Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Opportunistic and Infections [Words]
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[PMID]: 29515749
[Au] Autor:Mirambo MM; Senyaeli N; Mshana SE
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania.
[Ti] Title:Low humoral responses to human cytomegalovirus is associated with immunological treatment failure among HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:131, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] Country of publication:Uganda
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the opportunistic infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality among HIV/AIDS patients especially before introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Little is known regarding the humoral immune response against HCMV in relation to CD4 counts among HIV infected individuals. A total of 90 achieved sera from HIV infected patients attending Bugando Medical centre care and treatment centre (CTC) aged 18 years and above were retrieved and analyzed. Sociodemographic data were collected using structured data collection tool. Detection of specific HCMV antibodies was done using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by using STATA version 11. A total of 90 HIV infected patients were enrolled in the study whereby 36(40%) had immunological treatment failure. The mean age of the study participants was 39±12.3 years. The Prevalence of specific HCMV IgG antibodies was 84(93.3%, 95% CI: 88-98.5) while the prevalence of specific HCMV IgM antibodies was 2(2.3% 95% CI: 0.8-5.4). The median CD4 counts at 6 months and 12 months on HAART were significantly high in treatment success group. At 12 months of HAART as CD4 counts increases the HCMV IgG index value was also found to increase significantly, p=0.04. Significant proportion of HIV infected individuals was infected with HCMV. Higher median HCMV IgG titers were observed among patients with immunological treatment success. There is a need to investigate humoral immune responses in HIV infected individuals in relation to CD4 counts against various infectious diseases in developing countries where most of these infections are endemic.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.131.10480

  2 / 46681 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515103
[Au] Autor:Nobrega de Almeida J; Campos SV; Thomaz DY; Thomaz L; de Almeida RKG; Del Negro GMB; Gimenes VF; Grenfell RC; Motta AL; Rossi F; Benard G
[Ad] Address:Central Laboratory Division- LIM-03, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 05403-010, Brazil. jnaj99@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Candida blankii: an emergent opportunistic yeast with reduced susceptibility to antifungals.
[So] Source:Emerg Microbes Infect;7(1):24, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:2222-1751
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41426-017-0015-8

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[PMID]: 29505819
[Au] Autor:Abdollahi S; Rasooli I; Mousavi Gargari SL
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
[Ti] Title:The role of TonB-dependent copper receptor in virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii.
[So] Source:Infect Genet Evol;60:181-190, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1567-7257
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic gram negative pathogen that can adhere to different surfaces and cause different nosocomial infections. To investigate the role of TonB-dependent copper receptor, an outer membrane protein, in virulence of A. baumannii, we deleted this receptor from A. baumannii chromosome. There was a significant decrease in biofilm formation by copper receptor deficient mutant strain. Similarly, the adherence to human epithelial cell and the hydrophobicity were declined. The survival rate of the mutant strain in human sera was reduced while no change was observed in motility of strains. In murine pneumonia model, the bacterial lethal dose 0 (LD ), LD and LD were increased for mutant strain. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro experiments revealed changes in growth rate and dissemination of mutant strain; so that the bacterial load of the mutant was significantly reduced in the spleen and lung. The findings suggest a critical role for TonB-dependent copper receptor in virulence of A. baumannii.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524060
[Au] Autor:Lima WG; Alves MC; Cruz WS; Paiva MC
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Central-West Campus Dona Lindu, Federal University of São João del-Rei, Rua Sebastião Gonçalves Coelho, 400, Divinopolis, Minas Gerais, 35501-293, Brazil. williamgustavo_1992@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Chromosomally encoded and plasmid-mediated polymyxins resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: a huge public health threat.
[So] Source:Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1435-4373
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections of great clinical relevance. Its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antimicrobials, especially carbapenems, has re-boosted the prescription and use of polymyxins. However, the emergence of strains resistant to these antimicrobials is becoming a critical issue in several regions of the world because very few of currently available antibiotics are effective in these cases. This review summarizes the most up-to-date knowledge about chromosomally encoded and plasmid-mediated polymyxins resistance in A. baumannii. Different mechanisms are employed by A. baumannii to overcome the antibacterial effects of polymyxins. Modification of the outer membrane through phosphoethanolamine addition, loss of lipopolysaccharide, symmetric rupture, metabolic changes affecting osmoprotective amino acids, and overexpression of efflux pumps are involved in this process. Several genetic elements modulate these mechanisms, but only three of them have been described so far in A. baumannii clinical isolates such as mutations in pmrCAB, lpxACD, and lpsB. Elucidation of genotypic profiles and resistance mechanisms are necessary for control and fight against resistance to polymyxins in A. baumannii, thereby protecting this class for future treatment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10096-018-3223-9

