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[PMID]: 29258485
[Au] Autor:Aït Hamza M; Ali N; Tavoillot J; Fossati-Gaschignard O; Boubaker H; El Mousadik A; Mateille T
[Ad] Address:Faculté Des Sciences, Laboratoire LBVRN, Université Ibn Zohr, BP 8106, 80000, Agadir, Morocco. mohamed.aithamza@edu.uiz.ac.ma.
[Ti] Title:Diversity of root-knot nematodes in Moroccan olive nurseries and orchards: does Meloidogyne javanica disperse according to invasion processes?
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):41, 2017 Dec 19.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major pest of olive tree (Olea europaea ssp. europaea), especially in nurseries and high-density orchards. Soil samples were collected from main olive growing areas of Morocco, to characterize Meloidogyne species and to discuss the contribution of biotic and abiotic factors in their spatial distribution. RESULTS: RKN were found in 159 soil samples out of 305 from nurseries (52.1% occurrence) and in 11 out of 49 soil samples from orchards (23.2% occurrence). Biochemical and molecular characterisation (PAGE esterase and SCAR) revealed the dominance of M. javanica both in nurseries and orchards with minor presence of M. incognita only in nurseries, and M. arenaria in only one nursery. RKN were distributed on aggregated basis. Frequent presence of M. javanica in orchards might have come from nurseries. In contrast, the detection of M. incognita in nurseries alone suggests that this species could not reproduce in orchards because of either the competition with other plant-parasitic nematodes or unfit local habitats. The impact of environmental variables (climate, habitat origin and physicochemical characteristics of the substrates) on the distribution of Meloidogyne species is also discussed. CONCLUSION: Olive nurseries in Morocco are not able to guarantee the safety of rooted plants. As a result, olive production systems are exposed to strong RKN invasion risks. Consequently, the use of healthy substrates in nurseries may prevent plant-parasitic nematode induction in orchards.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Animal Distribution
Olea/parasitology
Plant Diseases/parasitology
Tylenchoidea/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Biota
Morocco
Plant Roots/parasitology
Soil/parasitology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0153-9

  2 / 3008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29517840
[Au] Autor:Talhinhas P; Loureiro A; Oliveira H
[Ad] Address:LEAF-Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa. Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal.
[Ti] Title:Olive anthracnose: a yield and oil quality degrading-disease caused by several species of Colletotrichum that differ in virulence, host preference and geographic distribution.
[So] Source:Mol Plant Pathol;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1364-3703
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Olive anthracnose causes fruit rot leading to its drop or mummification, resulting in yield losses and in the degradation of oil quality. Taxonomy and distribution: The disease is caused by diverse species of Colletotrichum, mostly clustering in the C. acutatum species complex. Colletotrichum nymphaeae and C. godetiae are the prevalent species in the Northern Hemisphere, while C. acutatum sensu stricto is the most frequent species in the Southern Hemisphere, although it is recently and quickly emerging in the Northern Hemisphere. The disease has been reported from all continents, but it attains higher incidence and severity in the West of the Mediterranean Basin, where it is endemic in traditional orchards of susceptible cultivars. Life cycle: The pathogens are able to survive on vegetative organs. On the fruit surface, infections remain quiescent until fruit maturity, when typical anthracnose symptoms develop. Under severe epidemics, defoliation and death of branches can also occur. Pathogen species differ in virulence, although this depends on the cultivar. CONTROL: The selection of resistant cultivars depends strongly on pathogen diversity and environmental conditions, posing added difficulties to breeding efforts. Chemical disease control is normally achieved with copper-based fungicides, although it may be insufficient under highly favourable disease conditions and causes concern because of the presence of fungicide residues in the oil. In areas where the incidence is high, farmers tend to anticipate harvest, with consequences in yield and oil characteristics. Challenges: Olive production systems, harvest and post-harvest processing are experiencing profound changes in recent years, namely new training systems using specific cultivars, new harvest and processing techniques and new organoleptic market requests. Changes are also occurring both on the geographical distribution of pathogen populations and on the taxonomic framework. Also, stricter rules concerning pesticide use are likely to have a strong impact on control strategies. A detailed knowledge of pathogen diversity, population dynamics and host-pathogen interactions is basal for the deployment of durable and effective disease control strategies, whether based on resistance breeding, agronomic practices or biological or chemical control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/mpp.12676

