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[PMID]: 28489889
[Au] Autor:Wardell R; Clements ACA; Lal A; Summers D; Llewellyn S; Campbell SJ; McCarthy J; Gray DJ; V Nery S
[Ad] Address:Department of Global Health, Research School of Population Health, College of Medicine, Biology and the Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
[Ti] Title:An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(5):e0005565, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH) deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial. Infection status was determined for Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Baseline infection data were linked to environmental data obtained for each household. Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with random effects at the village and household level were conducted, with all models adjusted for age and sex. For A. lumbricoides, being a school-aged child increased the odds of infection, whilst higher temperatures in the coolest quarter of the year, alkaline soils, clay loam/loam soils and woody savannas around households were associated with decreased infection odds. For N. americanus, greater precipitation in the driest month, higher average enhanced vegetation index, age and sandy loam soils increased infection odds, whereas being female and living at higher elevations decreased the odds of infection. Predictive risk maps generated for Manufahi based upon these final models highlight the high predicted risk of N. americanus infection across the district and the more focal nature of A. lumbricoides infection. The predicted risk of any STH infection is high across the entire district. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The widespread predicted risk of any STH infection in 6 to 18 year olds provides strong evidence to support strategies for control across the entire geographical area. As few studies include soil texture and pH in their analysis, this study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting these factors influence STH infection distribution. This study also further supports that A. lumbricoides prefers acidic soils, highlighting a potential relatively unexplored avenue for control. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ACTRN12614000680662.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ascariasis/epidemiology
Ascaris lumbricoides/isolation & purification
Environmental Exposure
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Ascariasis/parasitology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Feces/parasitology
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Necatoriasis/parasitology
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Risk Assessment
Timor-Leste/epidemiology
Topography, Medical
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170713
[Lr] Last revision date:170713
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170511
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005565

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[PMID]: 28077747
[Au] Autor:Pa Pa Aung W; Htoon TT; Tin HH; Sanpool O; Jongthawin J; Sadaow L; Phosuk I; Ropai R; Intapan PM; Maleewong W
[Ad] Address:Department of Parasitology and Research and Diagnostic Center for Emerging Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
[Ti] Title:First Molecular Identifications of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum Infecting Rural Communities in Lower Myanmar.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;96(1):214-216, 2017 Jan 11.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Hookworms are enteric parasitic roundworms infecting an estimated 400 million persons worldwide. Herein, we provide the first molecular identifications of human hookworms from certain parts of rural Lower Myanmar. DNA was extracted from hookworm-positive stool samples, as determined by microscopy. DNA sequences of the partial internal transcribed spacer 1, full length 5.8S gene, and partial internal transcribed spacer 2 were determined and compared with available hookworm sequences from public databases. Of the 11 polymerase chain reaction-positive samples, eight (Bago Region, N = 4; Mon State, N = 4) yielded sequences with high similarity to those of Necator americanus A further three sequences (Mon State, N = 2; Bago Region, N = 1) showed high similarity with those of Ancylostoma ceylanicum The latter is primarily a parasite of dogs and represents a zoonosis. Given that different species of hookworms exhibit different epidemiological and biological characteristics, accurate identification is essential for the planning and execution of effective control programs for hookworm infections.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ancylostoma/isolation & purification
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/epidemiology
Necatoriasis/parasitology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
DNA, Helminth/genetics
DNA, Helminth/isolation & purification
Feces/parasitology
Humans
Myanmar/epidemiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rural Population
Species Specificity
Zoonoses
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Helminth)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170531
[Lr] Last revision date:170531
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0610