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[PMID]: 29446279
[Au] Autor:Anganova EV; Savchenkov MF; Stepanenko LA; Savilov ED
[Ti] Title:[Microbiological monitoring of opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae of the Lena river].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(12):1124-8, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] Country of publication:Russia (Federation)
[La] Language:rus
[Ab] Abstract:The aim is the study of the circulation, biological activity, persistent potential and genotypic characteristics of opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae of microbial community of the Lena River which is the one of the largest sources of water in Russia and Siberia. Gram-negative component of microbial community in the Lena River was mainly represented by Enterobacteriaceae (80%), including dominated Escherichia (dominant class) and Enterobacter and Klebsiella (subdominant class). In conditions of anthropogenic pollution there is a reorganization of microbial community of the Lena River in the direction of the increase in the proportion of opportunistic pathogens, their species diversity; there is a change of the biological activity of microorganisms, gains of share of strains characterized by antilysozyme activity, hemolytic activity, production DNase, phosphatase. The parameters of system "lysozyme-antilysozyme" are changing, the frequency of the occurrence of bacteria with antilysozyme activity is increasing. This shows the restructurization of the microbial community of water objects. Microorganisms of water objects in territories of anthropogenic pollution are characterized by multiple antibiotic resistance. The proportion of gram-negative opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae in microbial communities of water ecosystems determines the potential danger of water objects and the impact on the level of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae of microbial community of the Lena River near the city of Yakutsk are characterized by the presence of genetic determinants of pathogenicity (hlyA and sfaG). This is indicative of their potential epidemiological relevance. Microorganisms with high biological activity are markers of their epidemiological danger.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Enterobacteriaceae Infections
Enterobacteriaceae
Microbial Consortia/physiology
Rivers/microbiology
Water Microbiology/standards
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification
Enterobacteriaceae/pathogenicity
Enterobacteriaceae/physiology
Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology
Enterobacteriaceae Infections/prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring/methods
Environmental Monitoring/statistics & numerical data
Humans
Siberia/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180216
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 46681 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521617
[Au] Autor:Mohapatra DP; Singh SK; Sahoo M; Patole S; Mishra M; Debata NK; Mohapatra H
[Ad] Address:1​Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
[Ti] Title:Retrospective study on clonal relationship of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella spp. indicates closed circulation and initiation of clonal divergence.
[So] Source:J Med Microbiol;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1473-5644
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Antibiotic resistance patterns often exhibit geographical variations. Periodic analyses of resistance spectra and phylogenetic trends are important guides for facilitating judicious use of therapeutic interventions. The present study retrospectively analysed the infection trends, resistance patterns, and clonal relationships between isolates of Klebsiella spp. from a tertiary care hospital. METHODOLOGY: Bacterial isolates were collected from January 2013 to June 2014 and their resistance profiles were identified using an automated bacterial identification system. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using housekeeping genes with Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis software. The dN/dS ratio was determined by the Synonymous Non-synonymous Analysis Program while polymorphic sites, and the difference per site was calculated using DNA Sequence Polymorphism software. Statistical Package for Social Science software was used to perform all statistical analyses. KEY FINDINGS: The results of this study indicated the prevalence of community-acquired urinary tract and lower respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella spp. among geriatric patients. The occurrence of new allelic profiles, a low dN/dS ratio and the lack of strong evolutionary descent between isolates indicated that mutations play a major role in the evolution of the organism. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlight the consequences of antimicrobial agents exerting a silent and strong selective force on the evolution of Klebsiella spp. The expansion of such analyses is of great importance for addressing rapidly emerging antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogens.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.000715

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[PMID]: 29521445
[Au] Autor:Wennemers H; Foletti C; Kramer R; Mauser H; Jenal U; Bleicher K
[Ad] Address:ETH Zürich, Laboratorium für Organische Chemie, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 3, D-CHAB, HCI H313, 8093, Zürich, SWITZERLAND.
[Ti] Title:Functionalized Proline-Rich Peptides Bind the Bacterial Second Messenger c-di-GMP.
[So] Source:Angew Chem Int Ed Engl;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1521-3773
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:c di GMP is an attractive target in the fight against bacterial infections as it is a near ubiquitous second messenger that regulates important cellular processes, including biofilm formation and virulence of pathogens. The screening of a combinatorial peptide library enabled the identification of the proline-rich tetrapeptide Gup-Gup-Nap-Arg that binds c di GMP in water with selectivity over other nucleotides. Computational and CD spectroscopic studies provided a binding mode of the complex and enabled the design of a pentapeptide with even higher binding strength towards c di GMP. Biological studies showed that the tetrapeptide inhibits biofilm growth of the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/anie.201801845