  3 / 3008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29430657
[Au] Autor:Jensen MR; Goblirsch BR; Esler MA; Christenson JK; Mohamed FA; Wackett LP; Wilmot CM
[Ad] Address:Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, USA.
[Ti] Title:The role of OleA His285 in orchestration of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A substrates.
[So] Source:FEBS Lett;, 2018 Feb 11.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3468
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Renewable production of hydrocarbons is being pursued as a petroleum-independent source of commodity chemicals and replacement for biofuels. The bacterial biosynthesis of long-chain olefins represents one such platform. The process is initiated by OleA catalyzing the condensation of two fatty acyl-coenzyme A substrates to form a ß-keto acid. Here, the mechanistic role of the conserved His285 is investigated through mutagenesis, activity assays, and X-ray crystallography. Our data demonstrate that His285 is required for product formation, influences the thiolase nucleophile Cys143 and the acyl-enzyme intermediate before and after transesterification, and orchestrates substrate coordination as a defining component of an oxyanion hole. As a consequence, His285 plays a key role in enabling a mechanistic strategy in OleA that is distinct from other thiolases.
[Pt] Publication type:LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/1873-3468.13004

  4 / 3008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29424233
[Au] Autor:Johnson R; Melliou E; Zweigenbaum J; Mitchell AE
[Ad] Address:Department of Food Science and Technology , University of California, Davis , One Shields Avenue , Davis , California 95616 , United States.
[Ti] Title:Quantitation of Oleuropein and Related Phenolics in Cured Spanish-Style Green, California-Style Black Ripe, and Greek-Style Natural Fermentation Olives.
[So] Source:J Agric Food Chem;66(9):2121-2128, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1520-5118
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Oleuropein, ligstroside, and related hydrolysis products are key contributors to olive bitterness, and several of these phenolics are implicated in the prevention of lifestyle age-related diseases. While table olive processing methods are designed to reduce oleuropein, the impact of processing on ligstroside and related hydrolysis products (e.g., oleacein, oleocanthal, hydroxytyrosol glucoside, ligstroside aglycone, and oleuropein aglycone) is relatively unknown. Herein, levels of these compounds were measured in Spanish-style green (SP), Californian-style black ripe (CA), and Greek-style natural fermentation (GK) olives using rapid ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). GK olives had the highest concentration of all compounds measured, with the exception of oleocanthal, which was highest in SP olives (0.081 mg kg wet weight (w.wt)). CA olives had the lowest levels of most compounds measured, including ligstroside (0.115 mg kg w.wt) and oleuropein (0.974 mg kg w.wt). Hydroxytyrosol was the predominate compound in all three styles of commercial olives, with similar concentrations observed for GK and SP olives (134.329 and 133.685 mg kg w.wt, respectively) and significantly lower concentrations observed for CA olives (19.981 mg kg w.wt).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b06025

  5 / 3008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29500493
[Au] Autor:Gomes T; Pereira JA; Benhadi J; Lino-Neto T; Baptista P
[Ad] Address:School of Agriculture-Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, CIMO, Campus Sta Apolónia, 5300-253, Bragança, Portugal.
[Ti] Title:Endophytic and Epiphytic Phyllosphere Fungal Communities Are Shaped by Different Environmental Factors in a Mediterranean Ecosystem.
[So] Source:Microb Ecol;, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1432-184X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The diversity and factors influencing fungal assemblages in phyllosphere of Mediterranean tree species have been barely studied, especially when endophytic and epiphytic communities are simultaneously considered. In this work, the endophytic and epiphytic fungal communities from olive tree phyllosphere were studied. This tree species is natural from the Mediterranean region and adapted to grow under adverse climatic conditions. The main objectives were to determine whether there are differences between both fungal communities and to examine whether different abiotic (climate-related) and biotic (plant organs) factors play a pivotal role in structuring these communities. Both communities differed in size and composition, with epiphytic community being richer and more abundant, displaying also a dominance of melanized fungi. Season was the major driver of community composition, especially of epiphytes. Other drivers shaping epiphytes were wind speed and temperature, while plant organ, rainfall, and temperature were the major drivers for endophytic composition. In contrast, canopy orientation caused slight variations in community composition of fungi, but with distinct effects in spring and autumn seasons. In conclusion, epiphytic and endophytic communities are not driven by the same factors. Several sources of variation undergo complex interactions to form and maintain phyllosphere fungal community in Mediterranean climates. Climatic parameters have influence on these fungal communities, suggesting that they are likely to be affected by climate changes in a near future.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180303
[Lr] Last revision date:180303
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00248-018-1161-9

