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[PMID]: 29524481
[Au] Autor:Pilla SJ; Dotimas JR; Maruthur NM; Clark JM; Yeh HC
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.. Electronic address: spilla1@jhmi.edu.
[Ti] Title:Changes in metformin use and other antihyperglycemic therapies after insulin initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes.
[So] Source:Diabetes Res Clin Pract;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8227
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIMS: When patients with type 2 diabetes initiate insulin, metformin should be continued while continuation of other antihyperglycemics has unclear benefit. We aimed to identify practice patterns in antihyperglycemic therapy during the insulin transition, and determine factors associated with metformin continuation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial which randomized overweight/obese adults under ambulatory care for type 2 diabetes to an intensive lifestyle intervention or diabetes support and education. Among the 931 participants who initiated insulin over ten years, we described longitudinal changes in antihyperglycemic medications during the insulin transition, and performed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association between patient characteristics and metformin continuation. RESULTS: Before insulin initiation, 81.0% of patients used multiple antihyperglycemics, the most common being metformin, sulfonylureas, and thiazolidinediones. After insulin initiation, metformin was continued in 80.3% of patients; other antihyperglycemics were continued less often, yet 58.0% of patients were treated with multiple non-insulin antihyperglycemics. Metformin continuation was inversely associated with age (fully adjusted (a) OR 0.60 per 10 years [0.42-0.86]), serum creatinine above safety thresholds (aOR 0.09 [0.02-0.36]), lower income (P=0.025 for trend), taking more medications (aOR 0.92 per medication [0.86-0.98]), and initiating rapid, short, or premixed insulin (aOR 0.59 [0.39-0.89]). CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of patients with type 2 diabetes continue metformin after insulin initiation, consistent with guidelines. Other antihyperglycemics are frequently continued along with insulin, and further research is needed to determine which, if any, patients may benefit from this.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524473
[Au] Autor:Norman Å; Nyberg G; Elinder LS; Berlin A
[Ad] Address:Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: asa.norman@ki.se.
[Ti] Title:Parental strategies for influencing the diet of their children - A qualitative study from disadvantaged areas.
[So] Source:Appetite;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: A social gradient is evident in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, to the disadvantage of children with low socioeconomic status (SES). Parents have a substantial influence on their children's dietary behaviours and weight development through the way they interact with the children around food. This study aims to explore the variation of how parents with low SES influence their child's dietary behaviours. METHODS: A phenomenographic design and analysis was used on 29 sessions of motivational interviewing with mothers and fathers participating in the Healthy School Start intervention study in 2012. The parents had a maximum of 12 years of education and resided in areas targeted for socioeconomic development. In the sessions, parents explored changes that they wanted to make in the home environment regarding their child's dietary behaviours. RESULTS: Five categories of guidance of children's dietary habits were found ranging from silently guiding to enforcement. The categories of guidance were structurally related to each other through positive to negative impact of parental recognition of responsibility for the child's behaviours, level of trust in the child's satiety response, and level of parental emotional distress. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that parents use situation-specific guidance with both negative and positive impacts on child behaviours. Depending on the type of guidance used, parents are in need of different supporting strategies to enhance positive parent-child interplay. Suggestions for intervention strategies are provided where specific focus on parental responsibility recognition, emotional self-regulation, increased responsiveness, and cooperation between parents are highlighted.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29524451
[Au] Autor:Warren KR; Wehring HJ; Liu F; McMahon RP; Chen S; Chester C; Kelly DL
[Ad] Address:Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, United States; Morgan State University, Department of Psychology, 1700 East Cold Spring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21215, United States.
[Ti] Title:Effects of intranasal oxytocin on satiety signaling in people with schizophrenia.
