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[PMID]: 25014309
[Au] Autor:Pandeló José D; Bartholomeeusen K; da Cunha RD; Abreu CM; Glinski J; da Costa TB; Bacchi Rabay AF; Pianowski Filho LF; Dudycz LW; Ranga U; Peterlin BM; Pianowski LF; Tanuri A; Aguiar RS
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil....
[Ti] Title:Reactivation of latent HIV-1 by new semi-synthetic ingenol esters.
[So] Source:Virology;462-463:328-39, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0341
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The ability of HIV to establish long-lived latent infection is mainly due to transcriptional silencing of viral genome in resting memory T lymphocytes. Here, we show that new semi-synthetic ingenol esters reactivate latent HIV reservoirs. Amongst the tested compounds, 3-caproyl-ingenol (ING B) was more potent in reactivating latent HIV than known activators such as SAHA, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate, TNF-α, PMA and HMBA. ING B activated PKC isoforms followed by NF-κB nuclear translocation. As virus reactivation is dependent on intact NF-κB binding sites in the LTR promoter region ING B, we have shown that. ING B was able to reactivate virus transcription in primary HIV-infected resting cells up to 12 fold and up to 25 fold in combination with SAHA. Additionally, ING B promoted up-regulation of P-TEFb subunits CDK9/Cyclin T1. The role of ING B on promoting both transcription initiation and elongation makes this compound a strong candidate for an anti-HIV latency drug combined with suppressive HAART.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 441135 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24983309
[Au] Autor:Kato T; Okumi M; Tanemura M; Yazawa K; Kakuta Y; Yamanaka K; Tsutahara K; Doki Y; Mori M; Takahara S; Nonomura N
[Ad] Address:1 Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan. 2 Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Hiroshima, Japan. 3 Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan. 4 Advanced Technology for Transplantation, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan. 5 Address correspondence to: Masayoshi Okumi, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 E4 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; Masahiro Tanemura, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, 3-1 Aoyamacho, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0023, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Suppress Acute Cellular Rejection by TSG-6 and CD44 Interaction in Rat Kidney Transplantation.
[So] Source:Transplantation;98(3):277-84, 2014 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:1534-6080
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In addition to its abundance and easy accessibility, adipose tissue yields more potent immunoregulatory stem cells (adipose tissue-derived stem cells, ADSCs) than does bone marrow. However, the beneficial effects of ADSCs on alloreactivity are scarcely known. This study evaluated the beneficial effects of ADSCs in rat kidney transplantation and analyzed the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: Dark Agouti rat kidneys were transplanted into Lewis rats. Autologous ADSCs (2×10) were injected through the left renal artery of the donors before the nephrectomy (ADSCs group). Graft survival, histologic changes, and the expression of several cytokines and proteins were assessed. In an in vitro experiment, the immunosuppressive capacity of ADSCs was tested in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. RESULTS: Histologic findings of the ADSCs group revealed a reduced rejection grade, whereas the number of infiltrated CD4/CD8 T cells was also significantly decreased as compared to the control. Relative to these findings, injection of ADSCs led to a significantly prolonged mean graft survival compared with the control. In vitro, autologous ADSCs dose-dependently suppressed alloreactive lymphocytes. Moreover, ADSCs increased the level of tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6) in mixed lymphocyte reaction, which has an anti-inflammatory capacity. Recombinant TSG-6 markedly suppressed alloreactive T cells through downregulating CD44, which may lead to the suppression of T-cell activation and infiltration into allografts. CONCLUSION: Our findings clearly showed that ADSCs attenuated acute rejection by secreting TSG-6 as well as through direct cell interaction. These findings contribute to the clinical application of these cells in solid organ transplantation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000000230

  3 / 441135 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25090641
[Au] Autor:Cho SH; Oh SY; Lane AP; Lee J; Oh MH; Lee S; Zheng T; Zhu Z
[Ad] Address:Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea....
[Ti] Title:Regulation of Nasal Airway Homeostasis and Inflammation in Mice by SHP-1 and Th2/Th1 Signaling Pathways.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(8):e103685, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease orchestrated by Th2 lymphocytes. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 is known to be a negative regulator in the IL-4α/STAT-6 signaling pathway of the lung. However, the role of SHP-1 enzyme and its functional relationship with Th2 and Th1 cytokines are not known in the nasal airway. In this study, we aimed to study the nasal inflammation as a result of SHP-1 deficiency in viable motheaten (mev) mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Cytology, histology, and expression of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed to define the nature of the nasal inflammation. Targeted gene depletion of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13) cytokines was used to identify the critical pathways involved. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were studied to demonstrate the clearance mechanism of recruited inflammatory cells into the nasal airway. We showed here that mev mice had a spontaneous allergic rhinitis-like inflammation with eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia, up-regulation of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), chemokines (eotaxin), and MMPs. All of these inflammatory mediators were clearly counter-regulated by Th2 and Th1 cytokines. Deletion of IFN-γ gene induced a strong Th2-skewed inflammation with transepithelial migration of the inflammatory cells. These findings suggest that SHP-1 enzyme and Th2/Th1 paradigm may play a critical role in the maintenance of nasal immune homeostasis and in the regulation of allergic rhinitis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103685

