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[PMID]: 29467005
[Au] Autor:Rashid N; Gbedomon RC; Ahmad M; Salako VK; Zafar M; Malik K
[Ad] Address:Department of Botany, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
[Ti] Title:Traditional knowledge on herbal drinks among indigenous communities in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.
[So] Source:J Ethnobiol Ethnomed;14(1):16, 2018 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1746-4269
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Traditional knowledge about the use of medicinal plants for herbal drinks (HDs) is not well documented in the Azad Kashmir region despite their widespread use. This study highlights the taxonomic diversity and traditional knowledge on medicinal plants used for HDs while examining the diversity of diseases treated with HDs in the study area. METHODS: Individual discussions were conducted with 255 informants (84 women and 171 men). Data gathered included (i) informant age and gender, (ii) HD species and respective plant parts used, (iii) health disorders treated, and (iv) mode of preparation and utilizations. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices including relative frequency of citation (RFC), informant consensus factor (ICF), and use value (UV) were used for data analyses. RESULTS: Altogether, 73 medicinal plants belonging to 40 families and 66 genera were reported to be used in HD preparations, with Asteraceae being the richest family. The average number of HD species cited was 9.09 ± 0.17 per informant and did not vary either by age or gender. In addition, men and women, and adults and the young used the same pool of species (dissimilarity nearly zero). The most used plant parts were leaves (20.00%), roots (17.25%), and fruits (16.47%). Based on UV, the top five most used species were Valeriana jatamansi, Isodon rugosus, Onopordum acanthium, Acacia nilotica, and Viola canescens; and the UV was similar among gender and age categories too. The most utilized herbal preparation forms included decoctions, infusions, and tea. One hundred and eleven diseases grouped into 13 ailment categories were reported to be cured using HDs. The main category of disease treated with HDs was gastrointestinal (GIT) disorders (RFC = 17.43%). Relatively few species were used by a large proportion of informants for each category of ailment (ICF ≥ 0.60). Only one species was used for "glandular disorders" and "eye diseases" (ICF = 1). A novelty of about 22% (16 species) was recorded for HD species in the present work. CONCLUSION: The diversity of medicinal plant species used as HDs and the associated traditional knowledge are of considerable value to the indigenous communities of the Azad Kashmir region. Therefore, there is a need for conservation and preservation of medicinal HD species as well as the wealth of indigenous knowledge. The conservation effort should be high for species in the ailments categories glandular disorders and eye diseases. The therapeutic uses of HDs have provided basic data for further research focused on phytochemical and pharmacological studies and conservation of the most important species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13002-018-0217-8

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[PMID]: 29444678
[Au] Autor:Geraci A; Amato F; Di Noto G; Bazan G; Schicchi R
[Ad] Address:Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF), Sezione di Botanica ed Ecologia Vegetale, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 38, 90123, Palermo, Italy.
[Ti] Title:The wild taxa utilized as vegetables in Sicily (Italy): a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet.
[So] Source:J Ethnobiol Ethnomed;14(1):14, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1746-4269
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Wild vegetables in the Mediterranean Basin are still often consumed as a part of the diet and, in particular, there is a great tradition regarding their use in Sicily. In this study, an ethnobotanical field investigation was carried out to (a) identify the wild native taxa traditionally gathered and consumed as vegetables in Sicily, comparing the collected ethnobotanical data with those of other countries that have nominated the Mediterranean diet for inclusion in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity and (b) highlight new culinary uses of these plants. METHODS: Interviews were carried out in 187 towns and villages in Sicily between 2005 and 2015. A total of 980 people over the age of 50 were interviewed (mainly farmers, shepherds, and experts on local traditions). Plants recorded were usually collected in collaboration with the informants to confirm the correct identification of the plants. The frequencies of citation were calculated. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-three taxa (specific and intraspecific) belonging to 39 families, and 128 genera were recorded (26 were cited for the first time). The most represented families were Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Malvaceae, and Polygonaceae. Only 14 taxa were cited by 75% of the people interviewed. The aerial parts of wild plants, including leaves, tender shoots, and basal rosettes, are the main portions collected, while the subterranean parts are used to a lesser extent. For some vegetables, more parts are utilized. Most of the reported vegetables are consumed cooked. In addition to the widely known vegetables (Borago officinalis, Beta spp., Cichorium spp., Brassica spp., Carduus spp., etc.), the so-called ancient vegetables are included (Onopordum illyricum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Nasturtium officinale, Scolymus spp., Smyrnium rotundifolium), and some unique uses were described. Comparing the Sicilian findings to those from other countries, a very high number of vegetable taxa were detected, 72 of which are eaten only in Sicily, while 12 are consumed in all the Mediterranean countries examined. CONCLUSIONS: The research shows a high level of Sicilian knowledge about using wild plants as a traditional food source. Wild vegetables are healthy and authentic ingredients for local and ancient recipes, which are fundamental to the revitalization of quality food strictly connected to traditional agroecosystems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180218
[Lr] Last revision date:180218
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13002-018-0215-x

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[PMID]: 28989030
[Au] Autor:Móricz ÁM; Krüzselyi D; Alberti Á; Darcsi A; Horváth G; Csontos P; Béni S; Ott PG
[Ad] Address:Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Herman O. Str. 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address: moricz.agnes@agrar.mta.hu.
