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[PMID]: 26927634
[Au] Autor:García GR; Dogi CA; Ashworth GE; Berardo D; Godoy G; Cavaglieri LR; de Moreno de LeBlanc A; Greco CR
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Argentina; Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET), Argentina....
[Ti] Title:Effect of breast feeding time on physiological, immunological and microbial parameters of weaned piglets in an intensive breeding farm.
[So] Source:Vet Immunol Immunopathol;176:44-9, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2534
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of this work was to study the long-lasting consequences of different weaning age on physiological, immunological and microbiological parameters of weaned piglets. Piglets were weaned at 14 days (14W) or 21 days (21W). Blood samples were taken for IgG and cortisol determination on preweaning day and at 4; 20 and 40 post-weaning days. Three animals of each group were sacrificed. Small intestines for morphometric studies and secretory-IgA determination in fluid were taken. The cecum was obtained for enterobacteria, lactobacilli and total anaerobes enumeration. A significant decrease in piglet's plasma IgG concentrations was observed immediately after weaning and no differences were found between 14W and 21W. An increase in intestinal S-IgA was observed according to piglet's age. This increase was significantly higher in piglets 14W compared to piglets 21W. Animals from 14W group showed a decrease in villus length and in the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Other parameters were not affected by the weaning age. A short-term increase in cortisol was observed after weaning in both experimental groups. Enterobacteria decreased significantly after weaning in both groups, reaching values of weaning after 40 days. Lactobacilli counts decreased in both groups after weaning; however their counts were always higher than those obtained for enterobacteria. No differences were observed between 14W and 21W with regards to counts of anaerobes. The shortening of breast feeding time would favor an early synthesis of intestinal S-IgA after weaning. The changes observed in the microbiota could decrease postweaning enteric infections. However, early weaning induced negative effects on the cells of gut innate immunity and villi atrophy. This work provides knowledge about advantages and disadvantages at different weaning and long-lasting consequences on pig health. It is critical that swine producers become aware of the biological impacts of weaning age, so as to be able to decide the appropriate management strategies according to their facilities and rearing environment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 467503 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27288619
[Au] Autor:Lorente L; Martín MM; Ferreres J; Solé-Violán J; Labarta L; Díaz C; Jiménez A; Borreguero-León JM
[Ad] Address:Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Ofra, s/n. La Laguna, 38320, Tenerife, Spain. Electronic address: lorentemartin@msn.com....
[Ti] Title:Serum caspase 3 levels are associated with early mortality in severe septic patients.
[So] Source:J Crit Care;34:103-6, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8615
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Higher caspase 3 activity has been found in lymphocytes of septic patients than of healthy controls. However, an association between serum caspase 3 levels at moment of severe sepsis diagnosis and mortality in septic patients has not been previously demonstrated, and this was the main objective of the present study. METHODS: This is an observational study of 216 patients with severe sepsis in 6 Spanish intensive care units. We collected serum samples at moment of severe sepsis diagnosis to determine levels of caspase 3 and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK) 18. End point was 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We found higher serum caspase 3 levels (P<.001) and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 (P=.001) in nonsurvivors (n=76) than in survivors (n=140). Multiple binary logistic regression analysis showed that serum caspase 3 levels greater than 0.25 ng/mL were associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 6.51; 95% confidence interval, 3.32-12.77; P<.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve to predict 30-day mortality for serum caspase 3 levels was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.79; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The major novel findings of our study were that there is an association between serum caspase 3 levels at moment of severe sepsis diagnosis and mortality in septic patients and that serum caspase 3 levels could be used as prognostic biomarker, and further studies are needed to corroborate these findings.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 467503 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26948997
[Au] Autor:Buckner JH; Nepom GT
[Ad] Address:Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, The University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: jbuckner@benaroyaresearch.org.
[Ti] Title:Obstacles and opportunities for targeting the effector T cell response in type 1 diabetes.