  4 / 441135 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25090630
[Au] Autor:Cao Y; Rathmell JC; Macintyre AN
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Department of Immunology, Sarah W. Stedman Center for Nutrition and Metabolism, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Metabolic Reprogramming towards Aerobic Glycolysis Correlates with Greater Proliferative Ability and Resistance to Metabolic Inhibition in CD8 versus CD4 T Cells.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(8):e104104, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:T lymphocytes (T cells) undergo metabolic reprogramming after activation to provide energy and biosynthetic materials for growth, proliferation and differentiation. Distinct T cell subsets, however, adopt metabolic programs specific to support their needs. As CD4 T cells coordinate adaptive immune responses while CD8 T cells become cytotoxic effectors, we compared activation-induced proliferation and metabolic reprogramming of these subsets. Resting CD4 and CD8 T cells were metabolically similar and used a predominantly oxidative metabolism. Following activation CD8 T cells proliferated more rapidly. Stimulation led both CD4 and CD8 T cells to sharply increase glucose metabolism and adopt aerobic glycolysis as a primary metabolic program. Activated CD4 T cells, however, remained more oxidative and had greater maximal respiratory capacity than activated CD8 T cells. CD4 T cells were also associated with greater levels of ROS and increased mitochondrial content, irrespective of the activation context. CD8 cells were better able, however, to oxidize glutamine as an alternative fuel source. The more glycolytic metabolism of activated CD8 T cells correlated with increased capacity for growth and proliferation, along with reduced sensitivity of cell growth to metabolic inhibition. These specific metabolic programs may promote greater growth and proliferation of CD8 T cells and enhance survival in diverse nutrient conditions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104104

  5 / 441135 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25093086
[Au] Autor:Zhang Y; Wang Q; Xie Y; Wang Z; Li D; Ma L; Pang X; Yu W; Zhong N
[Ad] Address:1 Department of ENT & Head & Neck Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing 210002, China ; 2 The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical School, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou 510120, China....
[Ti] Title:The normative value of inflammatory cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults: a pilot study.
[So] Source:J Thorac Dis;6(7):905-12, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:2072-1439
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To establish stable, well-accepted nasal perfusion and a normative value of classifying cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 500 healthy adults were divided into two groups of 250 people per group (group A, 16-30 years old and group B, 31-60 years old; male-to-female ratio, 1:1). All volunteers were non-smokers; they were irrigated with saline, and multiple inflammatory cells in the perfusate were analyzed. RESULTS: Irrigation was successfully performed in 479 cases, a success rate of 95.80%. The types of inflammatory cells showed a skewed distribution. The median number and interquartile range (IQR) of eosinophils were 0 and 0.2, respectively. These values were 0.4 and 2.2, respectively, for neutrophils and 0 and 0, respectively, for both lymphocytes and macrophages. There was no significant difference between males and females (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in the numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the different age groups (P=0.000), but there was no significant difference in the numbers of eosinophils and macrophages (P>0.05). The 95% unilateral upper limited values (UULVs) of eosinophils and neutrophils in the nasal perfusates were 2.99 and 14.94, respectively, for group A and 1.41 and 17.08 for group B. As a result, the total 95% UULVs of eosinophils and neutrophils in the nasal perfusate were 2.00 and 16.80. CONCLUSIONS: We established stable, well-accepted nasal perfusions and normal values for classifying the cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults; the normative values of the inflammatory cells in nasal perfusate are 2.00 for the 95% UULV of eosinophils and 16.80 for neutrophils. Age might be one of the factors affecting the cells in rhinitis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140805
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.06.45

  6 / 441135 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24964870
[Au] Autor:Guan S; Fang B; Song B; Xiong Y; Lu J
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education College of Veterinary Medicine and.
[Ti] Title:Immunosuppressive activity of alpinetin on activation and cytokines secretion of murine T lymphocytes.
[So] Source:Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol;36(4):290-6, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2513
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Abstract Alpinetin, a flavonoid compound extracted from the seeds of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been known to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. In the current study, we investigated alpinetin for its immunosuppressive effect on activation and cytokines secretion of murine T lymphocytes. The data showed that alpinetin markedly suppressed ConA-induced murine splenocyte proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokines production, CD4(+) T-cell populations and ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+). This inspired us to further study the effects of alpinetin in vivo. The results showed that administration of alpinetin suppressed T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice. In addition, we studied signal transduction pathways about T-cell activation on puried murine T lymphocytes by Western-blot assay. The data revealed that alpinetin could shock the activation of NF-κB, NFAT2 signal transduction pathways. These observations indicated that alpinetin have potential effects in downregulating the immune system and might be developed as a useful immunosuppressive agent in treating undesired immune responses.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3109/08923973.2014.932798

