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[PMID]: 29189770
[Au] Autor:Pechkova E; Nicolini C
[Ad] Address:Laboratories of Biophysics and Nanotechnology, University of Genoa Medical School, Genoa, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Langmuir-Blodgett nanotemplates for protein crystallography.
[So] Source:Nat Protoc;12(12):2570-2589, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1750-2799
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The new generation of synchrotrons and microfocused beamlines has enabled great progress in X-ray protein crystallography, resulting in new 3D atomic structures for proteins of high interest to the pharmaceutical industry and life sciences. It is, however, often still challenging to produce protein crystals of sufficient size and quality (order, intensity of diffraction, radiation stability). In this protocol, we provide instructions for performing the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) nanotemplate method, a crystallization approach that can be used for any protein (including membrane proteins). We describe how to produce highly ordered 2D LB protein monolayers at the air-water interface and deposit them on glass slides. LB-film formation can be observed by surface-pressure measurements and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), although its quality can be characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanogravimetry. Such films are then used as a 2D template for triggering 3D protein crystal formation by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. The procedure for forming the 2D template takes a few minutes. Structural information about the protein reorganization in the LB film during the crystallization process on the nano level can be obtained using an in situ submicron GISAXS (grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering) method. MicroGISAXS spectra, measured directly at the interface of the LB films and protein solution in real time, as described in this protocol, can be interpreted in terms of the buildup of layers, islands, or holes. In our experience, the obtained LB crystals take 1-10 d to prepare and they are more ordered and radiation stable as compared with those produced using other crystallization methods.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Crystallization/methods
Crystallography, X-Ray/methods
Nanostructures/chemistry
Proteins/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cattle
Chickens
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme/chemistry
Crystallization/instrumentation
Crystallography, X-Ray/instrumentation
Equipment Design
Marantaceae/chemistry
Models, Molecular
Muramidase/chemistry
Plant Proteins/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (Proteins); 53850-34-3 (thaumatin protein, plant); EC 1.14.15.6 (Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme); EC 3.2.1.17 (Muramidase)
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171219
[Lr] Last revision date:171219
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nprot.2017.108

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[PMID]: 28764073
[Au] Autor:Healey RD; Lebhar H; Hornung S; Thordarson P; Marquis CP
[Ad] Address:School of Chemistry, The Australian Centre for Nanomedicine and the ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: robert.healey@unsw.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:An improved process for the production of highly purified recombinant thaumatin tagged-variants.
[So] Source:Food Chem;237:825-832, 2017 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:0308-8146
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The sweetest tasting molecule known is the protein thaumatin, first isolated from the katemfe fruit, Thaumatococcus daniellii. Thaumatin is used in the food and beverage industry as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Thaumatin interacts with taste receptors in the oral cavity eliciting a persistent sweet taste and a bitter, liquorice flavor. Recombinant thaumatin was expressed in Pichia pastoris and through a co-expression strategy with a molecular chaperone, yields of one engineered thaumatin variant increased by greater than two-fold. A detailed purification strategy for thaumatin is reported resulting in a homogenous sample recovered at a yield of 42%. The recombinant thaumatins were extensively characterised using size exclusion chromatography for homogeneity, reversed-phase HPLC for purity (99%), peptide digest LC-MS/MS for sequence determination, and circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopies for conformational characterisation. These new thaumatin variants are amenable for bioconjugation, providing chemical biology tools for thaumatin:taste receptor interaction studies.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Plant Proteins/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Marantaceae
Pichia
Sweetening Agents
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (Sweetening Agents); 53850-34-3 (thaumatin protein, plant)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171031
[Lr] Last revision date:171031
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170803
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28319334
[Au] Autor:Fontana G; Gershlak J; Adamski M; Lee JS; Matsumoto S; Le HD; Binder B; Wirth J; Gaudette G; Murphy WL
[Ad] Address:Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, 53705, USA.
[Ti] Title:Biofunctionalized Plants as Diverse Biomaterials for Human Cell Culture.