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[PMID]: 27840196
[Au] Autor:Hasegawa H; Shigyo M; Yanai Y; McLennan MR; Fujita S; Makouloutou P; Tsuchida S; Ando C; Sato H; Huffman MA
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan. Electronic address: hasegawa@oita-u.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Molecular features of hookworm larvae (Necator spp.) raised by coproculture from Ugandan chimpanzees and Gabonese gorillas and humans.
[So] Source:Parasitol Int;66(2):12-15, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1873-0329
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Species composition of Necator hookworms was surveyed in (i) Ugandan chimpanzees living around farms and villages at Bulindi, (ii) Gabonese gorillas under habituation in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (MDNP), and (iii) Gabonese villagers living adjacent to MDNP. Internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of rDNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene of mtDNA were analyzed from larvae obtained by coproculture. Three ITS types (I, II and III) and three Cox1 haplotype groups (A, B and C) were demonstrated. ITS type I and Cox1 haplotype group A, representing Necator americanus, were demonstrated in the hookworm larvae from Gabonese gorillas and humans, but not from Ugandan chimpanzees. Type II and haplotype groups B and C, presumably representing N. gorillae, were found in larvae from Ugandan chimpanzees and Gabonese gorillas and humans. These features were overall similar with those found previously in the Central African Republic. Meanwhile, type III was proven in a larva from a Gabonese gorilla as the first demonstration from a non-human primate. Cox1 haplotypes obtained from Ugandan chimpanzees formed a subgroup within group B, presumably reflecting dispersal and diversification processes of the apes.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Feces/parasitology
Gorilla gorilla/parasitology
Necator/genetics
Necator/physiology
Pan troglodytes/parasitology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Ape Diseases/parasitology
Cyclooxygenase 1/genetics
Feeding Behavior
Gabon
Haplotypes
Humans
Larva/genetics
Larva/growth & development
Necator/isolation & purification
Necator americanus/genetics
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necator americanus/physiology
Necatoriasis/parasitology
Necatoriasis/veterinary
Seasons
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Uganda
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:EC 1.14.99.1 (Cyclooxygenase 1)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170413
[Lr] Last revision date:170413
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161115
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27259664
[Au] Autor:Kulkarni AP; Mittal SP
[Ad] Address:Bioinformatics Centre, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address: abhijeet@bioinfo.net.in.
[Ti] Title:Sequence data mining in search of hookworm (Necator americanus) microRNAs.
[So] Source:Gene;590(2):317-23, 2016 Sep 30.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0038
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The new world hookworm, Necator americanus is a soil-transmitted nematode responsible for Necatoriasis (a type of helminthiasis) in hosts such as humans, dogs, and cats. N. americanus genome and transcriptome has been sequenced and a draft assembly analysis has been published highlighting protein coding genes and possible drug target proteins. Hookworm microRNA identification, annotations and their public release is yet to be attempted. The same is evident from lack of hookworm miRNA information in related popular public nucleotide sequence repositories such as miRBase, GenBank, WormBase etc. Therefore, in the present study we addressed these issues using EST and assembled transcript sequence information of hookworm. Using computational approaches, we identified three miRNAs precursor sequences and their mature forms. We also identified their potential targets from hookworm ESTs and transcripts, and from human transcriptome. Overall, the results indicate presence of nematode specific miRNA homologs in N. americanus and shades light on their putative targets in worm itself and the human host.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Data Mining
MicroRNAs/genetics
Necator americanus/genetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Base Sequence
MicroRNAs/metabolism
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Phylogeny
Sequence Alignment
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (MicroRNAs)
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170130
[Lr] Last revision date:170130
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160605
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  5 / 368 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27053130
[Au] Autor:Na-Ek P; Sanpool O; Jongthawin J; Anamnart W; Intapan PM; Chamavit P; Maleewong W
[Ad] Address:School of Medicine, Walailak University, Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.
[Ti] Title:Restoration of hookworm egg development after prolonged storage in stool suspension.
[So] Source:Parasitol Res;115(7):2817-23, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1955
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Hookworm infection is still prevalent in southern Thailand despite control measures. Hookworm eggs submerged for an extended period under water from rainfall or in latrines may not survive, but they may recover their ability to develop into infective larvae when exposed to atmospheric air. This study examined the survival of the hookworm eggs in stool suspension and the restoration of development capability after prolonged storage. In stool mass, eggs developed normally and yielded infective filariform larvae (FL) in 7 days. On the contrary, in 1:10 stool suspension, hookworm eggs were found to remain at the 4-8 cell stage; degenerated eggs were observed after 15 days of storage, and the number of degenerated eggs reached 80 % on day 30. Aeration of the suspension, or transferring to a Petri dish or agar plate, restored the capacity of eggs stored for up to 15 days to develop into FL; thereafter, the capacity declined sharply. Retardation of egg development under water or in stool suspension may be due to a lack of atmospheric air. Use of "night soil" from latrines as fertilizer may be one factor in maintaining hookworm transmission, as worm eggs can undergo normal development upon exposure to atmospheric air.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ancylostomatoidea/growth & development
Feces/parasitology
Hookworm Infections/parasitology
Necator/growth & development
Necatoriasis/parasitology
Preservation, Biological/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Ancylostomatoidea/pathogenicity
Animals
Female
Hookworm Infections/epidemiology
Hookworm Infections/transmission
Humans
Larva
Necator/pathogenicity
Necatoriasis/epidemiology
Necatoriasis/transmission
Ovum/growth & development
Preservation, Biological/standards
Prevalence
Soil/parasitology
Suspensions
Thailand/epidemiology
Water/parasitology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil); 0 (Suspensions); 059QF0KO0R (Water)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160408
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00436-016-5031-4