  7 / 441135 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24953123
[Au] Autor:Salimian J; Arefpour MA; Riazipour M; Poursasan N
[Ad] Address:Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran .
[Ti] Title:Immunomodulatory effects of selenium and vitamin E on alterations in T lymphocyte subsets induced by T-2 toxin.
[So] Source:Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol;36(4):275-81, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2513
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:UNLABELLED: Abstract Context: T-2 toxin, a potent mycotoxin, has serious effects on immune system. OBJECTIVE: Here, the effects of a sublethal dose of this toxin on T lymphocyte sub-population levels and the potential protective effects from treatment with selenium or vitamin E were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After having determined the sublethal dose of the T-2 toxin in Balb/c mice hosts, the post-injection kinetics of changes in T lymphocyte sub-population (CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells) profiles were analyzed via flow cytometry. For these studies, the selenium and vitamin E were either provided to the mice before or concurrent with the toxin. RESULTS: The results show that after a sublethal dose of T-2 alone, the number of CD8(+) T-lymphocytes was significantly decreased at 12 h and normalized at 48 h. In contrast, level of CD3(+) and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes were significantly increased at 24 h and returned to normal after 48 h. When selenium was injected into the mice 24 h before or concurrent with the T-2, the effects on CD8(+) cells were mitigated. Oddly, only when the selenium was given with the toxin could the effects on the CD3(+) and CD4(+) cells be altered. Vitamin E, when injected 24 h before or concurrent with the T-2 toxin, was only able to impact upon the CD8(+) lymphocyte alterations induced by the toxin. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with vitamin E, it seems that selenium could assert an important effect against the immunotoxic effects of T-2 toxin against T lymphocytes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3109/08923973.2014.931420

  8 / 441135 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24847763
[Au] Autor:Buchta CM; Bishop GA
[Ad] Address:Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA.
[Ti] Title:Toll-like receptors and B cells: functions and mechanisms.
[So] Source:Immunol Res;59(1-3):12-22, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1559-0755
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Numerous reports have described Toll-like receptor (TLR) functions in myeloid cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, but relatively fewer studies have examined TLR responses in B lymphocytes. B cells express a wide variety of TLRs and are highly activated after TLR ligation, leading to enhancements in B cell survival, surface molecule expression, cytokine and antibody production, and antigen presentation. During an immune response, B cells can receive signals through TLRs as well as the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and/or CD40. TLR ligation synergizes with signals through these receptors and augments both innate and adaptive immune functions of B lymphocytes. Additionally, targeting B cell TLRs may provide new therapies against certain types of cancer as well as autoimmune diseases. Here, we summarize TLR expression and contributions to both normal and pathogenic functions in mouse and human B cells.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12026-014-8523-2

  9 / 441135 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24862743
[Au] Autor:Geskin LJ; Akilov OE; Lin Y; Lokshin AE
[Ad] Address:Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Dermatology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
[Ti] Title:Distinct age-matched serum biomarker profiles in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
[So] Source:Exp Dermatol;23(8):598-600, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0625
[Cp] Country of publication:Denmark
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Immunological functions decline with age. Because MS/SzS predominately affects the elderly, it is important to distinguish age-related from cancer-specific changes. Also, MF and SzS are malignancies of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes, further compromising an immune state of the patients. The objectives of this study were to distinguish disease-specific immunological deterioration by performing comparative age-matched Luminex multiplex assessment of 34 serum biomarkers between patients with MF/SzS, HIV-infected individuals and normal controls. Controlling for age, expression level appears to significantly differ between patients with MF/SzS and controls for the following biomarkers: G-CSF, IL-5, MIP-1ß, TNF-α, VEGF, EOTAXIN, IL-8, IL-12, IL-2R, IP10, MCP-1, MIG, TNFR1 and TNFR2 (P < 0.05), while others showed normal age-related changes. Interestingly, cluster analysis placed MF/SzS profiles closer to HIV. This further underscores an immunologically compromised state of patients with MF/SzS and suggests its potential self-perpetuating role in disease progression.
[Pt] Publication type:LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/exd.12455

  10 / 441135 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25093131
[Au] Autor:Gonzalez-Ibarra F; Abdul W; Eivaz-Mohammadi S; Foscue C; Gongireddy S; Syed A
[Ad] Address:Department of Internal Medicine, Jersey City Medical Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 355 Grand Street, Jersey City, NJ 07302, USA....
[Ti] Title:Cerebellar Dysfunction in a Patient with HIV.
[So] Source:Case Rep Neurol Med;2014:180743, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2090-6668
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A 50-year-old AIDS patient with a CD4 T-cell count of 114/mm(3) was admitted with cerebellar symptoms of left CN XI weakness, wide-based gait with left-sided dysmetria, abnormal heel-knee-shin test, and dysdiadochokinesia. MRI showed region of hyperintensity in the left inferior cerebellar hemisphere involving the cortex and underlying white matter. Serological tests for HSV1, HSV2, and syphilis were negative. Her CSF contained high protein content and a WBC of 71/mm(3), predominantly lymphocytes. The CSF was also negative for cryptococcal antigen and VDRL. CSF culture did not grow microbes. CSF PCR assay was negative for HSV1 and HSV2 but was positive for JC virus (1,276 copies). The most likely diagnosis is granule cell neuronopathy (GCN), which can only be definitively confirmed with biopsy and immunohistochemistry.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140805
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1155/2014/180743


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