[Ti] Title:Layer chromatography-bioassays directed screening and identification of antibacterial compounds from Scotch thistle.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr A;1524:266-272, 2017 Nov 17.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3778
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The antibacterial profiling of Onopordum acanthium L. leaf extract and subsequent targeted identification of active compounds is demonstrated. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and off-line overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC) coupled with direct bioautography were utilized for investigation of the extract against eight bacterial strains including two plant and three human pathogens and a soil, a marine and a probiotic human gut bacteria. Antibacterial fractions obtaining infusion-transfusion OPLC were transferred to HPLC-MS/MS analysis that resulted in the characterization of three active compounds and two of them were identified as, linoleic and linolenic acid. OPLC method was adopted to preparative-scale flash chromatography for the isolation of the third active compound, which was identified after a further semi-preparative HPLC purification as the germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone onopordopicrin. Pure onopordopicrin exhibited antibacterial activity that was specified as minimal inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase as well.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171028
[Lr] Last revision date:171028
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 27924793
[Au] Autor:Rother C; Schnelle M
[Ti] Title:[Cardiodoron® bei Patienten mit Schlafstörungen - Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Beobachtungsstudie].
[So] Source:Complement Med Res;24(1):15-25, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2504-2106
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:Hintergrund: Schlafstörungen gehören zu den häufigsten gesundheitlichen Problemen der heutigen Zeit. Stress und die dadurch bedingte innere Anspannung sowie eine unrhythmische Lebensführung z.B. durch Schichtarbeit sind bekannte auslösende Faktoren. Weniger bekannt ist, dass auch funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden zu Störungen des Schlafs führen können und dass deren Behandlung zu einer Verbesserung der Schlafqualität beiträgt. Ganzheitlich betrachtet geht es daher um die Wiederherstellung einer gesunden Rhythmik, insbesondere des Herz-/Atem- sowie des Schlaf-Wach-Rhythmus, die Cardiodoron®, eine Heilpflanzenkomposition aus Primula veris, Hyoscyamus niger und Onopordum acanthium, unterstützt. Patienten und Methoden: Mittels einer prospektiven, multizentrischen Beobachtungsstudie sollte ermittelt werden, wie sich funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden und/oder Schlafstörungen unter der Behandlung mit Cardiodoron® (Dilution) über 3-6 Monate entwickeln. Im Zeitraum von September 2009 bis März 2012 dokumentierten 92 Ärzte 501 Patienten, von denen 380 über Schlafstörungen klagten und deren Daten in dieser Publikation näher betrachtet werden. Nach einer Aufnahmeuntersuchung erfolgte nach 90 Tagen eine Abschlussuntersuchung und bei Fortführung der Therapie nach nochmals 90 Tagen eine Follow-up-Untersuchung. Neben 30 ärztlicherseits bewerteten Symptomen beurteilten die Patienten ihr Befinden mittels Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) nach Buysse und der Beschwerden-Liste nach von Zerssen (B-L und B-L'). Ergebnisse: Unter der Cardiodoron®-Therapie gingen bei guter Verträglichkeit sowohl die Ausprägung der Schlafstörungen (um 65% von 2,0 auf 0,7 Punkte) als auch die erfassten 30 Symptome (um 59% von 24,3 auf 9,9 Punkte) deutlich zurück (p < 0,01). Weiterhin reduzierten sich der PSQI und der Gesamtwert der Beschwerden-Liste signifikant (p < 0,0001) um 60% bzw. 56% (von 12,2 auf 4,8 bzw. von 25,6 auf 11,4 Punkte). Schlussfolgerungen: Bei Patienten mit Schlafstörungen (mit oder ohne funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden) kann die Ausprägung der Beschwerden mit Cardiodoron® deutlich gesenkt werden. Cardiodoron® ist gut verträglich.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1612
[Cu] Class update date: 170305
[Lr] Last revision date:170305
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1159/000452236

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[PMID]: 27871974
[Au] Autor:Formisano C; Sanna C; Ballero M; Chianese G; Sirignano C; Rigano D; Millán E; Muñoz E; Taglialatela-Scafati O
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via D. Montesano, 49, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from Onopordum illyricum L. (Asteraceae), an Italian medicinal plant.
