in BMT. Helminths colonizing the alimentary tract dramatically increase the Treg activity, thereby modulating intestinal or systemic inflammatory responses. These observations led us to hypothesize that helminths can regulate GVHD and maintain GVT in mice. Acute GVHD was induced in helminth (Heligmosomoides polygyrus)-infected or uninfected BALB/c recipients of C57BL/6 donor grafts. Helminth infection suppressed donor T cell inflammatory cytokine generation and reduced GVHD-related mortality, but maintained GVT. H. polygyrus colonization promoted the survival of TGF-ß-generating recipient Tregs after a conditioning regimen with total body irradiation and led to a TGF-ß-dependent in vivo expansion/maturation of donor Tregs after BMT. Helminths did not control GVHD when T cells unresponsive to TGF-ß-mediated immune regulation were used as donor T lymphocytes. These results suggest that helminths suppress acute GVHD using Tregs and TGF-ß-dependent pathways in mice. Helminthic regulation of GVHD and GVT through intestinal immune conditioning may improve the outcome of BMT.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150117
[Lr] Last revision date:150117
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1303099

  3 / 447122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25589898
[Au] Autor:Joy JM; Lowery RP; Falcone PH; Mosman MM; Vogel RM; Carson LR; Tai CY; Choate D; Kimber D; Ormes JA; Wilson JM; Moon JR
[Ad] Address:Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, Tampa, FL USA ; MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO USA....
[Ti] Title:28 days of creatine nitrate supplementation is apparently safe in healthy individuals.
[So] Source:J Int Soc Sports Nutr;11(1):60, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1550-2783
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Creatine monohydrate has become a very popular nutritional supplement for its ergogenic effects. The safety of creatine monohydrate has previously been confirmed. However with each novel form of creatine that emerges, its safety must be verified. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the safety of a novel form of creatine, creatine nitrate (CN), over a 28 day period. METHODS: 58 young males and females (Pooled: 24.3 ± 3.9 years, 144.9 ± 8.0 cm, 74.2 ± 13.0 kg) participated in this study across two laboratories. Subjects were equally and randomly assigned to consume either 1 g (n = 18) or 2 g (n = 20) of CN or remained unsupplemented (n = 20). Blood draws for full safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist prior to and at the conclusion of the supplementation period. RESULTS: Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group x time interactions for absolute lymphocytes and absolute monocytes (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 1 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for red blood cell distribution width, platelets, absolute monocytes, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN):creatinine, sodium, protein, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 2 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for BUN:creatinine and ALT (p < 0.05). BUN and BUN:creatinine increased beyond the clinical reference range for the 2 g treatment of Lab 2, but BUN did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Overall, CN appears to be safe in both 1 g and 2 g servings daily for up to a 28 day period. While those with previously elevated BUN levels may see additional increases resulting in post-supplementation values slightly beyond normal physiological range, these results have minor clinical significance and are not cause for concern. Otherwise, all hematological safety markers remained within normal range, suggesting that CN supplementation has no adverse effects in daily doses up to 2 g over 28 days and may be an alternative to creatine monohydrate supplementation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150117
[Lr] Last revision date:150117
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150115
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12970-014-0060-9

  4 / 447122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24993505
[Au] Autor:Stüve O; Warnke C; Deason K; Stangel M; Kieseier BC; Hartung HP; von Büdingen HC; Centonze D; Forsthuber TG; Knappertz V
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA, olafstuve@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:CD19 as a molecular target in CNS autoimmunity.
[So] Source:Acta Neuropathol;128(2):177-90, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1432-0533
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are the most prevalent neuroinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The immunological cascade of these disorders is complex, and the exact spatial and temporal role of different immune cells is not fully understood. Although MS has been considered for many years to be primarily T cell driven, it is well established that B cells and the humoral immune response play an important role in its pathogenesis. This has long been evident from laboratory findings that include the presence of oligoclonal bands in the CSF. In NMO, the importance of the humoral immune system appears even more obvious as evidenced by pathogenic antibodies against aquaporin 4 (AQP4). Besides their capacity to mature into antibody-producing plasma cells, B cells are potent antigen-presenting cells to T lymphocytes and they can provide soluble factors for cell activation and differentiation to other immune-competent cells. In MS and NMO, there are substantial data from clinical trials that B cell depletion with CD20-directed agents is effective and relatively safe. Plasma cells, which produce antibodies against molecular targets expressed by the host, but which also provide humoral immune responses against pathogens, are not targeted by anti-CD20 therapies. Therefore, the depletion of CD19-expressing cells would offer potential advantages with regard to efficacy, but potentially higher risks with regard to infectious complications. This review will outline the rationale for CD19 as a molecular target in CNS autoimmunity. The current stage of drug development is illustrated. Potential safety concerns will be discussed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Cu] Class update date: 150117
[Lr] Last revision date:150117
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00401-014-1313-z