[So] Source:Adv Healthc Mater;6(8), 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:2192-2659
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The commercial success of tissue engineering products requires efficacy, cost effectiveness, and the possibility of scaleup. Advances in tissue engineering require increased sophistication in the design of biomaterials, often challenging the current manufacturing techniques. Interestingly, several of the properties that are desirable for biomaterial design are embodied in the structure and function of plants. This study demonstrates that decellularized plant tissues can be used as adaptable scaffolds for culture of human cells. With simple biofunctionalization technique, it is possible to enable adhesion of human cells on a diverse set of plant tissues. The elevated hydrophilicity and excellent water transport abilities of plant tissues allow cell expansion over prolonged periods of culture. Moreover, cells are able to conform to the microstructure of the plant frameworks, resulting in cell alignment and pattern registration. In conclusion, the current study shows that it is feasible to use plant tissues as an alternative feedstock of scaffolds for mammalian cells.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cell Culture Techniques/methods
Marantaceae/chemistry
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/metabolism
Petroselinum/chemistry
Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cell Line
Humans
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/cytology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170630
[Lr] Last revision date:170630
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170321
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/adhm.201601225

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[PMID]: 27788347
[Au] Autor:Santana FD; Baccaro FB; Costa FR
[Ti] Title:Busy Nights: High Seed Dispersal by Crickets in a Neotropical Forest.
[So] Source:Am Nat;188(5):E126-E133, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1537-5323
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Among invertebrates, ants are the most abundant and probably most important seed dispersers in both temperate and tropical environments. Crickets, also abundant in tropical forests, are omnivores and commonly attracted to fruits on the forest floor. However, their capability to remove seeds has been reported only once. We compared Marantaceae seed removal by crickets and ants to assess the role of crickets as secondary seed dispersers in Amazonia. Compared with ants, crickets dispersed an equivalent number of seeds and tended to disperse larger seeds farther. However, seed removal by crickets occurs mostly at night, suggesting that removal of arillate seeds by crickets on the tropical forest floor is probably being overlooked or wrongly attributed to other invertebrate groups. One potential consequence of seed dispersal by crickets may be a change in the local spatial distribution of arillate-seed species, due to lower aggregation around ant nests.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1610
[Cu] Class update date: 161028
[Lr] Last revision date:161028
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 27594701
[Au] Autor:Benedict JC; Smith SY; Specht CD; Collinson ME; Leong-Skornicková J; Parkinson DY; Marone F
[Ad] Address:Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005, USA jcbenedi@umich.edu.
[Ti] Title:Species diversity driven by morphological and ecological disparity: a case study of comparative seed morphology and anatomy across a large monocot order.
[So] Source:AoB Plants;8, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2041-2851
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Phenotypic variation can be attributed to genetic heritability as well as biotic and abiotic factors. Across Zingiberales, there is a high variation in the number of species per clade and in phenotypic diversity. Factors contributing to this phenotypic variation have never been studied in a phylogenetic or ecological context. Seeds of 166 species from all eight families in Zingiberales were analyzed for 51 characters using synchrotron based 3D X-ray tomographic microscopy to determine phylogenetically informative characters and to understand the distribution of morphological disparity within the order. All families are distinguishable based on seed characters. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses show Zingiberaceae occupy the largest seed morphospace relative to the other families, and environmental analyses demonstrate that Zingiberaceae inhabit both temperate and tropical regions, while other Zingiberales are almost exclusively tropical. Temperate species do not cluster in morphospace nor do they share a common suite of character states. This suggests that the diversity seen is not driven by adaptation to temperate niches; rather, the morphological disparity seen likely reflects an underlying genetic plasticity that allowed Zingiberaceae to repeatedly colonize temperate environments. The notable morphoanatomical variety in Zingiberaceae seeds may account for their extraordinary ecological success and high species diversity as compared to other Zingiberales.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27469093
[Au] Autor:Cui X; Dai X; Khan KY; Li T; Yang X; He Z
[Ad] Address:Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.
[Ti] Title:Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution using magnesium-alginate/chitosan modified biochar microspheres derived from Thalia dealbata.
[So] Source:Bioresour Technol;218:1123-32, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2976
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using magnesium-alginate/chitosan modified biochar microspheres to enhance removal of phosphate from aqueous solution. The introduction of MgCl2 substantially increased surface area of biochar (116.2m(2)g(-1)), and both granulation with alginate/chitosan and modification with magnesium improved phosphate sorption on the biochars. Phosphate sorption on the biochars could be well described by a simple Langmuir model, and the MgCl2-alginate modified biochar microspheres exhibited the highest phosphate sorption capacity (up to 46.56mgg(-1)). The pseudo second order kinetic model better fitted the kinetic data, and both the Yoon-Nelson and Thomas models were superior to other models in describing phosphate dynamic sorption. Precipitation with minerals and ligand exchange were the possible mechanisms of phosphate sorption on the modified biochars. These results imply that MgCl2-alginate modified biochar microspheres have potential as a green cost-effective sorbent for remediating P contaminated water environment.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alginates/chemistry
Charcoal/chemistry
Chitosan/chemistry
Magnesium/chemistry
Marantaceae/chemistry
Microspheres
Phosphates/isolation & purification
Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adsorption
Crystallization
Glucuronic Acid/chemistry
Hexuronic Acids/chemistry
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Kinetics
Ligands
Solutions
Temperature
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alginates); 0 (Hexuronic Acids); 0 (Ligands); 0 (Phosphates); 0 (Solutions); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0 (biochar); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 8A5D83Q4RW (Glucuronic Acid); 8C3Z4148WZ (alginic acid); 9012-76-4 (Chitosan); I38ZP9992A (Magnesium)
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170110
[Lr] Last revision date:170110
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160730
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27354737
[Au] Autor:Koch K; Grichnik R
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Life Sciences, Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Marie Curie-Straße 1, 47533 Kleve, Germany koch@hochschule-rhein-waal.de.