[So] Source:Fitoterapia;116:61-65, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6971
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Onopordum illyricum L. is a medicinal plant used in the Mediterranean area as antipyretic for the treatment of respiratory and urinary inflammations and to treat skin ulcers. Repeated chromatographic purification of O. illyricum aerial parts led to the isolation of six known sesquiterpenes, which were evaluated for the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3 and for the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the cellular antioxidant response. Structure-activity relationships were interpreted by the NMR-based cysteamine assay. The sesquiterpene lactone vernomelitensin significantly inhibited NF-κB and STAT3, showing also a significant Nrf2 activation. Accordingly, the cysteamine assay selected vernomelitensin as the most reactive of the isolated sesquiterpenes, identifying the α,ß-unsaturated aldehyde moiety as responsible for the higher (re)activity.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Lactones/pharmacology
Onopordum/chemistry
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification
HeLa Cells
Humans
Italy
Lactones/isolation & purification
Mice
Molecular Structure
NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors
NIH 3T3 Cells
Plant Components, Aerial/chemistry
STAT3 Transcription Factor/antagonists & inhibitors
Sesquiterpenes/isolation & purification
Structure-Activity Relationship
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Lactones); 0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (STAT3 Transcription Factor); 0 (Sesquiterpenes); 0 (vernomelitensin); 19889-00-0 (onopordopicrin)
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170118
[Lr] Last revision date:170118
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161123
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27604753
[Au] Autor:Álvarez-Torrellas S; Muñoz M; Zazo JA; Casas JA; García J
[Ad] Address:Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: satorrellas@ucm.es.
[Ti] Title:Synthesis of high surface area carbon adsorbents prepared from pine sawdust-Onopordum acanthium L. for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs adsorption.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;183:294-305, 2016 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chemically activated carbon materials prepared from pine sawdust-Onopordum acanthium L. were studied for the removal of diclofenac and naproxen from aqueous solution. Several carbons, using different proportions of precursors were obtained (carbon C1 to carbon C5) and the chemical modification by liquid acid and basic treatments of C1 were carried out. The textural properties of the carbons, evaluated by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, revealed that the treatments with nitric acid and potassium hydroxide dramatically reduced the specific surface area and the pore volume of the carbon samples. The surface chemistry characterization, made by thermal programmed decomposition studies, determination of isoelectric point and Boehm's titration, showed the major presence of lactone and phenol groups on the activated carbons surface, being higher the content when the acidic strength of the carbon increased. Diclofenac and naproxen kinetic data onto C1 carbon followed pseudo-second order model. The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of C1 and the modified carbons were well described by both Sips and GAB isotherm equations. The highest adsorption capacity was found for naproxen onto C1 activated carbon, 325 mg g(-1), since the liquid acid and basic functionalization of the carbon led to a severe decreasing in the adsorption removal of the target compounds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/isolation & purification
Carbon/analysis
Environmental Pollutants/isolation & purification
Onopordum/chemistry
Pinus/chemistry
Wood/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adsorption
Charcoal/chemistry
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Hydroxides/chemistry
Lactones/analysis
Models, Theoretical
Nitric Acid/chemistry
Phenol/analysis
Potassium Compounds/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal); 0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Hydroxides); 0 (Lactones); 0 (Potassium Compounds); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 339NCG44TV (Phenol); 411VRN1TV4 (Nitric Acid); 7440-44-0 (Carbon); WZH3C48M4T (potassium hydroxide)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170926
[Lr] Last revision date:170926
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160909
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26901188
[Au] Autor:Molnár J; Szebeni GJ; Csupor-Löffler B; Hajdú Z; Szekeres T; Saiko P; Ocsovszki I; Puskás LG; Hohmann J; Zupkó I
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacodynamics and Biopharmacy, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary. molnar.judit@pharm.u-szeged.hu.
[Ti] Title:Investigation of the Antiproliferative Properties of Natural Sesquiterpenes from Artemisia asiatica and Onopordum acanthium on HL-60 Cells in Vitro.