  5 / 447122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25399488
[Au] Autor:Shen QY; Fang L; Wu HM; He F; Ding PS; Liu RY
[Ad] Address:Department of Pulmonary, Anhui Geriatric Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China; Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.
[Ti] Title:Repeated inhalation of sevoflurane inhibits airway inflammation in an OVA-induced mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.
[So] Source:Respirology;20(2):258-63, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1440-1843
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Repeated inhalation of sevoflurane (SVF) can benefit asthmatic patients by bronchodilation. However, the impact of repeated inhalation of SVF on allergic airway inflammation has not been clarified. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of repeated inhalation of SVF on airway inflammation in mice. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated by inhalation with SVF or vehicle daily for seven consecutive days, immediately followed by OVA challenge. Airway inflammation was evaluated by counting the numbers of different types of inflammatory infiltrates in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), histology, cytokine measurements and mucus production in individual mice. RESULTS: In comparison with the OVA group, repeated inhalation of SVF significantly reduced the numbers of total cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01), and the levels of BALF tumour necrosis factor-α and lung high-mobility group box 1 (P < 0.01), accompanied by elevated levels of BALF interleukin-10 in allergic mice (P < 0.05). Repeat inhalation of SVF decreased the levels of serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and mitigated allergic airway epithelial goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion in allergic mice (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated inhalation of SVF inhibits allergic airway inflammation by reducing inflammatory infiltrates, improving the imbalance of cytokine responses and mitigating allergen-specific IgE responses and goblet cell hyperplasia in mice.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/resp.12439

  6 / 447122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25548371
[Au] Autor:Wei SY; Lin TE; Wang WL; Lee PL; Tsai MC; Chiu JJ
[Ad] Address:Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, 'National' Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350....
[Ti] Title:Protein kinase C-δ and -ß coordinate flow-induced directionality and deformation of migratory human blood T-lymphocytes.
[So] Source:J Mol Cell Biol;6(6):458-72, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1759-4685
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:T-lymphocyte migration under flow is critical for immune responses, but the mechanisms by which flow modulates the migratory behaviors of T-lymphocytes remain unclear. Human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBTLs), when stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), stretched their cell bodies dramatically and moved along the flow direction. In contrast, stromal cell-derived factor-1α-stimulated PBTLs deformed and migrated in a random manner. Here we elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying flow-induced directionality and deformation of PMA-stimulated PBTLs. PMA primed PBTLs for polarization under flow, with protein kinase C (PKC)-δ enriched in the leading edge, PKC-ßI in the microtubule organizing center, and PKC-ßII in the uropod and peripheral region. PKC-δ regulated cell protrusions in the leading edge through Tiam1/Rac1/calmodulin, whereas PKC-ß regulated RhoA/Rho-associated kinase activity and microtubule stability to modulate uropod contractility and detachment. Our findings indicate that PKC-δ and -ß coordinate in the cell leading edge and uropod, respectively, to modulate the directionality and deformability of migratory T-lymphocytes under flow.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/jmcb/mju050

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[PMID]: 25548228
[Au] Autor:Ramos-Amaya A; Rodríguez-Bayona B; López-Blanco R; Andújar E; Pérez-Alegre M; Campos-Caro A; Brieva JA
[Ad] Address:Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, 11009 Cadiz, Spain;...
[Ti] Title:Survival of human circulating antigen-induced plasma cells is supported by plasma cell-niche cytokines and T follicular helper lymphocytes.
[So] Source:J Immunol;194(3):1031-8, 2015 Feb 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human circulating Ag-induced plasma cells (PCs) contain a high proportion of cycling cells. This study reveals that these PCs spontaneously proliferate in culture during 72 h, as determined by BrdU-uptake detection. Transcriptome analysis indicates that, in comparison with tonsil and bone marrow (BM) PCs, these PCs distinctively upregulate genes involved in cell division. Blood PC proliferation occurs simultaneously with increasing apoptosis rates, and is associated with PC survival. In addition, the proliferating activity of these PCs is enhanced by the addition of cytokines present in PC survival niches. Moreover, blood Ag-induced, but not BM, PCs exhibit the expression of molecules involved in the interaction between memory B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. In fact, purified circulating and tonsil Tfh cells increased IgG secretion by blood Ag-induced, but not by BM, PCs. This effect is exerted by augmenting blood PC survival through a mechanism partly dependent on cell contact. These results strongly suggest that the proliferating capacity of circulating Ag-induced PCs contributes to their competitive migration to survival niches, either to long-living PC niches or to temporal niches present in reactive lymphoid organs and inflamed tissues, structures where Tfh cells appear to participate.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402231