[So] Source:Physiol Behav;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-507X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Overweight and obesity in schizophrenia are prevalent, affecting half to three-quarters of people with schizophrenia. Hyperphagia and increased meal size have also been implicated as significant contributors to the weight gain problem. Oxytocin has shown to play a role in appetite control in humans and is considered an anorexigenic peptide. This two-day, within-subjects, challenge study involved the examination of satiety after administration of 24 IU oxytocin (intranasal) vs. placebo in participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 16). Self reported satiety along with a preload-test meal paradigm were utilized as well as related laboratory measures (insulin, glucose, and leptin), and measures of taste and smell. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on self-reported satiety or test meal consumption, insulin or glucose levels, or sensory measures. A significant treatment difference was found (F = 5.22, df = 1,97.6, p = 0.025), with a decrease in leptin in the oxytocin group post-administration, but no time effect (F = 1.67, df = 6,95.1, p = 0.180) or treatment by time interaction (F = 1.36. df = 3,4.16, p = 0.261). Despite the small sample and mostly negative findings, we encourage more work to use higher and repeated doses of oxytocin, and to further examine the effect of oxytocin on leptin in schizophrenia as this may be important for understanding both weight control and psychopathology.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29507099
[Au] Autor:Stamler J; Chan Q; Daviglus ML; Dyer AR; Van Horn L; Garside DB; Miura K; Wu Y; Ueshima H; Zhao L; Elliott P; INTERMAP Research Group
[Ad] Address:From the Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (J.S., M.L.D., A.R.D., L.V.H.); Institute for Minority Health Research, University of Illinois, Chicago (M.L.D., D.B.G.); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Healt
[Ti] Title:Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study.
[So] Source:Hypertension;71(4):631-637, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1524-4563
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118.7 mmol) associated with systolic BP 3.7 mm Hg higher. These sodium-BP relations persisted with control for 13 macronutrients, 12 vitamins, 7 minerals, and 18 amino acids, for both sex, older and younger, blacks, Hispanics, whites, and socioeconomic strata. With control for body mass index, sodium-BP-but not sodium/potassium-BP-relations were attenuated. Normal weight and obese participants manifested significant positive relations to BP of urinary sodium; relations were weaker for overweight people. At lower but not higher levels of 24-hour sodium excretion, potassium intake blunted the sodium-BP relation. The adverse association of dietary sodium with BP is minimally attenuated by other dietary constituents; these findings underscore the importance of reducing salt intake for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005271.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09928

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[PMID]: 29501741
[Au] Autor:Ko LK; Rillamas-Sun E; Bishop S; Cisneros O; Holte S; Thompson B
[Ad] Address:Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States; Department of Health Services, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, WA, United States. Electronic address: lko@fredhutch.org.
[Ti] Title:Together We STRIDE: A quasi-experimental trial testing the effectiveness of a multi-level obesity intervention for Hispanic children in rural communities.
[So] Source:Contemp Clin Trials;67:81-86, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1559-2030
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Hispanic children are disproportionally overweight and obese compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts in the US. Community-wide, multi-level interventions have been successful to promote healthier nutrition, increased physical activity (PA), and weight loss. Using community-based participatory approach (CBPR) that engages community members in rural Hispanic communities is a promising way to promote behavior change, and ultimately weight loss among Hispanic children. OBJECTIVES: Led by a community-academic partnership, the Together We STRIDE (Strategizing Together Relevant Interventions for Diet and Exercise) aims to test the effectiveness of a community-wide, multi-level intervention to promote healthier diets, increased PA, and weight loss among Hispanic children. METHODS: The Together We STRIDE is a parallel quasi-experimental trial with a goal of recruiting 900 children aged 8-12 years nested within two communities (one intervention and one comparison). Children will be recruited from their respective elementary schools. Components of the 2-year multi-level intervention include comic books (individual-level), multi-generational nutrition and PA classes (family-level), teacher-led PA breaks and media literacy education (school-level), family nights, a farmer's market and a community PA event (known as ciclovia) at the community-level. Children from the comparison community will receive two newsletters. Height and weight measures will be collected from children in both communities at three time points (baseline, 6-months, and 18-months). SUMMARY: The Together We STRIDE study aims to promote healthier diet and increased PA to produce healthy weight among Hispanic children. The use of CBPR approach and the engagement of the community will springboard strategies for intervention' sustainability. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT02982759 Retrospectively registered.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 62121 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29476800
[Au] Autor:Braden A; Musher-Eizenman D; Watford T; Emley E
[Ti] Title:Eating when depressed, anxious, bored, or happy: Are emotional eating types associated with unique psychological and physical health correlates?