[Ti] Title:Influence of surface structure and chemistry on water droplet splashing.
[So] Source:Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci;374(2073), 2016 Aug 06.
[Is] ISSN:1364-503X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Water droplet splashing and aerosolization play a role in human hygiene and health systems as well as in crop culturing. Prevention or reduction of splashing can prevent transmission of diseases between animals and plants and keep technical systems such as pipe or bottling systems free of contamination. This study demonstrates to what extent the surface chemistry and structures influence the water droplet splashing behaviour. Smooth surfaces and structured replicas of Calathea zebrina (Sims) Lindl. leaves were produced. Modification of their wettability was done by coating with hydrophobizing and hydrophilizing agents. Their wetting was characterized by contact angle measurement and splashing behaviour was observed with a high-speed video camera. Hydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces generally showed fewer tendencies to splash than hydrophobic ones. Structuring amplified the underlying behaviour of the surface chemistries, increasing hydrophobic surfaces' tendency to splash and decreasing splash on hydrophilic surfaces by quickly transporting water off the impact point by capillary forces. The non-porous surface structures found in C. zebrina could easily be applied to technical products such as plastic foils or mats and coated with hydrophilizing agents to suppress splash in areas of increased hygiene requirements or wherever pooling of liquids is not desirable.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Marantaceae/chemistry
Marantaceae/ultrastructure
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Plant Leaves/ultrastructure
Water/chemistry
Wettability
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biomimetic Materials/chemistry
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Materials Testing
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:059QF0KO0R (Water)
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 160629
[Lr] Last revision date:160629
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160630
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27336632
[Au] Autor:Cuni-Sanchez A; White LJ; Calders K; Jeffery KJ; Abernethy K; Burt A; Disney M; Gilpin M; Gomez-Dans JL; Lewis SL
[Ad] Address:Department of Geography, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(6):e0156934, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ecosystem
Forests
Grassland
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Africa
Biodiversity
Carbon/analysis
Carbon Cycle
Environmental Monitoring
Gabon
Geography
Plants
Soil
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil); 7440-44-0 (Carbon)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160624
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0156934

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[PMID]: 27011899
[Au] Autor:Ley AC; Hardy OJ
[Ad] Address:Institut für Geobotanik und Botanischer Garten, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Im Neuwerk 21, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany; Evolutionary Biology and Ecology, CP160/12, Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Polymorphic microsatellite loci for Haumania danckelmaniana and transferability to H. liebrechtsiana (Marantaceae).
[So] Source:Appl Plant Sci;4(3), 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:2168-0450
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite markers were developed for the species Haumania danckelmaniana (Marantaceae) from central tropical Africa. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microsatellite isolation was performed simultaneously on three different species of Marantaceae through a procedure that combines multiplex microsatellite enrichment and next-generation sequencing. From 80 primers selected for initial screening, 20 markers positively amplified in H. danckelmaniana, of which 10 presented unambiguous amplification products within the expected size range and eight were polymorphic with four to nine alleles per locus. Positive transferability with the related species H. liebrechtsiana was observed for the same 10 markers. CONCLUSIONS: The polymorphic microsatellite markers are suitable for studies in genetic diversity and structure, mating system, and gene flow in H. danckelmaniana and the closely related species H. liebrechtsiana.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1603
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160325
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26163566
[Au] Autor:Pepe LS; Moraes J; Albano KM; Telis VR; Franco CM
[Ad] Address:UNESP - São Paulo State University - Department of Food Engineering and Technology, São Paulo, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch.
[So] Source:Food Sci Technol Int;22(3):256-65, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1532-1738
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Hot Temperature
Marantaceae/chemistry
Rheology
Starch/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Carbohydrate Conformation
Food Analysis
Water
X-Ray Diffraction
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:059QF0KO0R (Water); 9005-25-8 (Starch)
[Em] Entry month:1612
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150712
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1082013215595147


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