  6 / 368 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26928141
[Au] Autor:Nair MG; Herbert DR
[Ad] Address:Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Immune polarization by hookworms: taking cues from T helper type 2, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages.
[So] Source:Immunology;148(2):115-24, 2016 06.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2567
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cellular and molecular investigation of parasitic helminth infections has greatly accelerated the understanding of type 2 immune responses. However, there remains considerable debate regarding the specific leucocytes that kill parasites and whether these mechanisms are distinct from those responsible for tissue repair. Herein, we chronicle discoveries over the past decade highlighting current paradigms in type 2 immunity with a particular emphasis upon how CD4(+) T helper type 2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages coordinately control helminth-induced parasitism. Primarily, this review will draw from studies of the murine nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which bears important similarities to the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Given that one or more hookworm species currently infect millions of individuals across the globe, we propose that vaccine and/or pharmaceutical-based cure strategies targeting these affected human populations should incorporate the conceptual advances outlined herein.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ancylostoma/immunology
Ancylostomiasis/immunology
Macrophages/immunology
Necator americanus/immunology
Necatoriasis/immunology
Nippostrongylus/immunology
Strongylida Infections/immunology
Th2 Cells/immunology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Antigens, Helminth/immunology
Cell Differentiation
Complement Pathway, Alternative
Humans
Immunity, Innate
Macrophage Activation
Macrophages/parasitology
Th2 Cells/parasitology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antigens, Helminth)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 171125
[Lr] Last revision date:171125
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160302
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/imm.12601

  7 / 368 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26858023
[Au] Autor:Kalousová B; Hasegawa H; Petrzelková KJ; Sakamaki T; Kooriyma T; Modrý D
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho tr. 1946/1, 612 42, Brno, Czech Republic. barafrikacar@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Adult hookworms (Necator spp.) collected from researchers working with wild western lowland gorillas.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;9:75, 2016 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In general, studies on the diversity of strongylid nematodes in endangered host species are complicated as material obtained by non-invasive sampling methods has limited value for generic and species identification. While egg morphology barely allows assignment to family, the morphology of cultivated infective third stage larvae provides a better resolution at the generic level but cannot be used for exact species identification. Morphology-based taxonomic approaches greatly depend on the examination of adult worms that are usually not available. METHODS: Hookworm parasites in two European researchers, who participated in gorilla research in the Central African Republic, were expelled after anthelmintic treatment to the faeces, collected and morphologically examined. A male worm discharged naturally from a wild bonobo (Pan paniscus) in Congo was also examined for comparison. RESULTS: Two species of Necator were identified in researchers' faecal material: Necator americanus (Stiles, 1902) and N. gorillae Noda & Yamada, 1964; the latter species differed in having a smaller body, smaller buccal cavity and shorter spicules with spade-shaped membranes situated distally. Males of N. gorillae also possessed unusual cuticular thickenings on the dorsal side of the prebursal region of the body. These characters, shared with the male worm from the bonobo, correspond well to the description of N. gorillae described from gorillas in Congo. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the morphology of the hookworms recovered in this study and previous molecular analyses of larvae developed from both humans and western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from this locality, we conclude that the researchers became infected with gorilla hookworms during their stay in the field. This is the first report of infection with a Necator species other than N. americanus in humans.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Necator/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Research Personnel
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Animals
Central African Republic
Gorilla gorilla
Humans
Necatoriasis/parasitology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1610
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-016-1357-0