[So] Source:Appetite;125:410-417, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The majority of research on emotional eating has examined general emotional eating, to the exclusion of more distinct emotions such as boredom and positive emotions. The current study aimed to examine whether specific types of emotional eating (i.e., eating in response to depression (EE-D), anxiety/anger (EE-A), boredom (EE-B), and positive emotions (EE-P)) were related to a range of psychological (i.e., global psychological well-being, eating disorder symptoms, emotion regulation) and physical health variables. A sample of adults (n = 189) with overweight/obesity were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants self-reported height and weight and completed a battery of questionnaires. Correlational analyses showed that more frequent EE-D, EE-A, and EE-B were related to poorer psychological well-being, greater eating disorder symptoms, and more difficulties with emotion regulation. EE-P was not significantly related to outcome variables. In regression analyses, eating in response to depression (EE-D) was the type of emotional eating most closely related to psychological well-being, eating disorder symptoms, and emotion regulation difficulties. Exploratory analyses revealed associations between EE-D, EE-A, and EE-B and facets of emotion regulation and specific disordered eating symptoms. Findings suggest that unique patterns exist between specific types of emotional eating and psychological outcomes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 62121 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471068
[Au] Autor:Andriessen C; Christensen P; Vestergaard Nielsen L; Ritz C; Astrup A; Meinert Larsen T; Martinez JA; Saris WHM; van Baak MA; Papadaki A; Kunesova M; Jebb S; Blundell J; Lawton C; Raben A
[Ad] Address:Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Electronic address: c.andriessen@alumni.maastrichtuniversity.nl.
[Ti] Title:Weight loss decreases self-reported appetite and alters food preferences in overweight and obese adults: Observational data from the DiOGenes study.
[So] Source:Appetite;125:314-322, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n = 123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ≥8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD). Subjective appetite and food preferences were measured before and after the LCD, in response to a standardized meal test, using visual analogue rating scales (VAS) and the Leeds Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). After the LCD, participants reported increased fullness (p < 0.05), decreased desire to eat (p < 0.05) and decreased prospective consumption (p < 0.05) after consuming the test meal. An interaction effect (visit x time) was found for hunger ratings (p < 0.05). Area under the curve (AUC) for hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption was decreased by 18.1%, 20.2% and 21.1% respectively whereas AUC for fullness increased by 13.9%. Preference for low-energy products measured by the Food Preference Checklist (FPC) decreased by 1.9% before the test meal and by 13.5% after the test meal (p < 0.05). High-carbohydrate and high-fat preference decreased by 11.4% and 16.2% before the test meal and by 17.4% and 22.7% after the meal (p < 0.05). No other effects were observed. These results suggest that LCD induced weight loss decreases the appetite perceptions of overweight volunteers whilst decreasing their preference for high-fat-, high-carbohydrate-, and low-energy products.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 62121 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471069
[Au] Autor:Wickham CA; Carbone ET
[Ad] Address:University of Massachusetts Amherst, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition, Amherst, MA, United States. Electronic address: cwickham@framingham.edu.
[Ti] Title:What's technology cooking up? A systematic review of the use of technology in adolescent food literacy programs.