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[PMID]: 25539813
[Au] Autor:Muscolini M; Camperio C; Porciello N; Caristi S; Capuano C; Viola A; Galandrini R; Tuosto L
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Charles Darwin," Pasteur Institute-Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Sapienza University, 00185 Rome, Italy;...
[Ti] Title:Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase α and Vav1 Mutual Cooperation in CD28-Mediated Actin Remodeling and Signaling Functions.
[So] Source:J Immunol;194(3):1323-33, 2015 Feb 1.
[Is] ISSN:1550-6606
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) is a cell membrane phosphoinositide crucial for cell signaling and activation. Indeed, PIP2 is a pivotal source for second messenger generation and controlling the activity of several proteins regulating cytoskeleton reorganization. Despite its critical role in T cell activation, the molecular mechanisms regulating PIP2 turnover remain largely unknown. In human primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes, we have recently demonstrated that CD28 costimulatory receptor is crucial for regulating PIP2 turnover by allowing the recruitment and activation of the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5Kα). We also identified PIP5Kα as a key modulator of CD28 costimulatory signals leading to the efficient T cell activation. In this study, we extend these data by demonstrating that PIP5Kα recruitment and activation is essential for CD28-mediated cytoskeleton rearrangement necessary for organizing a complete signaling compartment leading to downstream signaling functions. We also identified Vav1 as the linker molecule that couples the C-terminal proline-rich motif of CD28 to the recruitment and activation of PIP5Kα, which in turn cooperates with Vav1 in regulating actin polymerization and CD28 signaling functions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401643

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[PMID]: 25532940
[Au] Autor:Oliveira Carneiro FR; da Cunha Fischer TR; Brandão CM; Pagliari C; Duarte MI; Quaresma JA
[Ad] Address:Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Universidade do Estado do Pará, 66087-670, Belem, PA, Brazil. Electronic address: reginacarneiro@globo.com....
[Ti] Title:Disseminated infection with Lacazia loboi and immunopathology of the lesional spectrum.
[So] Source:Hum Pathol;46(2):334-8, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1532-8392
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The pathogenesis of lacaziosis continues to be obscure, and works have investigated the blood systemic immune response or the dermal immune response in restricted lesions in different body regions. Some authors describe that the inflammatory infiltrate in lacaziosis lesions showed a predominance of macrophages followed by CD45RO(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells; CD57(+) natural killer cells; S-100(+) cells; and CD20(+) B lymphocytes. A 54-year-old man and living in the State of Para, Amazon region, Brazil, was seen with a lesion on the left lower limb, which had started as a small nodular area 18 years ago. The lesion showed progressive growth and disseminated to other parts of the body. Our findings showed that dermal immune response differs depending on the type of lesions and clinical presentation, with presence of CD1a(+), FXIIIa(+), CD45(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and S-100(+) cells and cytokine profile with expression of interleukin 1 ß, tumor necrosis factor α, transforming growth factor ß, IL-10, and interferon γ.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 447122 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25391391
[Au] Autor:Thompson DB; Siref LE; Feloney MP; Hauke RJ; Agrawal DK
[Ad] Address:Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Creighton University School of Medicine, CRISS II Room 510, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA.
[Ti] Title:Immunological basis in the pathogenesis and treatment of bladder cancer.
[So] Source:Expert Rev Clin Immunol;11(2):265-79, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1744-8409
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The pathogenesis and transition of normal urothelium into bladder carcinoma are multifactorial processes. Chronic inflammation causes initiation and progression of the underlying pathophysiology of invasive and metastatic cancer. A dichotomy is observed in the role of immune cells in bladder cancer. While the immune response defends the host by suppressing neoplastic growth, several immune cells, including neutrophils, macrophages and T-lymphocytes, promote tumor development and progression. The levels of human neutrophil peptide-1, -2 and -3, produced by neutrophils, increase in bladder cancer and might promote tumor angiogenesis and growth. The effect of macrophages is primarily mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, the underlying immunological mechanisms of two treatments, BCG and cytokine gene-modified tumor vaccines, and future directions are critically discussed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1586/1744666X.2015.983082


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