  6 / 3008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29495598
[Au] Autor:Gorzynik-Debicka M; Przychodzen P; Cappello F; Kuban-Jankowska A; Marino Gammazza A; Knap N; Wozniak M; Gorska-Ponikowska M
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk, Poland. gorzynikdebicka@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols.
[So] Source:Int J Mol Sci;19(3), 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1422-0067
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate), as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:In-Process

  7 / 3008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29450889
[Au] Autor:Kheirandish F; Mosaffa N; Tarahi MJ; Fallahi S
[Ad] Address:Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract alters the cytokine profile of Leishmania major-infected macrophages: New insight into the underlying mechanism.
[So] Source:Parasite Immunol;, 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3024
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study aimed to identify the effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on IFNγ, TNFα, TGFß, and nitric oxide (NO) resulted from macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) amastigotes in the culture medium. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the level of Oleuropein in plant extract. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of OLE, the isolated BALB/c mice peritoneal macrophages were infected with L. major promastigotes and treated with 6.25, 12.5, and 25µg/mL concentrations of OLE. To assess the cytokines, supernatants of cell cultures were harvested after 12, 24, and 48 h. Cytokine production was evaluated by ELISA. Nitrite accumulation in the culture medium was assessed using the Griess reaction. The level of Oleuropein in the extract was 18.45% by HPLC. According to results, the production of IFNγ and TNFα was significantly increased when the infected and/or not infected macrophages with L. major promastigotes were affected by different concentrations of OLE. Conversely, the production of TGFß was significantly decreased under the same conditions. Furthermore, the colorimetric determination of NO accumulation in the culture medium indicated that OLE has no effect on NO production. The study corroborates the immunomodulatory effects of OLE on L. major-infected macrophages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/pim.12520