[So] Source:J Autoimmun;71:44-50, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9157
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Autoreactive lymphocytes display a programmed set of characteristic effector functions and phenotypic markers that, in combination with antigen-specific profiling, provide a detailed picture of the adaptive immune response in Type 1 diabetes (T1D). The CD4+ T cell effector compartment (referred to as "Teff" in this article) has been extensively analyzed, particularly because the HLA genes most strongly associated with T1D are MHC class II alleles that form restriction elements for CD4+ T cell recognition. This "guilt by association" can now be revisited in terms of specific immune mechanisms and specific forms of T cell recognition that are displayed by Teff found in subjects with T1D. In this review, we describe properties of Teff that correlate with T1D, and discuss several characteristics that advance our understanding of disease persistence and progression. Focusing on functional disease-associated immunological pathways within these Teff suggests a rationale for next-generation clinical trials with targeted interventions. Indeed, immune modulation therapies in T1D that do not address these properties of Teff are unlikely to achieve durable clinical response.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 467503 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26848050
[Au] Autor:Baquero MM; Plattner BL
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Pathobiology/AHL Building 89, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address: mbaquero@uguelph.ca.
[Ti] Title:Bovine WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes modify monocyte-derived macrophage responses during early Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.
[So] Source:Vet Immunol Immunopathol;170:65-72, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2534
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Following Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection, some calves are apparently able to successfully clear the pathogen whereas others become persistently infected; however the reasons for this remain unknown. The importance of innate immunity, and in particular the role of γδ T lymphocytes, during early anti-mycobacterial immune response is recognized but specific mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate how bovine WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes mediate macrophage function during early Map infection. To achieve this objective, Map-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) were co-cultured either in direct contact with, or separated by a semi-permeable membrane from, autologous WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes. Nitrites, IL-17A, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 from cell culture supernatants were measured. Expression of CD25 on WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes, expression of MHC-I and MHC-II on MDMs and the viability of Map recovered from MDM cultures 72h after Map infection were also assessed. Map viability was significantly reduced when WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes were co-cultured in direct contact with Map-infected MDMs. Both MDMs and WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes generated increased concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-4 in our system, and MDM/WC1(+) γδ T lymphocyte synergism was identified for IFN-γ production. MDMs but not WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes were a significant source of IL-17A. The presence of WC1(+) γδ T lymphocytes was associated with higher expression of MHC-I on MDMs and increased concentration of nitrites in supernatants 72h after Map infection. In conclusion, this study showed that WC1(+) γδ lymphocytes had differential effects on Map-infected macrophages in vitro.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  5 / 467503 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26731314
[Au] Autor:Druzhinin V; Bakanova M; Fucic A; Golovina T; Savchenko Y; Sinitsky M; Volobaev V
[Ad] Address:Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo, Russia; Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «The Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences¼, Kemerovo, Russian Federation....
[Ti] Title:Lymphocytes with multiple chromosomal damages in a large cohort of West Siberia residents: Results of long-term monitoring.
[So] Source:Mutat Res;784-785:1-7, 2016 Feb-Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-135X
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cells with specific multiple chromosome aberrations, defined as rogue cells (RC) have been described in different populations, predominantly those exposed to radiation. The frequency, etiology and related health risks have still not been elucidated due to their low frequency of occurrences and rarely performed studies. This study reports RC frequency using chromosome aberration (CA) assay in peripheral lymphocytes in the group of 3242 subjects, during a 30-year long follow-up study in a general rural and urban population, children environmentally exposed to radon, occupationally exposed population and lung cancer patients from the Kemerovo region (Siberia, Russian Federation). Results show that the highest RC frequency was present in children environmentally exposed to radon and the lowest in the general urban population. Total frequency of CA did not correlate with frequency of RC. Genotoxic analysis of air and water samples excluded anthropogenic pollution as a possible cause of genome damage and RC frequency. In 85% of RCs, double minutes, observed in a large number of human tumors, were present. Results of CA analysis suggested that radon and its decay products (alpha-emitters) were the leading factors causing RC in subjects exposed to high LET radiation. Thus, RC may be a candidate biomarker for exposure to this type of radiation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  6 / 467503 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26215124
[Au] Autor:Ramzan M; Sturm N; Decaens T; Bioulac-Sage P; Bancel B; Merle P; Tran Van Nhieu J; Slama R; Letoublon C; Zarski JP; Jouvin-Marche E; Marche PN; Leroy V
[Ad] Address:INSERM, Unité 823, Grenoble, France....