[So] Source:Appetite;125:333-344, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Over one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese. Food literacy (FL), the ability to plan and manage, select, prepare, and eat healthy foods, is a contemporary concept that provides a mechanism to understand the relationship between food-related knowledge and skills and dietary intake. Innovative interventions which focus on the core concepts of FL and include generationally appropriate technology have the potential to provide positive impact on the dietary habits of adolescents. This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and employed the Downs and Black criteria for rating studies. Titles and abstracts of 545 articles were collected and reviewed from 13 electronic databases. Studies were selected if they were peer-reviewed, included adolescents 12-19 years-old, incorporated concepts related to FL, and employed technology as part of the intervention. Eight studies, six randomized controlled trials (RCT) and two interventions without controls were included. Seven of the interventions used Internet or web-based platforms to access program components and all RCTs incorporated game elements. Studies included between two and four constructs of FL. All reported positive changes in food intake with five reporting significant positive pre- and post-intervention changes. Few technology-driven FL-related studies exist within the literature. Although all studies reported improvements in dietary intake, due to variation in program design, delivery, and evaluation it is difficult to tease out the effect of the technology component. Continued research is needed to: 1) determine the degree to which FL should be included in interventions to effect a positive change on dietary intake; 2) develop adolescent-specific FL measures to more appropriately evaluate changes in knowledge, food-related skills, and dietary intake; and 3) design technology-driven interventions so that technology components can be analyzed separately from other program elements.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 62121 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471000
[Au] Autor:Santiago JCP; Otto M; Kern W; Baier PC; Hallschmid M
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 72076 Tübingen, Germany; Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases of the Helmholtz Center Munich at the University of Tübingen, 7207
[Ti] Title:Relationship between cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of orexin A/hypocretin-1 and body composition in humans.
[So] Source:Peptides;102:26-30, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5169
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (hypocretin-1) is a key signal in sleep/wake regulation and promotes food intake. We investigated the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid orexin A concentrations and body composition in non-narcoleptic human subjects with a wide range of body weight to gain insight into the role of orexin A in human metabolism. We collected cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples and measured body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis in 36 subjects (16 women and 20 men) with body mass indices between 16.24 and 38.10 kg/m and an age range of 19-80 years. Bivariate Pearson correlations and stepwise multiple regressions were calculated to determine associations between orexin A and body composition as well as biometric variables. Concentrations of orexin A in cerebrospinal fluid averaged 315.6 ±â€¯6.0 pg/ml, were comparable between sexes (p > 0.15) and unrelated to age (p > 0.66); they appeared slightly reduced in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight subjects (p = .07). Orexin A concentrations decreased with body weight (r = -0.38, p = .0229) and fat-free mass (r = -0.39, p = .0173) but were not linked to body fat mass (p > 0.24). They were inversely related to total body water (r = -0.39, p = .0174) as well as intracellular (r = -0.41, p = .0139) and extracellular water (r = -0.35, p = .0341). Intracellular water was the only factor independently associated with cerebrospinal fluid orexin A concentrations (p = .0139). We conclude that cerebrospinal fluid orexin A concentrations do not display associations with body adiposity, but are inversely related to intracellular water content. These cross-sectional findings suggest a link between orexin A signaling and the regulation of water homeostasis in humans.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 62121 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29464907
[Au] Autor:Cahill AG; Haire-Joshu D; Cade WT; Stein RI; Woolfolk CL; Moley K; Mathur A; Schechtman K; Klein S
[Ad] Address:Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
[Ti] Title:Weight Control Program and Gestational Weight Gain in Disadvantaged Women with Overweight or Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
[So] Source:Obesity (Silver Spring);26(3):485-491, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1930-739X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a home-based lifestyle intervention delivered through Parents as Teachers (PAT) to reduce excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). METHODS: This was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted as part of the LIFE-Moms consortium at a single university-based tertiary care institution from October 2012 to March 2016. There were 267 socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) African American women with overweight or obesity (BMI 25.0-45.0 kg/m before pregnancy. Participants were randomized to therapy with standard PAT alone (n = 134) or PAT plus a lifestyle intervention program embedded within the standard PAT program (PAT+) (n = 133). Both interventions were delivered in 10 biweekly home visits during pregnancy. The primary outcome was the percentage of women whose GWG exceeded the Institute of Medicine guidelines, and secondary outcomes included both weekly and total GWG. RESULTS: Compared with the standard PAT group in the intent-to-treat analysis, the PAT + group gained less weekly (0.4 kg vs. 0.5 kg/wk; P = 0.04) and total (8.0 kg vs. 9.6 kg; P = 0.02) weight during gestation. Fewer participants in the PAT + group had excessive total GWG (36.1% vs. 45.9%), but the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: PAT + reduced the weekly and total GWG in SED African American women with overweight or obesity at the start of pregnancy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/oby.22070


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