[So] Source:Int J Mol Sci;17(2):83, 2016 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1422-0067
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Plants and plant extracts play a crucial role in the research into novel antineoplastic agents. Four sesquiterpene lactones, artecanin (1), 3ß-chloro-4α,10α-dihydroxy-1α,2α-epoxy-5α,7αH-guaia-11(13)-en-12,6α-olide (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ether (3) and 4ß,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (4), were isolated from two traditionally used Asteraceae species (Onopordum acanthium and Artemisia asiatica). When tested for antiproliferative action on HL-60 leukemia cells, these compounds exhibited reasonable IC50 values in the range 3.6-13.5 µM. Treatment with the tested compounds resulted in a cell cycle disturbance characterized by increases in the G1 and G2/M populations, while there was a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, 1-3 elicited increases in the hypodiploid (subG1) population. The compounds elicited concentration-dependent chromatin condensation and disruption of the membrane integrity, as revealed by Hoechst 33258-propidium staining. Treatment for 24 h resulted in significant increases in activity of caspases-3 and -9, indicating that the tested sesquiterpenes induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The proapoptotic properties of the sesquiterpene lactones were additionally demonstrated withannexin V staining. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the Bax/Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expressions of CDK1 and cyclin B2, as determined at the mRNA level by means of RT-PCR. These experimental results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones may be regarded as potential starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Artemisia/chemistry
Cytostatic Agents/pharmacology
Onopordum/chemistry
Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry
Apoptosis
Caspase 3/metabolism
Caspase 9/metabolism
Cell Cycle/drug effects
Cytostatic Agents/chemistry
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects
HL-60 Cells
Humans
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Sesquiterpenes/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Cytostatic Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Sesquiterpenes); EC 3.4.22.- (CASP3 protein, human); EC 3.4.22.- (CASP9 protein, human); EC 3.4.22.- (Caspase 3); EC 3.4.22.- (Caspase 9)
[Em] Entry month:1612
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160223
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26548721
[Au] Autor:De Biase A; Colonnelli E; Belvedere S; La Marca A; Cristofaro M; Smith L
[Ad] Address:Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie 'Charles Darwin',Università di Roma La Sapienza,Viale dell'Università 32,00185 Rome,Italy.
[Ti] Title:Genetic and morphological studies of Trichosirocalus species introduced to North America, Australia and New Zealand for the biological control of thistles.
[So] Source:Bull Entomol Res;106(1):99-113, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1475-2670
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trichosirocalus horridus sensu lato has been used as a biological control agent of several invasive thistles (Carduus spp., Cirsium spp. and Onopordum spp.) since 1974. It has been recognized as a single species until 2002, when it was split into three species based on morphological characters: T. horridus, Trichosirocalus briesei and Trichosirocalus mortadelo, each purported to have different host plants. Because of this taxonomic change, uncertainty exists as to which species were released in various countries; furthermore, there appears to be some exceptions to the purported host plants of some of these species. To resolve these questions, we conducted an integrative taxonomic study of the T. horridus species complex using molecular genetic and morphological analyses of specimens from three continents. Both mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear elongation factor 1α markers clearly indicate that there are only two distinct species, T. horridus and T. briesei. Molecular evidence, morphological analysis and host plant associations support the synonymy of T. horridus (Panzer, 1801) and T. mortadelo Alonso-Zarazaga & Sánchez-Ruiz, 2002. We determine that T. horridus has been established in Canada, USA, New Zealand and Australia and that T. briesei is established in Australia. The former species was collected from Carduus, Cirsium and Onopordum spp. in the field, whereas the latter appears to be specific to Onopordum.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Asteraceae
Introduced Species
Weed Control
Weevils/anatomy & histology
Weevils/genetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Australasia
Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics
Electron Transport Complex IV/metabolism
Europe
Female
Food Chain
Herbivory
Insect Proteins/genetics
Insect Proteins/metabolism
Male
Molecular Sequence Data
North America
Phylogeny
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Weevils/physiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Insect Proteins); EC 1.9.3.1 (Electron Transport Complex IV)
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 160203
[Lr] Last revision date:160203
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151110
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S000748531500084X

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[PMID]: 25792498
[Au] Autor:Topal M; Gocer H; Topal F; Kalin P; Köse LP; Gülçin I; Çakmak KC; Küçük M; Durmaz L; Gören AC; Alwasel SH
[Ad] Address:a Department of Medical Services and Techniques , Gumushane University, Vocational School of Health Services , Gumushane , Turkey .
[Ti] Title:Antioxidant, antiradical, and anticholinergic properties of cynarin purified from the Illyrian thistle (Onopordum illyricum L.).