[Ti] Title:Liver-infiltrating CD8(+) lymphocytes as prognostic factor for tumour recurrence in hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
[So] Source:Liver Int;36(3):434-44, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1478-3231
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chronic liver inflammation and immune/inflammatory response promote hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to characterize the immune status of HCV-related cirrhosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC) as compared to HCV patients without hepatocellular carcinoma. METHOD: Immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD56, TCRγδ, FoxP3) and gene expression profiles (CD8α, CD8ß, FoxP3, IL-6, IFN-γ, perforin, RANTES) were analysed in a test cohort by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR analysis on serial non-tumorous and tumorous tissues. RESULTS: Immune micro-environment was more inflammatory in HCV-HCC than HCV cirrhotic livers. The number of CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) and CD20(+) liver-infiltrating lymphocytes was significantly higher, whereas the number of CD56(+) cells was significantly lower in HCV-HCC compared to HCV cirrhotic parenchyma. These differences were restricted to fibrous septa for CD4(+) and CD20(+) cells and to nodular parenchyma for CD8(+) cells. Gene expressions of CD8α, FoxP3 and RANTES were also significantly higher in HCV-HCC than in HCV cirrhosis. Interestingly, in a large cohort of 63 HCV-HCC patients. The number of CD8(+) cells ≥100/field was associated with significant higher tumour recurrence (P = 0.003) and lower overall survival (P = 0.05) at 5 years. CONCLUSION: High densities of liver-infiltrating lymphocytes in HCV-HCC cirrhotic parenchyma prevail inflammatory conditions and could contribute to tumorigenesis and tumour recurrence. These results could contribute towards better clinical evaluation of patients susceptible for HCC recurrence after curative surgery.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1111/liv.12927

  7 / 467503 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26646167
[Au] Autor:Lovreglio P; Doria D; Fracasso ME; Barbieri A; Sabatini L; Drago I; Violante FS; Soleo L
[Ad] Address:Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Occupational Medicine "E.C. Vigliani," University of Bari, Bari, Italy....
[Ti] Title:DNA damage and repair capacity in workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene.
[So] Source:Environ Mol Mutagen;57(2):151-8, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2280
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:DNA damage and cellular repair capacity were studied in 18 male fuel tanker drivers and 13 male filling-station attendants exposed to low and very low concentrations of benzene, respectively, and compared to 20 males with no occupational exposure (controls). Exposure to airborne benzene was measured using passive personal samplers, and internal doses were assayed through the biomarkers t,t-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid and urinary benzene. DNA damage was evaluated using tail intensity (TI) determined by the comet assay in peripheral lymphocytes. Urinary 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative damage. DNA repair kinetics were assessed using the comet assay in lymphocytes sampled 20 and 60 min post H2O2 exposure. Benzene exposure differed significantly between the drivers (median 246.3 µg/m(3)), attendants (median 13.8 µg/m(3)), and controls (median 4.1 µg/m(3)). There were no differences in TI and 8-oxodG among the three groups, or between smokers and non-smokers. DNA repair kinetics were similar among the drivers, attendants and controls, although the comet assay on H2 O2 -damaged lymphocytes after 60 min revealed significantly lower levels of TI only in drivers. The DNA repair process in smokers was similar to that observed in drivers. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between low levels of benzene exposure and DNA damage, although there was evidence that exposure interferes with DNA repair kinetics. The biological impact of this finding on the onset of genotoxic effects in exposed workers has still to be ascertained.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1002/em.21990

  8 / 467503 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26830877
[Au] Autor:Ménager MM; Littman DR
[Ad] Address:Molecular Pathogenesis Program, The Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine of the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address: mickael.menager@med.nyu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Actin Dynamics Regulates Dendritic Cell-Mediated Transfer of HIV-1 to T Cells.