  8 / 46681 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29520519
[Au] Autor:Ohri M; Parashar S; Pai VS; Ghosh S; Chakraborti A
[Ad] Address:Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. manjuohripai@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:A cytosol derived factor of Group B streptococcus prevent its invasion into human epithelial cells.
[So] Source:World J Microbiol Biotechnol;34(3):45, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1573-0972
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae, is an opportunistic pathogen causing a wide range of infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborn, pregnant women and adults. While this bacterium has adapted well to asymptomatic colonization of adult humans, it still remains a potentially devastating pathogen to susceptible infants. Advances in molecular techniques and refinement of in vitro and in vivo model systems have elucidated key elements of the pathogenic process, from initial attachment to the maternal vaginal epithelium to penetration of the newborn blood-brain barrier. Still, the formidable array of GBS virulence factors makes this bacterium at the forefront of neonatal pathogens. The involvement of bacterial components in the host-pathogen interaction of GBS pathogenesis and its related diseases is not clearly understood. In this study we demonstrated the role of a 39 kDa factor from GBS which plays an important role in the process of its invasion. We found a homogeneous 39 kDa factor from the cytosol of GBS after following a combination of sequential purification steps involving molecular sieving and ion exchange chromatography using ACTA-FPLC system. Its N-terminal sequence showed a homology with xenobiotic response element type transcriptional regulator protein, a 40 kDa protein of Streptococcus. This factor leads to inhibition of GBS invasion in HeLa and A549 cells. This protein also showed sensitivity and specific cross reactivity with the antibodies raised against it in New Zealand white rabbits by western immunoblotting. This inhibitory factor was further confirmed tolerant for its cytotoxicity. These results add a novel aspect to bacterial pathogenesis where bacteria's own intracellular protein component can act as a potential therapeutic candidate by decreasing the severity of disease thus promoting its invasion inhibition.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11274-018-2428-5

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[PMID]: 29518552
[Au] Autor:Catchpoole EM; Thirunavukarasu CE; Varelias A; Schlebusch S; Olver S; Zomerdijk N; Osland E; Kennedy GA; Tey SK; Hill GR; Markey KA
[Ad] Address:Pathology Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Early Blood Stream Infection after BMT is Associated with Cytokine Dysregulation and Poor Overall Survival.
[So] Source:Biol Blood Marrow Transplant;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1523-6536
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The key complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) remain graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and opportunistic infection. We have analyzed the blood stream infections (BSI) occurring between day -7 and day 100 in a cohort of 184 adult patients undergoing allogeneic BMT in our center. 167 of the 184 patients (91%) had blood cultures collected, and 69 (38%) patients had a confirmed BSI. Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and viridans Streptococcus spp. were the most commonly isolated organisms. Gender, conditioning (myeloablative vs. reduced intensity) and donor type (sibling vs. unrelated) did not differ significantly between those with and without confirmed BSI. Elevated temperature (>38°C) at the time of culture collection was associated with an almost 2-fold increased likelihood of returning a positive blood culture. The absence of a BSI was associated with a significant improvement in overall survival at 2 years, due to a significant reduction in non-relapse mortality predominantly unrelated to the primary BSI. The presence of a BSI prior to engraftment was associated with the dysregulation of IL-6 and IL-8. Our findings suggest that BSI early after BMT defines a group of high-risk patients with enhanced cytokine dysregulation and poor transplant outcome.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 46681 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29518426
[Au] Autor:Cabral-Marques O; Takahashi França T; Al-Sbiei A; Friederike Schimke L; Khan TA; Feriotti C; da Costa TA; Junior OR; Weber CW; Ferreira JF; Tavares FS; Valente C; Di Gesu RSW; Iqbal A; Riemekasten G; Amarante-Mendes GP; Marzagão Barbuto JA; Costa-Carvalho BT; Pereira PVS; Fernandez-Cabezudo MJ; Calich VLG; Notarangelo LD; Torgerson TR; Al-Ramadi BK; Ochs HD; Condino-Neto A
[Ad] Address:Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo; Department of Rheumatology, University Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
[Ti] Title:CD40 ligand deficiency causes functional defects of peripheral neutrophils that are improved by exogenous IFN-γ.
[So] Source:J Allergy Clin Immunol;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1097-6825
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Patients with X-linked Hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIGM) due to CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency often present episodic, cyclic or chronic neutropenia, suggesting abnormal neutrophil development in the absence of CD40L-CD40 interaction. However, even when not neutropenic and despite immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy, CD40L-deficient patients are susceptible to life-threatening infections caused by opportunistic pathogens, suggesting impaired function of phagocytes and the need of novel therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether peripheral neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients display functional defects and to explore the in vitro effects of recombinant human interferon (rhIFN)-γ on neutrophil function. METHODS: We investigated the microbicidal activity, respiratory burst and transcriptome profile of neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients. In addition, we evaluated whether the lack of CD40L in mice also affects neutrophil function. RESULTS: Neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients exhibited defective respiratory burst and microbicidal activity which were improved in vitro by rhIFN-γ, but not soluble CD40L (sCD40L). Moreover, neutrophils from patients showed reduced CD16 protein expression and a dysregulated transcriptome suggestive of impaired differentiation. Similar to CD40L-deficient patients, CD40L-knockout mice were found to have impaired neutrophil responses. In parallel, we demonstrated that sCD40L induces the promyelocytic cell line HL-60 to proliferate and mature by regulating the expression of genes of the same gene ontology categories (e.g. cell differentiation) when compared to those dysregulated in peripheral blood neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a non-redundant role of CD40L-CD40 interaction in neutrophil development and function that could be improved in vitro by rhIFN-γ, indicating a potential novel therapeutic application for this cytokine.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher


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