[So] Source:J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem;31(2):266-75, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1475-6374
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cynarin is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and it has biologically active functional groups constituent of some plants and food. We elucidated the antioxidant activity of cynarin by using different in vitro condition bioanalytical antioxidant assays like DMPD(•+), ABTS(•+), O2(•-), DPPH(•) and H2O2 scavenging effects, the total antioxidant influence, reducing capabilities, Fe(2+) chelating and anticholinergic activities. Cynarin demonstrated 87.72% inhibition of linoleic acid lipid peroxidation at 30 µg/mL concentration. Conversely, some standard antioxidants like trolox, α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) exhibited inhibitions of 90.32, 75.26, 97.61, 87.30%, and opponent peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the identical concentration, seriatim. Also, cynarin exhibited effective DMPD(•+), ABTS(•+), O2(•-), DPPH(•), and H2O2 scavenging effects, reducing capabilities and Fe(2+) chelating effects. On the contrary, IC50 and K(i) parameters of cynarin for acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition were determined as 243.67 nM (r(2): 0.9444) and 39.34 ± 13.88 nM, respectively. This study clearly showed that cynarin had marked antioxidant, anticholinergic, reducing ability, radical-scavenging, and metal-binding activities.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Cu] Class update date: 160121
[Lr] Last revision date:160121
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.3109/14756366.2015.1018244

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[PMID]: 26383017
[Au] Autor:Lajter I; Pan SP; Nikles S; Ortmann S; Vasas A; Csupor-Löffler B; Forgó P; Hohmann J; Bauer R
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.
[Ti] Title:Inhibition of COX-2 and NF-κB1 Gene Expression, NO Production, 5-LOX, and COX-1 and COX-2 Enzymes by Extracts and Constituents of Onopordum acanthium.
[So] Source:Planta Med;81(14):1270-6, 2015 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1439-0221
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present study focused on the investigation of the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor kappa B1 gene expression, nitric oxide production, leukotriene biosynthesis (5-lipoxygenase), and cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 enzymes of Onopordum acanthium, and the isolation and identification of its active compounds. From the chloroform soluble part of the MeOH extract prepared from aerial parts, lignans [pinoresinol (1), syringaresinol (2), and medioresinol (3)] and flavonoids [hispidulin (4), nepetin (5), apigenin (6), and luteolin (7)] were isolated by a combination of different chromatographic methods. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of mass spectrometry and 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and by comparison of the spectral data with literature values. Extracts of different polarity and the isolated compounds obtained from the aerial parts, together with those previously isolated from the roots of the plant [4ß,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (8), zaluzanin C (9), 4ß,15,11ß,13-tetrahydrozaluzanin C (10), nitidanin diisovalerianate (11), 24-methylenecholesterol (12), and 13-oxo-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13)], were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor kappa B1 gene expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 5-lipoxygenase, and cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 enzymes in in vitro assays. It was found that O. acanthium extracts exert strong inhibitory activities in vitro and some lignans, flavonoids, and sesquiterpenes may play a role in these activities. 4ß,15-Dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C and zaluzanin C at 20 µM were the most active constituents tested against lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ-induced nitric oxide production (100.4 ± 0.5 % and 99.4 ± 0.8 %) in the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (98.6 ± 0.2 % and 97.0 ± 1.1 %) and nuclear factor kappa B1 gene expression (76.7 ± 7.3 % and 69.9 ± 3.4 %). Furthermore, it was shown that these inhibitory effects are not due to cytotoxicity of the compounds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology
NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/genetics
Nitric Oxide/metabolism
Onopordum/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/genetics
Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism
Cell Line/drug effects
Cyclooxygenase 1/genetics
Cyclooxygenase 1/metabolism
Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics
Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods
Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects
Humans
Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry
Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology
Molecular Structure
NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/antagonists & inhibitors
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors); 0 (Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors); 0 (Lipoxygenase Inhibitors); 0 (NF-kappa B p50 Subunit); 0 (NFKB1 protein, human); 0 (Plant Extracts); 31C4KY9ESH (Nitric Oxide); EC 1.13.11.34 (Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase); EC 1.14.13.39 (NOS2 protein, human); EC 1.14.13.39 (Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II); EC 1.14.99.1 (Cyclooxygenase 1); EC 1.14.99.1 (Cyclooxygenase 2); EC 1.14.99.1 (PTGS1 protein, human); EC 1.14.99.1 (PTGS2 protein, human); EC 1.3.11.34 (ALOX5 protein, human)
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Cu] Class update date: 150919
[Lr] Last revision date:150919
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150919
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1546242


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