[So] Source:Cell;164(4):695-709, 2016 Feb 11.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4172
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Whereas human dendritic cells (DCs) are largely resistant to productive infection with HIV-1, they have a unique ability to take up the virus and transmit it efficiently to T lymphocytes through a process of trans-infection or trans-enhancement. To elucidate the molecular and cell biological mechanism for trans-enhancement, we performed an shRNA screen of several hundred genes involved in organelle and membrane trafficking in immature human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). We identified TSPAN7 and DNM2, which control actin nucleation and stabilization, as having important and distinct roles in limiting HIV-1 endocytosis and in maintaining virus particles on dendrites, which is required for efficient transfer to T lymphocytes. Further characterization of this process may provide insights not only into the role of DCs in transmission and dissemination of HIV-1 but also more broadly into mechanisms controlling capture and internalization of pathogens.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Cu] Class update date: 160214
[Lr] Last revision date:160214
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  9 / 467503 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26764148
[Au] Autor:Begieneman MP; Emmens RW; Rijvers L; Kubat B; Paulus WJ; Vonk AB; Rozendaal L; Biesbroek PS; Wouters D; Zeerleder S; van Ham M; Heymans S; van Rossum AC; Niessen HW; Krijnen PA
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; ICaR-VU, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Dutch Forensic Institute, The Hague, the Netherlands....
[Ti] Title:Ventricular myocarditis coincides with atrial myocarditis in patients.
[So] Source:Cardiovasc Pathol;25(2):141-8, 2016 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1336
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication in myocarditis. Atrial inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of AF. However, little is known about the occurrence of atrial inflammation in myocarditis patients. Here, we analyzed inflammatory cell numbers in the atria of myocarditis patients without symptomatic AF. METHODS: Cardiac tissue was obtained postmortem from lymphocytic myocarditis patients (n=6), catecholamine-induced myocarditis patients (n=5), and control patients without pathological evidence of heart disease (n=5). Tissue sections of left and right ventricle and left and right atrium were stained for myeloperoxidase (neutrophilic granulocytes), CD45 (lymphocytes), and CD68 (macrophages). These cells were subsequently quantified in atrial and ventricular myocardium and atrial adipose tissue. RESULTS: In lymphocytic myocarditis patients, a significant increase was observed for lymphocytes in the left atrial adipose tissue. In catecholamine-induced myocarditis patients, significant increases were found in the atria for all three inflammatory cell types. Infiltrating inflammatory cell numbers in the atrial myocardium correlated positively with those in the ventricles, especially in catecholamine-induced myocarditis patients. CONCLUSIONS: To a varying extent, atrial myocarditis occurs concurrently with ventricular myocarditis in patients diagnosed with myocarditis of different etiology. This provides a substrate that potentially predisposes myocarditis patients to the development of AF and subsequent complications such as sudden cardiac death and heart failure.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 467503 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26488187
[Au] Autor:Muir R; Osbourn M; Dubois AV; Doran E; Small DM; Monahan A; O'Kane CM; McAllister K; Fitzgerald DC; Kissenpfennig A; McAuley DF; Ingram RJ
[Ad] Address:1 Centre for Infection and Immunity, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom; and....
[Ti] Title:Innate Lymphoid Cells Are the Predominant Source of IL-17A during the Early Pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
[So] Source:Am J Respir Crit Care Med;193(4):407-16, 2016 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1535-4970
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE: IL-17A is purported to help drive early pathogenesis in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by enhancing neutrophil recruitment. Although IL-17A is the archetypal cytokine of T-helper 17 cells, it is produced by a number of lymphocytes, the source during ARDS being unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify the cellular source and the role of IL-17A in the early phase of lung injury. METHODS: Lung injury was induced in wild-type (C57BL/6) and IL-17 knockout (KO) mice with aerosolized LPS (100 µg) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Detailed phenotyping of the cells expressing RORγt, the transcriptional regulator of IL-17 production, in the mouse lung at 24 hours was performed by flow cytometry. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A 100-fold reduction in neutrophil infiltration was observed in the lungs of the IL-17A KO compared with wild-type mice. The majority of RORγt(+) cells in the mouse lung were the recently identified group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). Detailed characterization revealed these pulmonary ILC3s (pILC3s) to be discrete from those described in the gut. The critical role of these cells was verified by inducing injury in recombinase-activating gene 2 KO mice, which lack T cells but retain innate lymphoid cells. No amelioration of pathology was observed in the recombinase-activating gene 2 KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: IL-17 is rapidly produced during lung injury and significantly contributes to early immunopathogenesis. This is orchestrated largely by a distinct population of pILC3s. Modulation of the activity of pILC3s may potentiate early control of the inflammatory dysregulation seen in ARDS, opening up new therapeutic targets.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1164/rccm.201410-1782OC


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