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[PMID]: 26672231
[Au] Autor:Zhao JH; Zhan XD; Li CP
[Ti] Title:[One case of Necator americanus infection found under gastroscope].
[So] Source:Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi;33(4):318, 2015 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1000-7423
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Gastroscopes
Necator americanus
Necatoriasis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Cu] Class update date: 151217
[Lr] Last revision date:151217
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151218
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26546069
[Au] Autor:Mugambi RM; Agola EL; Mwangi IN; Kinyua J; Shiraho EA; Mkoji GM
[Ad] Address:Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), P.O. Box 54840, 00200, Nairobi, Kenya. jrobert.joseph65@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Development and evaluation of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique for the detection of hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in fecal samples.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;8:574, 2015 Nov 06.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Hookworm infection is a major concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in children and pregnant women. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are responsible for this condition. Hookworm disease is one of the Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are targeted for elimination through global mass chemotherapy. To support this there is a need for reliable diagnostic tools. The conventional diagnostic test, Kato-Katz that is based on microscopic detection of parasite ova in faecal samples, is not effective due to its low sensitivity that is brought about mainly by non-random distribution of eggs in stool and day to day variation in egg output. It is tedious, cumbersome to perform and requires experience for correct diagnosis. LAMP-based tests are simple, relatively cheap, offer greater sensitivity, specificity than existing tests, have high throughput capability, and are ideal for use at the point of care. METHODS: We have developed a LAMP diagnostic test for detection of hookworm infection in faecal samples. LAMP relies on auto cycling strand displacement DNA synthesis performed at isothermal temperature by Bst polymerase and a set of 4 specific primers. The primers used in the LAMP assay were based on the second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-2) region and designed using Primer Explorer version 4 Software. The ITS-2 region of the ribosomal gene (rDNA) was identified as a suitable target due to its low mutation rates and substantial differences between species. DNA was extracted directly from human faecal samples, followed by LAMP amplification at isothermal temperature of 63 °C for 1 h. Amplicons were visualized using gel electrophoresis and SYBR green dye. Both specificity and sensitivity of the assay were determined. RESULTS: The LAMP based technique developed was able to detect N. americanus DNA in faecal samples. The assay showed 100 % specificity and no cross-reaction was observed with other helminth parasites (S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura). The developed LAMP assay was 97 % sensitive and DNA at concentrations as low as 0.4 fg were amplified. CONCLUSION: The LAMP assay developed is an appropriate diagnostic method for the detection of N. americanus DNA in human stool samples because of its simplicity, low cost, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful diagnostic tool for use in disease control where infection intensities have been significantly reduced.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Feces/parasitology
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods
Necator americanus/isolation & purification
Necatoriasis/diagnosis
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Africa South of the Sahara
Animals
Costs and Cost Analysis
DNA Primers/genetics
DNA, Helminth/genetics
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics
Humans
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics
Necator americanus/genetics
Necatoriasis/parasitology
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics
Sensitivity and Specificity
Temperature
[Pt] Publication type:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA Primers); 0 (DNA, Helminth); 0 (DNA, Ribosomal Spacer)
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 151109
[Lr] Last revision date:151109
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151108
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-1183-9

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[PMID]: 26318523
[Au] Autor:Rey-Burusco MF; Ibáñez-Shimabukuro M; Gabrielsen M; Franchini GR; Roe AJ; Griffiths K; Zhan B; Cooper A; Kennedy MW; Córsico B; Smith BO
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de La Plata, CONICET-UNLP, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, calles 60 y 120, 1900-La Plata, Argentina.
[Ti] Title:Diversity in the structures and ligand-binding sites of nematode fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins revealed by Na-FAR-1 from Necator americanus.
[So] Source:Biochem J;471(3):403-14, 2015 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1470-8728
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins (FARs) comprise a family of unusual α-helix rich lipid-binding proteins found exclusively in nematodes. They are secreted into host tissues by parasites of plants, animals and humans. The structure of a FAR protein from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is available, but this protein [C. elegans FAR-7 (Ce-FAR-7)] is from a subfamily of FARs that does not appear to be important at the host/parasite interface. We have therefore examined [Necator americanus FAR-1 (Na-FAR-1)] from the blood-feeding intestinal parasite of humans, N. americanus. The 3D structure of Na-FAR-1 in its ligand-free and ligand-bound forms, determined by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography respectively, reveals an α-helical fold similar to Ce-FAR-7, but Na-FAR-1 possesses a larger and more complex internal ligand-binding cavity and an additional C-terminal α-helix. Titration of apo-Na-FAR-1 with oleic acid, analysed by NMR chemical shift perturbation, reveals that at least four distinct protein-ligand complexes can be formed. Na-FAR-1 and possibly other FARs may have a wider repertoire for hydrophobic ligand binding, as confirmed in the present study by our finding that a range of neutral and polar lipids co-purify with the bacterially expressed recombinant protein. Finally, we show by immunohistochemistry that Na-FAR-1 is present in adult worms with a tissue distribution indicative of possible roles in nutrient acquisition by the parasite and in reproduction in the male.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Host-Parasite Interactions
Necator americanus/metabolism
Necatoriasis/metabolism
Retinol-Binding Proteins/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Binding Sites
Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism
Caenorhabditis elegans/pathogenicity
Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/chemistry
Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism
Carrier Proteins/chemistry
Carrier Proteins/metabolism
Fatty Acids/chemistry
Fatty Acids/metabolism
Ligands
Necator americanus/chemistry
Necator americanus/pathogenicity
Necatoriasis/parasitology
Reproduction
Retinol-Binding Proteins/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins); 0 (Carrier Proteins); 0 (FAR protein, C elegans); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Ligands); 0 (Retinol-Binding Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 170922
[Lr] Last revision date:170922
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150831
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1042/BJ20150068


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