  8 / 3008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29482995
[Au] Autor:Sofo A; Elshafie HS; Scopa A; Mang SM; Camele I
[Ad] Address:School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano, 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Impact of airborne zinc pollution on the antimicrobial activity of olive oil and the microbial metabolic profiles of Zn-contaminated soils in an Italian olive orchard.
[So] Source:J Trace Elem Med Biol;, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1878-3252
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The growing of microbial resistance leads to a great interest about some natural alternatives to synthetic compounds. This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Coratina) South Italy (Basilicata region), one located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory releasing Zn and the other in a control unpolluted site, both managed with similar cultivation techniques. Olive oil samples were studied from both areas during 2014 and 2015. The soil microbiological status of the polluted and unpolluted orchards has been characterized and the antimicrobial effects of olive oils extracted from polluted plants (PP) and control plants (CP) against some phytopathogens have been explored. Results showed that the antibacterial activity of PP oil was significantly higher than CP and this could be due to the high content of some phenolic compounds elicited by air and soil Zn pollution (especially in the layer 0-20 cm). There is no detectable antifungal activity of the studied oils. The metabolic activity (both total and for each carbon substrate group), diversity and evenness of PP soil bacterial communities were significantly different from CP soil, while the effects of soil depth was negligible. The same parameters measured on soil fungal communities are lower in PP soil at 0-20 cm soil depth. The current research clarified the impact of atmospheric Zn pollution on the antimicrobial activity of olive oil and the soil microbial metabolic profiles. The bioactive substances extracted from olive oils growing in Zn-polluted area might be used as antibiotics.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 3008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471862
[Au] Autor:Kidane L; Nemomissa S; Bekele T
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia. leulkw@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Human-Forest interfaces in Hugumburda-Gratkhassu National Forest Priority Area, North-eastern Ethiopia.
[So] Source:J Ethnobiol Ethnomed;14(1):17, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1746-4269
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Traditional management regimes and knowledge systems of forest resources have shaped forests throughout the world where materials from individual species are harvested in a sustainable manner. To comprehend this, the vegetation of Hugumburda-Gratkhassu Forest was described and related to anthropogenic factors. METHODS: Three ethnobotanical research methods were used to collect indigenous knowledge of the local inhabitants related to conservation and utilization of forest resources. Direct matrix ranking was conducted to discover local attitudes on species preference for multiple use. During this work, the 46 most important tree and shrub species were selected based on recommendations of local guides and key informants to determine the range of uses obtained from each species. Through paired comparison, activities supposed to be the major cause of degradation of the forest were adopted. Pairs of activities were then established from the relation n (n-1)/2. Each respondent was then asked to select an activity that he considered being a major problem to management of the forest. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain information from sixty local informants to address community attitudes towards forest management and utilization. RESULTS: The result obtained from direct matrix ranking showed; that 20 out of 46 plant species compared had the highest scores and rank, indicating that these species are the most important and are exploited by the local communities for multiple purposes. The paired comparison exercise revealed logging for construction materials to be the major threat to the forest due to cutting of large volume of wood for construction of churches, health centers, schools and new houses. Juniperus procera, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, Rhus glutinosa, Ficus sur, Hagenia abyssinica, Cassipourea malosana and Acacia etbaica were the most selected and exploited plant species for these purposes. CONCLUSIONS: Survival of protected areas depends on the support of local communities, rather than on fences, fines, or even force. The local communities in the study area have a rich indigenous ecological knowledge to suggest appropriate solutions for improvement of the forest resources. Thus the old tradition of isolating forests from the community has to be avoided and the basic needs and traditional rights of the communities over the uses of forest resources should be recognized.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13002-018-0218-7

  10 / 3008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29407548
[Au] Autor:Celeste Dias M; Pinto DCGA; Correia C; Moutinho-Pereira J; Oliveira H; Freitas H; Silva AMS; Santos C
[Ad] Address:Department of Life Sciences & CFE, Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal; Department of Chemistry & QOPNA, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address: celes
[Ti] Title:UV-B radiation modulates physiology and lipophilic metabolite profile in Olea europaea.
[So] Source:J Plant Physiol;222:39-50, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1618-1328
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation plays an important role in plant photomorphogenesis. Whilst the morpho-functional disorders induced by excessive UV irradiation are well-known, it remains unclear how this irradiation modulates the metabolome, and which metabolic shifts improve plants' tolerance to UV-B. In this study, we use an important Mediterranean crop, Olea europaea, to decipher the impacts of enhanced UV-B radiation on the physiological performance and lipophilic metabolite profile. Young olive plants (cv. 'Galega Vulgar') were exposed for five days to UV-B biologically effective doses of 6.5 kJ m d and 12.4 kJ m d . Cell cycle/ploidy, photosynthesis and oxidative stress, as well as GC-MS metabolites were assessed. Both UV-B treatments impaired net CO assimilation rate, transpiration rate, photosynthetic pigments, and RuBisCO activity, but 12.4 kJ m d also decreased the photochemical quenching (qP) and the effective efficiency of PSII (Φ ). UV-B treatments promoted mono/triperpene pathways, while only 12.4 kJ m d increased fatty acids and alkanes, and decreased geranylgeranyl-diphosphate. The interplay between physiology and metabolomics suggests some innate ability of these plants to tolerate moderate UV-B doses (6.5 kJ m d ). Also their tolerance to higher doses (12.4 kJ m d ) relies on plants' metabolic adjustments, where the accumulation of specific compounds such as long-chain alkanes, palmitic acid, oleic acid and particularly oleamide (which is described for the first time in olive leaves) play an important protective role. This is the first study demonstrating photosynthetic changes and lipophilic metabolite adjustments in olive leaves under moderate and high UV-B doses.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180225
[Lr] Last revision date:180225
[St] Status:In-Process


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